Contribution of HIV Infection, AIDS, and Antiretroviral Therapy to Exocrine Pathogenesis in Salivary and Lacrimal Glands

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
didanosine 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
hydroxychloroquine 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
lopinavir 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
AIDS 6 infectiousdiseases
HIV seropositivity 1 infectiousdiseases
chloroquine 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
oral candidiasis 2 infectiousdiseases
pneumonia 1 infectiousdiseases
tetracycline 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
zalcitabine 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
candidiasis 3 infectiousdiseases
hepatitis C 1 infectiousdiseases
meningitis 1 infectiousdiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
chloroquine 41989 symptomatic response.Several systemic anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive agents, such as hydroxy chloroquine , rituximab, and infliximab, have been explored in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome to treat dry mouth
didanosine 22953 distinguish the adverse effects of ART and HIV-related oral disease manifestations. Certain NRTIs, such as didanosine , have been associated with subjective xerostomia [[79],[80],[81]]. Moreover, PIs specifically have been
hydroxychloroquine 41982 inadequate symptomatic response.Several systemic anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive agents, such as hydroxychloroquine , rituximab, and infliximab, have been explored in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome to treat dry mouth
lopinavir 31273 recent study by Chen et al. in Taiwan noted that ART decreased the risk of DILS overall. In this study, lopinavir was associated with a decreased risk of DILS, while zalcitabine was associated with an increased risk
tetracycline 44050 (including topical corticosteroids, topical cyclosporine, and topical or systemic omega-3 fatty acids), tetracycline s, punctual plugs, and secretagogues. As dry eye is now known to be a chronic inflammatory disease mediated
zalcitabine 31335 risk of DILS overall. In this study, lopinavir was associated with a decreased risk of DILS, while zalcitabine was associated with an increased risk [[118]]. Therefore, it is important to know if an HIV-positive
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
AIDS 81 Title: International Journal of Molecular SciencesContribution of HIV Infection, AIDS , and Antiretroviral Therapy to Exocrine Pathogenesis in Salivary and Lacrimal GlandsImran NizamuddinPeter
AIDS 1315 exocrine pathogenesis within the context of HIV infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome ( AIDS ), including the contribution of antiretroviral therapies on both. Subsequently, we discuss the impact
AIDS 19841 increased [[68],[69]]. For example, one study carried out in HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome ( AIDS ) patients in Cameroon demonstrated that 57 of the 59 patients studied had lymphocytic infiltrates in
AIDS 33757 superficially indistinguishable from DILS, but must be differentiated based on laboratory testing for HIV/ AIDS and autoantibodies [[125],[126],[127],[128]]. Testing is typically done for several autoantibodies,
AIDS 46949 a wide variety of topics, ranging from normal salivary/lacrimal function to pathology linked to HIV/ AIDS and medication side effects to treatment options. The salivary and lacrimal glands are both exocrine
AIDS 50801 sialoadenitis [[146]].CategoryDiffuse Infiltrative Lymphocytosis SyndromeSjögren’s SyndromeassociationHIV/ AIDS Autoimmune diseaseshistologyglandular CD8+ T cell infiltrationprimarily CD4+ T cell infiltration(staining
HIV seropositivity 51224 siccahypergammaglobulinemiapossible extraglandular organ involvementlaboratory tests supporting diagnosis HIV seropositivity autoantibodies rarely presentautoantibodies including ANA, SS-A (Ro), SS-B (La), RFHLA associationDR5
candidiasis 18416 not only include neoplasms, such as Kaposi’s sarcoma, and opportunistic infections, such as oral candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia, but also HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIV-SGD). First noted by
candidiasis 22671 been a decreased frequency in oral manifestations of HIV by an estimated 10–50%, especially for oral candidiasis [[78]]. Yet, studies have demonstrated the ability of ART, like many other drugs, to contribute to xerostomia
candidiasis 41827 may prefer to discontinue use of muscarinic agonists if a sufficient response is not present. Oral candidiasis should be excluded if patients have an inadequate symptomatic response.Several systemic anti-inflammatory
hepatitis C 35388 HIV-testing.Other viral infections may elicit sicca symptoms as well. For example, chronic infection by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is known to induce a number of extrahepatic and rheumatological manifestations [[133]].
meningitis 31993 Peripheral axonal neuropathy may occur due to endoneural and perineural CD8+ infiltration, and aseptic meningitis may also be present. The neuropathy, acute or subacute in onset, typically begins with painful paresthesias
oral candidiasis 18411 These not only include neoplasms, such as Kaposi’s sarcoma, and opportunistic infections, such as oral candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia, but also HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIV-SGD). First noted by
oral candidiasis 22666 has been a decreased frequency in oral manifestations of HIV by an estimated 10–50%, especially for oral candidiasis [[78]]. Yet, studies have demonstrated the ability of ART, like many other drugs, to contribute to xerostomia
pneumonia 31795 accompanied by a range of extra-glandular organ involvement [[109],[112]]. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia can present with a dry cough and progressive exertional dyspnea [[119],[120],[121]]. Peripheral axonal

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