Relationship between Flooding and Out Break of Infectious Diseasesin Kenya: A Review of the Literature

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
diarrhea 1 infectiousdiseases
infectious disease 44 infectiousdiseases
leptospirosis 3 infectiousdiseases
malaria 17 infectiousdiseases
cholera 13 infectiousdiseases
cryptosporidiosis 1 infectiousdiseases
dengue fever 1 infectiousdiseases
Rift Valley fever 6 infectiousdiseases
West Nile fever 1 infectiousdiseases

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Rift Valley fever 10686 grounds for mosquitoes, and this leads to an increase in the number of mosquito-borne diseases such as Rift Valley fever , malaria, and West Nile fever [[32]]. In Kenya, a number of studies have linked above the average rainfall
Rift Valley fever 12713 disease that its outbreak has closely been linked to periods of heavy rains and resultant flooding is the Rift Valley fever outbreak [[36]]. Woods et al. [[37]] explain that flooding provides a favourable environment for the
Rift Valley fever 13574 forward, CDC [[40]] reports that during the 1997/98 El Niño flood period, the largest outbreak of Rift Valley fever occurred in Kenya resulting in an estimated 89,000 infections and 478 deaths. In Garisa County, Woods
Rift Valley fever 18335 Africa region associated with ENSO could help in reducing the severity of outbreaks of diseases such as Rift Valley fever , cholera, and malaria as happened in the 1997/98. This could be gained from understanding of ENSO's
Rift Valley fever 23267 coordination was found to have worked very effectively in Saudi Arabia during the huge outbreak of Rift Valley fever in 2000. According to Hassan et al. [[65]] and Himeidan et al. [[38]] Saudi Arabia effectively controlled
Rift Valley fever 27620 significant factor in the outbreak and faster spread of infectious diseases. Spikes in the outbreaks of Rift Valley fever , malaria, diarrheal diseases, and even leptospirosis have been documented in Kenya [[26]–[28], [31],
West Nile fever 10718 leads to an increase in the number of mosquito-borne diseases such as Rift Valley fever, malaria, and West Nile fever [[32]]. In Kenya, a number of studies have linked above the average rainfall and associated flooding
cholera 5510 gastroenteritis, respiratory infections, poisoning, communicable diseases, epidemic diseases such as cholera , diarrhoea, and dengue fever, poor mental health, and disability, among others [[2], [5], [18]–[20]],
cholera 7825 the increasing number of flood events [[5], [23]]. Many studies have revealed postflood increases in cholera , nonspecific diarrhoea, cryptosporidiosis, rotavirus, and typhoid and paratyphoid [[24], [25]]. In Kenya,
cholera 7978 rotavirus, and typhoid and paratyphoid [[24], [25]]. In Kenya, research has shown association between cholera outbreak and flooding [[26], [27]]. Stoltzfus et al. [[27]] while looking at the interaction between
cholera 8139 [[27]] while looking at the interaction between climatic, environmental, and demographic factors on cholera outbreaks in Kenya found that flooding was associated with an increased risk of cholera. In an article
cholera 8227 factors on cholera outbreaks in Kenya found that flooding was associated with an increased risk of cholera . In an article describing the trend of cholera outbreak in Kenya, Mutonga et al. [[28]] report that
cholera 8274 that flooding was associated with an increased risk of cholera. In an article describing the trend of cholera outbreak in Kenya, Mutonga et al. [[28]] report that the largest outbreak occurred during the 1997 El
cholera 8652 continued throughout 1998. In overall, during the El Niño period, their study indicates that 33,137 cholera cases were reported with an estimated 1,549 deaths [[28]]. In 2009, during the October floods, another
cholera 8769 were reported with an estimated 1,549 deaths [[28]]. In 2009, during the October floods, another major cholera outbreak was reported with a total of 11,769 cases and 274 deaths, which was exceptionally high compared
cholera 8965 exceptionally high compared to other outbreaks reported during nonflood periods. In a study on the dynamics of cholera outbreaks in the Great Lakes region (which includes the Lake Victoria basin) Bompangue et al. [[29]]
cholera 9149 Bompangue et al. [[29]] using a multiscale geographic information system-based approach found that cholera greatly increased during El Niño events accompanied by massive flooding. Similar associations were
cholera 9355 were arrived at in an earlier study by Olago et al. [[26]] in the Lake Victoria basin. They noted that cholera peaks coincide with high-flow peaks during El Niño years in the months of September, October, November,
cholera 18354 associated with ENSO could help in reducing the severity of outbreaks of diseases such as Rift Valley fever, cholera , and malaria as happened in the 1997/98. This could be gained from understanding of ENSO's influence
cholera 19964 November 1999 when red flag for impending flood was raised. The preparation entailed setting plans for cholera treatment and stocking health posts with adequate drugs and providing extra stocks of malaria medicine
cryptosporidiosis 7857 events [[5], [23]]. Many studies have revealed postflood increases in cholera, nonspecific diarrhoea, cryptosporidiosis , rotavirus, and typhoid and paratyphoid [[24], [25]]. In Kenya, research has shown association between
dengue fever 5534 respiratory infections, poisoning, communicable diseases, epidemic diseases such as cholera, diarrhoea, and dengue fever , poor mental health, and disability, among others [[2], [5], [18]–[20]], but in this review, the focus
diarrhea 27648 outbreak and faster spread of infectious diseases. Spikes in the outbreaks of Rift Valley fever, malaria, diarrhea l diseases, and even leptospirosis have been documented in Kenya [[26]–[28], [31], [33], [34], [37],
infectious disease 419 (collection): /2018Publication date (epub): 10/2018AbstractFlooding can potentially increase the spread of infectious disease s. To enhance good understanding of the health consequences of flooding and facilitate planning for mitigation
infectious disease 635 for mitigation strategies, deeper consideration of the relationship between flooding and out-break of infectious disease s is required. This paper examines the relationship between occurrence of floods in Kenya and outbreak
infectious disease 759 required. This paper examines the relationship between occurrence of floods in Kenya and outbreak of infectious disease s and possible interventions. This review intended to build up the quality and comprehensiveness of evidence
infectious disease 889 possible interventions. This review intended to build up the quality and comprehensiveness of evidence on infectious disease s arising after flooding incidence in Kenya. An extensive literature review was conducted in 2017, and
infectious disease 1090 conducted in 2017, and published literature from 2000 to 2017 was retrieved. This review suggests that infectious disease outbreaks such as waterborne, rodent-borne, and vector-borne diseases have been associated with flooding
infectious disease 1486 emergency planning, and well-coordinated collaborations are essential in reducing future vulnerability to infectious disease s following flooding.1. IntroductionFlooding is the leading natural disaster in the world and one of
infectious disease 5665 health, and disability, among others [[2], [5], [18]–[20]], but in this review, the focus is solely on infectious disease s. According to Epstein [[21]], three components are essential for most infectious diseases: an agent
infectious disease 5755 solely on infectious diseases. According to Epstein [[21]], three components are essential for most infectious disease s: an agent (or pathogen), a host (or vector), and transmission environment. Flooding alters the balance
infectious disease 6319 addition, flooding may hinder access and provision of urgent medical services to suppress the spread of infectious disease s leading to a wider spread. In light of the increased threat of flooding due to amplification by climate
infectious disease 6550 there is need for a better understanding of the association and underlying dynamics of outbreak of infectious disease s following flooding to inform policy [[5]]. This paper presents a review on the scientific evidence
infectious disease 6699 policy [[5]]. This paper presents a review on the scientific evidence for the impact of flooding on infectious disease s in Kenya.2. MethodsA comprehensive literature search was conducted using Google Scholar, Elsevier,
infectious disease 6929 Springer Online Journals. The searched involved a combination of key words relating to flooding events and infectious disease s in Kenya. Studies were eliminated that did not focus on the impacts of flood events on the outbreak
infectious disease 7052 Kenya. Studies were eliminated that did not focus on the impacts of flood events on the outbreak of infectious disease s in Kenya. Some articles and gray literature not meeting the specific inclusion criteria, that is, did
infectious disease 7249 inclusion criteria, that is, did not directly address the relationship between flooding and the outbreak of infectious disease s, were incorporated to give a better contextual line.3. Results3.1. Waterborne DiseasesThe main cause
infectious disease 14903 human-pathogen-rodent contact [[43]]. A study by Diaz [[44]] on the link between flooding and rodent-borne infectious disease outbreak indicates that heavy rainfall encourages excessive wild grass seed production that support
infectious disease 17021 during and after flooding [[5]]. One of the most effective health interventions to avoid the outbreak of infectious disease s resulting from flooding is to develop Early Warning Systems (EWSs) for infectious diseases by considering
infectious disease 17112 outbreak of infectious diseases resulting from flooding is to develop Early Warning Systems (EWSs) for infectious disease s by considering flooding trends [[50]]. This allows those at risk to either evacuate or take precautionary
infectious disease 20498 after flooding, surveillance plays an important role in early identification and consequent control of infectious disease outbreaks as well as in timely management of other health issues [[57]]. Menne and Murray [[56]] equate
infectious disease 20766 infectious outbreaks. The surveillance should involve systematic collection and analysis of data on infectious disease [[19]]. Patz et al. [[58]] observe that disease surveillance can provide precise knowledge of incidence
infectious disease 20898 et al. [[58]] observe that disease surveillance can provide precise knowledge of incidence rates of infectious disease s arising from flooding across population and geographic region. This will help in managing and control
infectious disease 23112 health, and researchers and local community creates a condition for better handling of outbreaks of infectious disease s that follow flooding disaster. Such coordination was found to have worked very effectively in Saudi
infectious disease 24138 nature between extreme climatic events like flooding resulting from changing climate and outbreak of infectious disease s. In multisectoral collaboration, different ministries are incorporated including health, environment,
infectious disease 24750 floods [[56]]. Adequate supply of clean water to the affected population is very important as most infectious disease s are spread through dirty water. WASH kits which include soap and water purifiers must be distributed
infectious disease 25770 creating individual and community awareness is crucial in reducing the risk of outbreak and spread of infectious disease s following flooding. The awareness campaign must not begin during flooding but before the floods in
infectious disease 26052 health risks during and after flooding and what precautions can be taken to avoid outbreak and spread of infectious disease s [[69]].One of the most effective primary interventions of the health risks posed by flooding lies with
infectious disease 26866 banks and shore lines and destroying sanitation facilities thus reducing the risk of the outbreak of infectious disease s.4. DiscussionThe primary objective of this review was to examine the relationship between flooding
infectious disease 27001 DiscussionThe primary objective of this review was to examine the relationship between flooding and outbreak of infectious disease s in Kenya. The review presented findings from studies from 2000 to 2017. The effects of flooding on
infectious disease 27143 presented findings from studies from 2000 to 2017. The effects of flooding on outbreak and spread of infectious disease s are imposed through impacts on pathogens, vectors/hosts, and disease transmission [[71]]. Flooding
infectious disease 27460 overcrowding, and increase in exposure to disease vector, all of which are a recipe to outbreak of infectious disease [[5], [69]]. In Kenya, flooding is a significant factor in the outbreak and faster spread of infectious
infectious disease 27572 disease [[5], [69]]. In Kenya, flooding is a significant factor in the outbreak and faster spread of infectious disease s. Spikes in the outbreaks of Rift Valley fever, malaria, diarrheal diseases, and even leptospirosis
infectious disease 28168 underscore the importance of surveillance in order to appropriately understand the effect of flooding on infectious disease incident. Surveillance together with effective early warning systems and accurate predictions of pending
infectious disease 28356 and accurate predictions of pending flood disaster are important tools in reducing vulnerability to infectious disease . A comprehensive risk assessment could be incorporated into the surveillance to help determine priority
infectious disease 28606 prevention and control [[5]]. In addition, well-planned emergency procedures are crucial in managing infectious disease s. Furthermore, well-coordinated collaborations are essential in reducing spread of the infectious diseases
infectious disease 28712 infectious diseases. Furthermore, well-coordinated collaborations are essential in reducing spread of the infectious disease s particularly where humans and livestock pathways are at play. Himeidan et al. [[38]] recommend that
infectious disease 29090 is noted that most of the studies that explore the relationship between flooding and the spread of infectious disease established empirical association but not a causal relationship. To obtain direct cause effect relationship,
infectious disease 29685 growing belief that it is the only one that can provide perfect evidence that clearly link outbreak of infectious disease and flooding phenomenon; however, it is likely to be too expensive, requires a lot of time and man power,
infectious disease 29957 [[43], [58], [72], [73]].5. ConclusionFlooding plays an important role in the outbreak and the spread of infectious disease s as it creates conditions for the multiplication of pathogens and vectors. In this review, we have drawn
infectious disease 30118 multiplication of pathogens and vectors. In this review, we have drawn attention to the association between infectious disease s and flooding in Kenya. The increasing frequency of flooding in Kenya therefore means that the country
infectious disease 30281 frequency of flooding in Kenya therefore means that the country will experience more heightened cases of infectious disease s resulting from flooding. To mitigate infectious disease risk in Kenya, this review is an important
infectious disease 30338 country will experience more heightened cases of infectious diseases resulting from flooding. To mitigate infectious disease risk in Kenya, this review is an important read for those involved in planning response and recovery.
infectious disease 30586 clear research needs to improve the understanding of the association between flooding and outbreak of infectious disease s in Kenya. More thorough epidemiological studies on cause-effect relationship between infectious diseases
infectious disease 30691 infectious diseases in Kenya. More thorough epidemiological studies on cause-effect relationship between infectious disease s and flooding particularly using randomised control trails are urgently needed. Studies should also
infectious disease 30931 effectiveness of public health interventions that have been utilized in Kenya in minimising risk from infectious disease following flooding. There is also need to clearly document evidence on the quantification of the risk
infectious disease 31055 following flooding. There is also need to clearly document evidence on the quantification of the risk of infectious disease following flooding
leptospirosis 15252 closer to human population, thus increasing the risk of infectious rodent-borne disease outbreak such as leptospirosis . Leptospirosis is a systemic zoonotic disease [[45]]. High prevalence of the disease was observed in
leptospirosis 15820 rainfall/flooding. A recent study by Kimari [[45]] in North Eastern Kenya found a prevalence rate of leptospirosis bacteria among rodents to be 41.8%. In the western part of the country, Cook [[46]] found the prevalence
leptospirosis 27677 infectious diseases. Spikes in the outbreaks of Rift Valley fever, malaria, diarrheal diseases, and even leptospirosis have been documented in Kenya [[26]–[28], [31], [33], [34], [37], [41]]. But there have also been
malaria 10705 mosquitoes, and this leads to an increase in the number of mosquito-borne diseases such as Rift Valley fever, malaria , and West Nile fever [[32]]. In Kenya, a number of studies have linked above the average rainfall and
malaria 10850 Kenya, a number of studies have linked above the average rainfall and associated flooding to increase in malaria epidemics. For example, malaria parasite prevalence data assembled by Snow et al. [[33]] over 40 years
malaria 10882 linked above the average rainfall and associated flooding to increase in malaria epidemics. For example, malaria parasite prevalence data assembled by Snow et al. [[33]] over 40 years between 1974 and 2014 along the
malaria 11015 assembled by Snow et al. [[33]] over 40 years between 1974 and 2014 along the Kenya coast show that malaria parasite prevalence peaks during periods of abnormally high rainfall accompanied by flooding such as
malaria 11188 rainfall accompanied by flooding such as in 1982, 1994, and 1997/98; during these periods, incidences of malaria disease peaks. Other studies that have linked flooding to explosive epidemic malaria outbreak are those
malaria 11273 incidences of malaria disease peaks. Other studies that have linked flooding to explosive epidemic malaria outbreak are those by Maes et al. [[34]] and Allan et al. [[35]]. In their study, Allan et al. [[35]]
malaria 11608 the North Eastern region of Kenya and provided ideal breeding conditions for Anopheles mosquitoes ( malaria vectors). This led to a large increase in the vector population leading to an explosive epidemic of
malaria 11954 Wajir Hospital due to cases of Malaria and estimate between 40 and 55 cases per 1000 population weekly malaria incidence. Brown and Murray [[5]] report that within a short period of 4 months, between February and
malaria 12092 [[5]] report that within a short period of 4 months, between February and May 1998, a total of 23,377 malaria cases, translating to a malaria attack rate of 39% in the population, were reported in the North Eastern
malaria 12124 period of 4 months, between February and May 1998, a total of 23,377 malaria cases, translating to a malaria attack rate of 39% in the population, were reported in the North Eastern region. The average crude mortality
malaria 12562 Garissa counties created conducive conditions for mosquito breeding leading to a large outbreak of malaria in the region.Another mosquito-borne disease that its outbreak has closely been linked to periods of
malaria 17428 example can be drawn from Botswana where EWS efforts have been successful in reducing the outbreak of malaria during floods due to effective predictions and timely anticipation leading to implementation of timely
malaria 18094 to technical, logistical, or other reasons, stocking contingency drugs in health centres such as anti malaria l drugs across areas at risk provides an alternative approach.Improved forecast of occurrence of rainfall
malaria 18367 could help in reducing the severity of outbreaks of diseases such as Rift Valley fever, cholera, and malaria as happened in the 1997/98. This could be gained from understanding of ENSO's influence on tropical
malaria 20058 plans for cholera treatment and stocking health posts with adequate drugs and providing extra stocks of malaria medicine and rehydration fluids. Hand in hand with stocking drugs and other supplies, Menne and Murray
malaria 22557 spraying and use of insecticide-treated nets can be effective in reducing the outbreak and spread of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases [[60], [64]]. In the case of rodent control, collection of refuse
malaria 27639 the outbreak and faster spread of infectious diseases. Spikes in the outbreaks of Rift Valley fever, malaria , diarrheal diseases, and even leptospirosis have been documented in Kenya [[26]–[28], [31], [33],

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