Vitamin D and Influenza-Prevention or Therapy?

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Annotation Summary

Term Occurence Count Dictionary
diphtheria 2 infectiousdiseases
pneumonia 14 infectiousdiseases
tuberculosis 5 infectiousdiseases
ribavirin 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
tetanus 1 infectiousdiseases
hepatitis B 2 infectiousdiseases
hepatitis C 1 infectiousdiseases
herpes simplex 1 infectiousdiseases
infectious disease 1 infectiousdiseases

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

Note: If this graph is empty, then there are no terms that meet the proximity constraint.

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
ribavirin 8145 and BsmI), can affect the individual’s response to anti-infectious treatment, such as interferon/ ribavirin therapy in chronic hepatitis C [[13],[14]], susceptibility of the individuals to cancer, tuberculosis,
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diphtheria 53377 1α,25(OH)2D to a variety of vaccine preparations could increase induced immunity to the herpes simplex virus, diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, hepatitis B surface antigen, poliovirus, or HIVgp160. Following Sadarangani
diphtheria 53672 intramuscularly with inactivated polio vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b oligosaccharide conjugated to diphtheria toxoid vaccine, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), coadministered with 1α,25(OH)2D, demonstrated
hepatitis B 53412 preparations could increase induced immunity to the herpes simplex virus, diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, hepatitis B surface antigen, poliovirus, or HIVgp160. Following Sadarangani et al. [[75],[78]], mature adult mice
hepatitis B 53703 vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b oligosaccharide conjugated to diphtheria toxoid vaccine, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), coadministered with 1α,25(OH)2D, demonstrated production of antigen-specific
hepatitis C 8174 individual’s response to anti-infectious treatment, such as interferon/ribavirin therapy in chronic hepatitis C [[13],[14]], susceptibility of the individuals to cancer, tuberculosis, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s
herpes simplex 53355 vitamin D or 1α,25(OH)2D to a variety of vaccine preparations could increase induced immunity to the herpes simplex virus, diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, hepatitis B surface antigen, poliovirus, or HIVgp160. Following
infectious disease 9766 (i.e., throughout the pathways inside the cells) [[24],[25],[26]].The possible role of vitamin D in infectious disease s is implied by its impact on the innate and adaptive immune responses (Figure 2):3.1. Vitamin D and
pneumonia 16343 25(OH)D concentration was not associated with levels of serum AMPs in patients with community-acquired pneumonia [[25]].Genome analysis revealed VDRE within the promoters of cathelicidin and beta defensin 2. Surprisingly,
pneumonia 32380 infection, but also the influenza-like respiratory illnesses of respiratory tract infections (RIs) and pneumonia . However, the time period of the studies, i.e., October–March, or the winter months, does not exclude
pneumonia 32855 infections.4.2.1. Beneficial EffectsMoan et al. [[52]] compared the seasonality of deaths from influenza and pneumonia in Norway with vitamin D serum levels. The time period of the studies was 1980–2000. The final conclusion
pneumonia 33040 1980–2000. The final conclusion of these studies was that the high numbers of winter influenza and pneumonia deaths in Norway were related to low vitamin D levels in this season. The data support the hypothesis
pneumonia 33209 this season. The data support the hypothesis that vitamin D acts as a protector against influenza and pneumonia , although it is not clear if it requires any help, or which mechanism dominates in the battle against
pneumonia 36504 were also obtained in other studies. Aregbesola et al. [[57]] investigated the risk of hospitalized pneumonia in an ageing general population in eastern Finland. On the basis of the study, the authors suggested
pneumonia 36694 the authors suggested an inverse effect of the serum 25(OH)D concentration on the risk of developing pneumonia . Jones et al. [[58]] examined 46 residual blood samples from adults and children, some of whom experienced
pneumonia 38217 showed an inverse correlation between the level of 25(OH)D and the severity of CAP (community-acquired pneumonia ), which was defined as the CURB65 score (confusion, uremia, respiratory rate, low blood pressure, ≥65
pneumonia 51421 supplementation in the prevention against influenza infections with influenza-related diseases, such as RI and pneumonia , most of the authors agree that this topic deserves further study. The questions: “What dose of vitamin
pneumonia 66708 effect of vitamin D supplementation on influenza, upper respiratory tract infections (URI or RI), and pneumonia incidence published between the years 2009 and 2018.Author, YearTrial/Duration/LocationSample Size/ParticipantsVitamin
pneumonia 69573 and 698 women, 53–73 years old-25(OH)D serum concentration vs. the risk of incident hospitalized pneumonia The subjects in the lowest 25(OH)D serum conc. tertile had a 2.6-fold higher risk of developing pneumonia
pneumonia 69678 pneumoniaThe subjects in the lowest 25(OH)D serum conc. tertile had a 2.6-fold higher risk of developing pneumonia with the subjects in the highest tertile95% CI: 1.4 to 5.0; p = 0.05Jones et al., 2015 [[58]]Laboratory
pneumonia 70513 CAP, 76 healthy controls-25(OH)D serum concentration vs. the risk of the incidence of CAPThe risk of pneumonia among the subjects with 25(OH)D <10 ng/mL was 3.6995% CI: 1.46, 9.31; p = 0.006Brance et al., 2018 [[60]]Observational
pneumonia 71024 RS—Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient; CI—Confidence interval; CAP—community-acquired pneumonia ; CCI—Charlson comorbidity index.ijms-19-02419-t002_Table 2Table 2Results of human studies on the association
tetanus 53396 vaccine preparations could increase induced immunity to the herpes simplex virus, diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, hepatitis B surface antigen, poliovirus, or HIVgp160. Following Sadarangani et al. [[75],[78]],
tuberculosis 8244 interferon/ribavirin therapy in chronic hepatitis C [[13],[14]], susceptibility of the individuals to cancer, tuberculosis , ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease, or the increased risk of type 1 diabetes, as was noted in
tuberculosis 13714 this process is important for the antibacterial response induced by vitamin D against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.TLR-released AMPs have a broad spectrum of activity, not only microbial but also antiviral,
tuberculosis 14761 upregulation by TLRs leads to the transcription of cathelicidin, which kills intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis . As was shown by Szymczak and Pawliczak [[26]], hCAP18 also has activity against viruses and other bacteria.
tuberculosis 27218 serum 25(OH)D levels and the levels of α1-antichymotrypsin, an acute-phase protein in patients with tuberculosis , was associated with the illness, but not with the initial, acute-phase response to infection [[45]].
tuberculosis 31569 Tight control of IFNγ responses is crucial for the consequences of granulomatous diseases such as tuberculosis and sarcoidosis [[51]].4.2. Human Studies on Influenza Prevention by Vitamin DA survey of the literature

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