Current Strategies for Inhibition of Chikungunya Infection.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
viral hepatitis 1 infectiousdiseases
chlorpromazine 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
diarrhea 1 infectiousdiseases
doxycycline 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
infectious disease 1 infectiousdiseases
malaria 1 infectiousdiseases
trypanosomiasis 1 infectiousdiseases
AIDS 3 infectiousdiseases
chloroquine 10 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
hepatitis C 2 infectiousdiseases
ivermectin 3 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
ribavirin 13 infectiousdiseasesdrugs

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
chloroquine 18340 developed as potential leads against CHIKV.4. Drugs Inhibiting CHIKV Entry4.1. ChloroquineSince 1934, chloroquine (1, Table 2) has been known as an antimalarial drug. Its repurposing against viral infections has been
chloroquine 19117 prevents E1 fusion during CHIKV internalization [[103]]. These reports highlight the suitability of chloroquine use for prophylaxis, albeit with limited therapeutic utility. This is evident from both in vivo experiment
chloroquine 19263 limited therapeutic utility. This is evident from both in vivo experiment and clinical trials, where chloroquine was ineffective in post CHIKV-infected cases [[104]]. The benefits of chloroquine include its capacity
chloroquine 19345 clinical trials, where chloroquine was ineffective in post CHIKV-infected cases [[104]]. The benefits of chloroquine include its capacity to reduce symptoms of arthritis, which is a major cause of CHIKV-related morbidity
chloroquine 28459 limited capacity to inhibit CHIKV replication. In this respect, its benefits can be compared to those of chloroquine , as both drugs antagonize CHIKV entry [[120]]. Nonetheless, it can be administered in combination with
chloroquine 46594 capacity to irreversibly block furin [[62]]. It showed a stronger ability to reduce CHIKV infection than chloroquine when it was added immediately after infection. Interestingly, it showed additive effect with chloroquine,
chloroquine 46699 chloroquine when it was added immediately after infection. Interestingly, it showed additive effect with chloroquine , supporting the fact that these molecules have different modes of action. While chloroquine prevented
chloroquine 46791 effect with chloroquine, supporting the fact that these molecules have different modes of action. While chloroquine prevented viral entry, dec-RVKR-cmk prevented maturation, leading to near-suppression of CHIKV infection
chloroquine 74650 CHIKV also need to be tested against these viruses. While some of the hits against CHIKV including chloroquine [[204]], 6-azauridine [[205]], ribavirin [[205]], silymarin [[206]], and suramin [[207]] have also shown
chloroquine 75346 ConclusionsFinding effective antivirals for CHIKV has not been easy. The repurposing of existing drugs, including chloroquine , arbidol, chlorpromazine, imipramine, and mefenamic acid has achieved only limited success. Most of
chlorpromazine 75368 antivirals for CHIKV has not been easy. The repurposing of existing drugs, including chloroquine, arbidol, chlorpromazine , imipramine, and mefenamic acid has achieved only limited success. Most of them inhibit CHIKV entry
doxycycline 16602 (ZINC04725220,7, Table 1)as a hit (Table 1) [[100]]. Recently, molecular docking studies revealed that doxycycline (8, Table 1) binds to both the catalytic domain of nsP2 and structural protein E2, which might account
doxycycline 34129 good antiviral activity against CHIKV (EC50: 15.51 ± 1.62 µM) and exhibited synergistic effect with doxycycline (EC50: 10.95 ± 2.12 μM) when combined using a 1:1 ratio (EC50: 4.52 ± 1.42 μM) in vitro [[80]].
ivermectin 68630 throughput screening of approximately 3000 compounds, Varghese et al. identified abamectin (52, Table 2), ivermectin (53, Table 2), and berberine (54, Table 2) with EC50 of 1.5, 0.6, and 1.8 μM, respectively, against
ivermectin 68770 (54, Table 2) with EC50 of 1.5, 0.6, and 1.8 μM, respectively, against CHIKV [[98]]. Abamectin and ivermectin are macrocyclic lactones with broad-spectrum antiparasitic action. Along with berberine, a plant-derived
ivermectin 69559 replication cannot be ruled out. In addition, it was found to be more effective than abamectin and ivermectin in reducing the number of infectious particles produced, which indicated that berberine interferes in
ribavirin 27685 CHIKV replication inhibitory capacity, combinations (1:1) of mefenamic acid and meclofenamic acid with ribavirin were investigated, which showed higher antiviral potency with EC50 of 3 μM and 5 μM, respectively.
ribavirin 27842 antiviral potency with EC50 of 3 μM and 5 μM, respectively. This in vitro synergistic antiviral action of ribavirin with mefenamic acid (1:1) was further validated in vivo, which showed a 6.5 fold reduction in CHIKV
ribavirin 28593 antagonize CHIKV entry [[120]]. Nonetheless, it can be administered in combination with antivirals such as ribavirin , which act at post-entry levels of CHIKV. While the synergistic antiviral effects of drug combinations
ribavirin 34558 GTP pools, as well as inhibition of viral RNA capping, are considered as the major routes via which ribavirin exerts antiviral action against CHIKV [[136]]. However, recently, our group demonstrated that ribavirin
ribavirin 34662 ribavirin exerts antiviral action against CHIKV [[136]]. However, recently, our group demonstrated that ribavirin is effective only in the early stages of CHIKV life-cycle, which may be a disadvantage regarding its
ribavirin 35786 titer in Vero cells. It was also observed to be more potent in depleting intracellular GTP-polls than ribavirin [[81]]. However, its benefits must be considered in the wake of its toxicity as an immune-suppressant
ribavirin 36688 reduce CHIKV-induced cytopathogenicity in vitro (SI = 204) and was reported to be more potent than ribavirin (Table 2) [[82]]. This antiviral action against CHIKV has also been further validated by independent
ribavirin 38662 and its analogue, T-1105 [[83]]. In view of thein vitro synergistic interaction of flavipiravir with ribavirin against Lasavirus [[150]], it will be interesting to see if similar effects can be observed against
ribavirin 42895 cross-resistance to suramin. These mutants were resistant to RNA inhibitors, including favipiravir or ribavirin , but susceptible to suramin. Hence, the efficacy of suramin against CHIKV may be due to some other mode
ribavirin 53536 with interferons (IFN-α/β) by Briolant et al. in 2004. Compared to glycyrrhizin, 6-azauridine, and ribavirin , these interferons significantly inhibited CHIKV replication in vitro [[82]]. Further investigation
ribavirin 54396 therapy. Recently, a similar strategy was used against CHIKV in vitro by combining interferon with ribavirin [[179]]. Although the combination showed synergistic antiviral action, further clinical studies are
ribavirin 74693 viruses. While some of the hits against CHIKV including chloroquine [[204]], 6-azauridine [[205]], ribavirin [[205]], silymarin [[206]], and suramin [[207]] have also shown inhibitory potential against DENV, recently,
ribavirin 75811 silymarin, mycophenolic acid, and andrographolides, have been investigated. Among these molecules, only ribavirin has been studied in some detail and appears to be the most eligible candidate for further investigation
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
AIDS 27031 polyarthritis following CHIKV infection [[119]]. Interestingly, in a recent study, the acidic class of NS AIDS consisting of anthranilic acid derivatives, including mefenamic acid, meclofenamic acid, flufenamic
AIDS 27392 of 13 μM and 18 μM, respectively, with CC50 more than 100 μM in Vero cells [[66]]. While these NS AIDS inhibited CHIKV at the entry level by some undefined interaction with CHIKV envelope, there was little
AIDS 27558 interaction with CHIKV envelope, there was little effect on CHIKV replication. To determine whether these NS AIDS can complement the CHIKV replication inhibitory capacity, combinations (1:1) of mefenamic acid and meclofenamic
diarrhea 37263 be evaluated in animal models [[142],[143]]. Earlier reports have shown that it causes hemorrhagic diarrhea , leading to high mortality in rats, whereas it is well tolerated by pigs [[146]]. Since pigs are not
hepatitis C 20412 Further, in vitro efficacy of arbidol has been demonstrated against a wide range of viruses, including hepatitis C virus (HCV), Ebola virus (EBOV), Tacaribearena virus, and human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) [[107]]. Its
hepatitis C 33974 use has been approved against respiratory syncytial virus infection in infants [[135]] and chronic hepatitis C virus infections [[136]]. It also showed good antiviral activity against CHIKV (EC50: 15.51 ± 1.62
infectious disease 32140 to its antiviral action. Although the in vitro efficacy of curcumin has been reported against many infectious disease s, the effect was not translated in vivoin most cases owing to poor aqueous solubility and bioavailability
malaria 18390 Inhibiting CHIKV Entry4.1. ChloroquineSince 1934, chloroquine (1, Table 2) has been known as an anti malaria l drug. Its repurposing against viral infections has been studied because of its ability to inhibit the
trypanosomiasis 42150 major challenge. 5.8. SuraminSuramin (20, Table 2) has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of trypanosomiasis in humans. In addition, it possesses both anticancer and antiviral properties. Recently, it was shown
viral hepatitis 40726 its antioxidant properties [[155]]. In addition, it is used as a potent therapeutic against chronic viral hepatitis because of its ability to prevent HCV entry and transmission [[156]]. A recent report showed that silymarin

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