Epidemiology and ecology of West Nile virus in sub-Saharan Africa

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
malaria 6 infectiousdiseases
meningitis 1 infectiousdiseases
typhoid fever 2 infectiousdiseases
yellow fever 4 infectiousdiseases
Japanese encephalitis 1 infectiousdiseases
West Nile fever 2 infectiousdiseases
dengue fever 1 infectiousdiseases

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Japanese encephalitis 4854 into Rhesus monkeys resulted in fatal encephalitis. Serum raised against the virus cross-neutralized Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) suggesting relatedness between the two viruses and grouping WNV in the JEV serocomplex.
West Nile fever 396 /2018AbstractWest Nile virus (WNV) is the aetiological agent of the mosquito-borne zoonotic disease West Nile fever . The virus, first isolated in Uganda in 1937, evolved into two distinct lineages in sub-Saharan Africa
West Nile fever 16465 and 1980s [[50]–[54]] and, to a lesser extent, domestic animals [[55]–[57]]. Large outbreaks of West Nile fever are occasionally reported in human populations [[14], [58], [59]] but are rare, go undiagnosed or are
dengue fever 28627 to protect human populations in Africa from mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever and WN fever. However, these preventive strategies rely on low-tech options that aim to prevent mosquito
malaria 14035 horses [[10]].Detection and surveillance for WNV infection in AfricaMany areas of SSA are endemic for malaria and typhoid fevers [[42]]. Hence, cases of febrile illness are usually regarded by physicians as one
malaria 14196 illness are usually regarded by physicians as one of these infections [[43], [44]]. In addition, when malaria and typhoid tests are negative for a given patient, such cases are commonly regarded as “undifferentiated
malaria 14430 (UFI)” or “fever of unknown origin (FUO)”, especially when the patient fails to respond to anti- malaria l drugs [[45]]. Most health facilities lack the capacity to conduct diagnostics for arboviral infections
malaria 23706 prevalence study was conducted by Baba et al. [[43]], in which sera from 973 febrile patients suspected of malaria and typhoid fever from a semi-arid zone (Sahel savannah zone) were tested for WNV and YFV IgM and IgG
malaria 25336 it was reported that 45.0% (18/40) of febrile participants had WNV antibodies but were negative for malaria parasite and Widal tests, thereby accounting for UFI [[66]].Increasingly, surveys suggest a high seroprevalence
malaria 28604 There is a strong need to protect human populations in Africa from mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria , yellow fever, dengue fever and WN fever. However, these preventive strategies rely on low-tech options
meningitis 27299 likely that viral testing would be performed for WNV. In Tunisia, 173 patients were hospitalized for meningitis or meningo-encephalitis in two coastal districts, Sfax and Mahdia, between September 7 and December
typhoid fever 14047 [[10]].Detection and surveillance for WNV infection in AfricaMany areas of SSA are endemic for malaria and typhoid fever s [[42]]. Hence, cases of febrile illness are usually regarded by physicians as one of these infections
typhoid fever 23718 was conducted by Baba et al. [[43]], in which sera from 973 febrile patients suspected of malaria and typhoid fever from a semi-arid zone (Sahel savannah zone) were tested for WNV and YFV IgM and IgG by antibody-capture
yellow fever 3970 [[11]] conducted an epidemiological investigation in Africa during the 1930s, in an attempt to isolate yellow fever virus (YFV) from what was assumed to be an endemic zone extending from the west coast across central
yellow fever 16639 [58], [59]] but are rare, go undiagnosed or are blamed on other viral causes of febrile disease such as yellow fever or dengue. One of the largest serological surveys focusing on 2320 humans among the rural populations
yellow fever 23296 species were: goat (18%) and cattle (6%). Of the 35 WNV HI-positive animal sera, 26 and 20% reacted with yellow fever and Potiskum virus antigens, respectively [[48]]. Cross-reactions with other flaviviruses cannot, however,
yellow fever 28613 a strong need to protect human populations in Africa from mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria, yellow fever , dengue fever and WN fever. However, these preventive strategies rely on low-tech options that aim to

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