Outbreaks of histoplasmosis: The spores set sail

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AIDS 2 infectiousdiseases
histoplasmosis 13 infectiousdiseases

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AIDS 7105 40 cases of disseminated histoplasmosis. It is important to note that these outbreaks preceded the AIDS epidemic and the introduction of new biologicals such as tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists that are
AIDS 7710 epidemic in the late ‘80s to the early ‘90s. However, this time, many of the cases developed in AIDS patients. This outbreak was not traced to a specific demolition or construction site. Rather, it might
histoplasmosis 34 Title: PLoS PathogensOutbreaks of histoplasmosis : The spores set sailGeorge S. Deepe Jr.Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University
histoplasmosis 873 of the world, and the US for that matter, have indigenous cases. There is increasing recognition of histoplasmosis in China, particularly along the Yangtze River [[5], [6]], and numerous case reports are emerging from
histoplasmosis 1915 2–4 μm in diameter [[8]]. It is this morphotype that causes nearly all the pathology associated with histoplasmosis [[3]]. Since yeast cells are not transmissible from human to human, they do not promulgate transmission
histoplasmosis 4691 definitively documented [[9], [11]].Histoplasma outbreaksNumerous reports of epidemics or outbreaks of histoplasmosis in the US and Canada have been described over the years, dating back to the late 1930s [[14]–[16]].
histoplasmosis 4885 late 1930s [[14]–[16]]. An outbreak is defined as involving at least two cases. In 1963, 31 cases of histoplasmosis were identified in Montreal along the St. Lawrence river valley. Although no specific source was detected,
histoplasmosis 6781 detrimental impact H. capsulatum had on the health of Indianapolis residents. Although outbreaks of histoplasmosis typically do not cause a high degree of mortality or morbidity and much of the disease is self-limited,
histoplasmosis 7031 more than 300 hospitalizations and at least 15 deaths. There were more than 40 cases of disseminated histoplasmosis . It is important to note that these outbreaks preceded the AIDS epidemic and the introduction of new
histoplasmosis 7249 biologicals such as tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists that are major risk factors for disseminated histoplasmosis . The reason for the devastating impact is not clear, but the risk factors that were identified included
histoplasmosis 7547 establish the importance of the urban setting, wind, and immune status when considering the impact of histoplasmosis on a population.Indianapolis did suffer another epidemic in the late ‘80s to the early ‘90s. However,
histoplasmosis 8217 source of Histoplasma outbreaks is a cave [[23]]. Bats have been associated with the development of histoplasmosis for many years, and seasoned spelunkers are aware of the risk. Bats harbor the fungus, and it has been
histoplasmosis 8488 the caves do not necessarily have to be in the traditionally endemic regions since cave-associated histoplasmosis has been reported from Florida, South Africa, Tanzania, Cyprus, Australia, and Zimbabwe.Bats are not
histoplasmosis 9160 severity of disease and likely the number of spores in the bat guano.The indoors and acquisition of histoplasmosis Not all the exposures to H. capsulatum require individuals to be in proximity to areas that are being
histoplasmosis 10261 not a reportable disease, and therefore, tracking the number of cases is a difficult task. Usually, histoplasmosis comes to our attention when there are outbreaks, whether they involve a few or a few thousand individuals.

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