Syzygium Cordatum Hochst. ex Krauss: An Overview of Its Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
pneumonia 8 infectiousdiseases
ampicillin 3 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
chloroquine 3 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
cholera 1 infectiousdiseases
gentamicin 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
gonorrhea 2 infectiousdiseases
herpes simplex 2 infectiousdiseases
diarrhea 20 infectiousdiseases
dysentery 3 infectiousdiseases
ofloxacin 11 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
tuberculosis 2 infectiousdiseases
ciprofloxacin 11 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
miconazole 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
chloramphenicol 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
erythromycin 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
malaria 9 infectiousdiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
ampicillin 15502 Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae using the disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays with ampicillin as the positive control. The aqueous extract exhibited activities against Haemophilis influenzae and
ampicillin 15802 mm which was comparable to the zone of inhibition of 21.2 ± 0.4 mm to 39.7 ± 0.2 mm exhibited by ampicillin (30 µg), the control. The MIC values of both extracts against Staphylococcus aureus was 0.5 mg/mL [[48]].
ampicillin 36533 S. cordatum against Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris using modified disc diffusion method with ampicillin and chloramphenicol as positive controls and distilled water and methanol as negative controls. The
chloramphenicol 36548 against Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris using modified disc diffusion method with ampicillin and chloramphenicol as positive controls and distilled water and methanol as negative controls. The extracts exhibited activities
chloroquine 35701 of dichloromethane leaf extracts of S. cordatum using the [3H]hypoxanthine incorporation assay using chloroquine sensitive (NF54) strain of Plasmodium falciparum as the test organism. The extract showed activity with
chloroquine 35958 al. [[39]] evaluated antiplasmodial activities of ethanol stem bark extract of S. cordatum against chloroquine -resistant Plasmodium falciparum (Dd2) using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase method. The extract inhibited
chloroquine 36097 falciparum (Dd2) using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase method. The extract inhibited the growth of the chloroquine -resistant Dd2 malaria parasite strains by 55.5 ± 13.4% [[39]]. These findings support the use of S.
ciprofloxacin 16744 fluvialis and Vibrio vulnificus using agar dilution and serial microdilution methods with DMSO and ciprofloxacin as negative and positive controls, respectively. Pulp extract exhibited the lowest MIC values ranging
ciprofloxacin 17610 aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio vulnificus using the microdillution method with DMSO and ciprofloxacin as negative and positive controls, respectively. Extracts exhibited activities with MIC and MBC values
ciprofloxacin 17810 MIC and MBC values ranging from 3.1 mg/mL to 50.0 mg/mL which was comparable to MIC and MBC values of ciprofloxacin , the positive control ranging from 1.6 mg/mL to 12.5 mg/mL [[47]]. Maliehe et al. [[52]] evaluated antibacterial
ciprofloxacin 18232 Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio fluvialis and Vibrio vulnificus using serial microdilution method with DMSO and ciprofloxacin as negative and positive controls, respectively. The extract exhibited activities with MIC and MBC values
ciprofloxacin 18940 Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis using the micro-titer plate dilution assay with ciprofloxacin as a positive control. The antibacterial interaction of S. cordatum used in combination with S. birrea
ciprofloxacin 19707 to > 8000.0 µg/mL which was much higher than MIC values of 0.1 µg/mL to 1.25 µg/mL exhibited by ciprofloxacin , the control. The combination of S. cordatum with S. birrea resulted in ∑FIC values ranging from 0.1
ciprofloxacin 20581 extracts of B. salicina and O. sphaerocarpa against a diarrhea-causing pathogen, Escherichia coli with ciprofloxacin as a positive control. Mono-extracts of S. cordatum exhibited activities with MIC value of 1.4 mg/mL,
ciprofloxacin 21414 vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Oligella ureolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis and Ureaplasma urealyticum with ciprofloxacin and amphotericin B as positive controls. The extracts exhibited activities with MIC values ranging from
ciprofloxacin 21578 extracts exhibited activities with MIC values ranging from 0.1 mg/mL to > 16.0 mg/mL while the controls, ciprofloxacin and amphotericin B exhibited MIC values of 0.04 µg/mL to 0.6 µg/mL and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively [[33]].
ciprofloxacin 22058 ureolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis and Ureaplasma urealyticum using the micro-titer plate dilution method with ciprofloxacin and amphotericin B as positive controls. The anti-sexually transmitted infections interaction of S.
ciprofloxacin 22649 extracts exhibited activities with MIC values ranging from 0.3 mg/mL to 8.0 mg/mL while the controls, ciprofloxacin (0.01 mg/mL) and amphotericin B (0.1 mg/mL) exhibited MIC values of 0.04 µg/mL to 0.6 µg/mL and 2.5
erythromycin 14904 and serial dilution assays with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as negative control, and nalidixic acid, erythromycin and cotrimoxazole as positive controls. The extracts showed activities with zone of inhibition ranging
gentamicin 14215 Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus aureus using the disc diffusion and the microdilution methods with gentamicin as positive control. The extracts exhibited activities with zones of inhibition ranging from 8.0 mm
gentamicin 14407 ranging from 8.0 mm to 22.0 mm which was comparable to zone of inhibition of 18–30 mm exhibited by gentamicin (30 µg), the control. The MIC values ranged from 0.2 mg/mL to > 12.0 mg/mL. Mathabe et al. [[16]] evaluated
miconazole 24658 against Candida albicans and Candida krusei using the agar disc diffusion and broth dilution methods with miconazole as the positive control. The extracts exhibited activities with zone of inhibition ranging from 12.0
miconazole 24951 values ranging from 0.6 mg/mL to 2.5 mg/mL against both species. The zone of inhibition exhibited by miconazole , the control, was 20.0 ± 0.8 mm to 22.6 ± 0.7 mm, and the MIC and MFC values ranged from 0.3 mg/mL
ofloxacin 16748 fluvialis and Vibrio vulnificus using agar dilution and serial microdilution methods with DMSO and cipr ofloxacin as negative and positive controls, respectively. Pulp extract exhibited the lowest MIC values ranging
ofloxacin 17614 aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio vulnificus using the microdillution method with DMSO and cipr ofloxacin as negative and positive controls, respectively. Extracts exhibited activities with MIC and MBC values
ofloxacin 17814 and MBC values ranging from 3.1 mg/mL to 50.0 mg/mL which was comparable to MIC and MBC values of cipr ofloxacin , the positive control ranging from 1.6 mg/mL to 12.5 mg/mL [[47]]. Maliehe et al. [[52]] evaluated antibacterial
ofloxacin 18236 aureus, Vibrio fluvialis and Vibrio vulnificus using serial microdilution method with DMSO and cipr ofloxacin as negative and positive controls, respectively. The extract exhibited activities with MIC and MBC values
ofloxacin 18944 Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis using the micro-titer plate dilution assay with cipr ofloxacin as a positive control. The antibacterial interaction of S. cordatum used in combination with S. birrea
ofloxacin 19711 > 8000.0 µg/mL which was much higher than MIC values of 0.1 µg/mL to 1.25 µg/mL exhibited by cipr ofloxacin , the control. The combination of S. cordatum with S. birrea resulted in ∑FIC values ranging from 0.1
ofloxacin 20585 extracts of B. salicina and O. sphaerocarpa against a diarrhea-causing pathogen, Escherichia coli with cipr ofloxacin as a positive control. Mono-extracts of S. cordatum exhibited activities with MIC value of 1.4 mg/mL,
ofloxacin 21418 Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Oligella ureolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis and Ureaplasma urealyticum with cipr ofloxacin and amphotericin B as positive controls. The extracts exhibited activities with MIC values ranging from
ofloxacin 21582 exhibited activities with MIC values ranging from 0.1 mg/mL to > 16.0 mg/mL while the controls, cipr ofloxacin and amphotericin B exhibited MIC values of 0.04 µg/mL to 0.6 µg/mL and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively [[33]].
ofloxacin 22062 Trichomonas vaginalis and Ureaplasma urealyticum using the micro-titer plate dilution method with cipr ofloxacin and amphotericin B as positive controls. The anti-sexually transmitted infections interaction of S.
ofloxacin 22653 extracts exhibited activities with MIC values ranging from 0.3 mg/mL to 8.0 mg/mL while the controls, cipr ofloxacin (0.01 mg/mL) and amphotericin B (0.1 mg/mL) exhibited MIC values of 0.04 µg/mL to 0.6 µg/mL and 2.5
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
cholera 14770 Shihella boydii, Shigella dysenterae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio cholera e using agar-well diffusion and serial dilution assays with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as negative control,
diarrhea 1669 cordatum is characterized by several biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, anti diarrhea l, anti-sexually transmitted infections, antidiabetic, anticholinesterase, anti-inflammatory, antileishmanial,
diarrhea 3612 of S. cordatum feature prominently in Zimbabwe, South Africa and Kenya as traditional medicine for diarrhea and stomach ailments [[7]]. It is within this background that the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacological
diarrhea 7941 with three uses each based on two literature records (Figure 1). Gastro-intestinal disorders such as diarrhea , dysentery and stomach problems; burns, sores and wounds; colds, cough and respiratory complaints; sexually
diarrhea 8323 from S. cordatum.In traditional medicine, stem bark and root infusion of S. cordatum is used against diarrhea in Kenya, Zambia, Malawi, South Africa and Namibia [[1],[5],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20]] (Table 1).
diarrhea 8734 Breonadia salicina (Vahl) Hepper & J.R.I. Wood and Ozoroa sphaerocarpa R. Fern. & A. Fern. as remedy for diarrhea [[22]]. Leaf and bark infusion of S. cordatum is taken orally for stomach ache in South Africa and Swaziland
diarrhea 13398 antibacterial [[16],[46],[47],[48],[50],[52],[53],[54]], antifungal [[50],[53],[55],[56],[57],[58]], anti diarrhea l [[22],[47],[51],[52]], anti-sexually transmitted infections [[33],[34]], antidiabetic [[51],[59]],
diarrhea 20291 [[53]], thus supporting the traditional method of preparing these combined remedies for burns [[32]], diarrhea [[22]], gonorrhea [[37]], STIs [[34]] and sores [[32]].Sibandze et al. [[22]] evaluated antibacterial
diarrhea 20532 S. cordatum bark or in combination with bark extracts of B. salicina and O. sphaerocarpa against a diarrhea -causing pathogen, Escherichia coli with ciprofloxacin as a positive control. Mono-extracts of S. cordatum
diarrhea 21072 to use the bark of S. cordatum, B. salicina and O. sphaerocarpa in combination for the treatment of diarrhea in Swaziland [[22]].Van Vuuren and Naidoo [[33]] evaluated anti-sexually transmitted infections activities
diarrhea 27238 from 17.2 ± 0.4 mm to 22.0 ± 0.6 mm exhibited by the positive control at 250 mg/mL [[58]].5.3. Anti diarrhea l ActivityDeliwe and Amabeoku [[51]] evaluated antidiarrheal activities of leaf aqueous extract of S.
diarrhea 27297 positive control at 250 mg/mL [[58]].5.3. Antidiarrheal ActivityDeliwe and Amabeoku [[51]] evaluated anti diarrhea l activities of leaf aqueous extract of S. cordatum in male albino mice using castor oil-induced diarrheal
diarrhea 27402 antidiarrheal activities of leaf aqueous extract of S. cordatum in male albino mice using castor oil-induced diarrhea l test. The extract significantly reduced the number of diarrheal episodes, decreased the stool mass
diarrhea 27466 albino mice using castor oil-induced diarrheal test. The extract significantly reduced the number of diarrhea l episodes, decreased the stool mass and delayed the onset of castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice [[51]].
diarrhea 27555 number of diarrheal episodes, decreased the stool mass and delayed the onset of castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice [[51]]. Maliehe et al. [[47]] evaluated antidiarrheal activities of S. cordatum pulp and seed
diarrhea 27616 delayed the onset of castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice [[51]]. Maliehe et al. [[47]] evaluated anti diarrhea l activities of S. cordatum pulp and seed extracts using the castor oil-induced rat model. The S. cordatum
diarrhea 28001 cordatum fruit-pulp and seed extracts, in a dose-related manner (400 mg/kg of rat), exerted the anti diarrhea l properties by reducing intestinal motility [[47]]. Maliehe et al. [[52]] evaluated the antidiarrheal
diarrhea 28102 antidiarrheal properties by reducing intestinal motility [[47]]. Maliehe et al. [[52]] evaluated the anti diarrhea l and antimotility activities of methanolic pulp extracts of S. cordatum using castor oil-induced diarrhea
diarrhea 28208 antidiarrheal and antimotility activities of methanolic pulp extracts of S. cordatum using castor oil-induced diarrhea model in rats. The fruit pulp extract reduced the number of wet stools, total number of stools and onset
diarrhea 28475 (distilled water). Fruit pulp extract, in a dose-related manner (400 mg/kg of rat), exerted the anti diarrhea l property by reducing intestinal motility as well [[52]]. These findings lend credence to the traditional
diarrhea 28624 motility as well [[52]]. These findings lend credence to the traditional uses of S. cordatum as remedy for diarrhea [[1],[5],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[22]], dysentery [[15]] and gastro-intestinal complications [[21]].5.4.
dysentery 7951 uses each based on two literature records (Figure 1). Gastro-intestinal disorders such as diarrhea, dysentery and stomach problems; burns, sores and wounds; colds, cough and respiratory complaints; sexually transmitted
dysentery 8488 [[1],[5],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20]] (Table 1). Bark or leaf decoction of S. cordatum is used against dysentery in Malawi [[15]] and gastro-intestinal complications in Kenya [[21]]. In Swaziland, stem bark of S.
dysentery 28679 traditional uses of S. cordatum as remedy for diarrhea [[1],[5],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[22]], dysentery [[15]] and gastro-intestinal complications [[21]].5.4. Antidiabetic ActivityMusabayane et al. [[59]]
gonorrhea 10057 Bark and leaf decoction of S. cordatum is taken orally mixed with leaves of S. birrea as remedy for gonorrhea [[37]]. Bark and leaf decoction of S. cordatum is taken orally against colds in South Africa and Kenya
gonorrhea 20308 supporting the traditional method of preparing these combined remedies for burns [[32]], diarrhea [[22]], gonorrhea [[37]], STIs [[34]] and sores [[32]].Sibandze et al. [[22]] evaluated antibacterial activities of mono-extracts
herpes simplex 10455 respiratory ailments [[1],[7]]. In Tanzania, bark or leaf decoction of S. cordatum is used against herpes simplex and zoster [[35],[36]], while, in Tanzania and Zambia, bark or leaf decoction is used against malaria
herpes simplex 42862 cordatum in the treatment of burns, chest complaints, colds, cough, fever, gastro-intestinal problems, herpes simplex or zoster, malaria, respiratory complaints, STIs, skin rash, sores, TB and wounds. The anthocyanidin,
malaria 1284 colds, cough, respiratory complaints, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), tuberculosis, fever and malaria . Several phytochemical compounds including alkaloids, anthocyanidin, essential oils, flavonoids, leucoanthocyanidin,
malaria 8119 cough and respiratory complaints; sexually transmitted infections (STIs); tuberculosis (TB); fever; and malaria (Table 2) are the most commonly treated human diseases and ailments using concoctions prepared from
malaria 10564 simplex and zoster [[35],[36]], while, in Tanzania and Zambia, bark or leaf decoction is used against malaria [[38],[39],[40]]. In Uganda, bark, leaf or root infusion of S. cordatum is used against anemia, hepatic
malaria 32571 [[66]] demonstrated that most of the non-polar extracts of medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria also possess significant antiplasmodial activities, and, therefore, likely have antileishmanial properties
malaria 32694 significant antiplasmodial activities, and, therefore, likely have antileishmanial properties as both malaria and leishmaniasis are protozoal infections sharing several unique metabolic pathways. Therefore, findings
malaria 36123 parasite lactate dehydrogenase method. The extract inhibited the growth of the chloroquine-resistant Dd2 malaria parasite strains by 55.5 ± 13.4% [[39]]. These findings support the use of S. cordatum for the treatment
malaria 36273 These findings support the use of S. cordatum for the treatment of fever in South Africa [[23]] and malaria in Tanzania [[38],[39]].5.10. Anti-Proteus ActivityCock and van Vuuren [[65]] evaluated the activities
malaria 42888 burns, chest complaints, colds, cough, fever, gastro-intestinal problems, herpes simplex or zoster, malaria , respiratory complaints, STIs, skin rash, sores, TB and wounds. The anthocyanidin, essential oils, flavonoids,
malaria 46410 wounds7Colds, cough and respiratory ailments5Tuberculosis4Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)3Fever and malaria 3molecules-23-01084-t003_Table 3Table 3Chemical compounds isolated and characterized from Syzygium cordatum.CompoundPlant
pneumonia 13993 pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterococcus fecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia e, Pantoea agglomerans, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens,
pneumonia 15353 activities of methanol and water bark extracts of S. cordatum against Haemophilis influenzae, Klebsiella pneumonia e, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae using the disc diffusion
pneumonia 15430 influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumonia e using the disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays with ampicillin as the positive control. The
pneumonia 16118 ethanol and water leaf extracts of S. cordatum against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia e and Staphylococcus aureus using microdilution assay with neomycin as a positive control. The extracts
pneumonia 16555 gastro-intestinal tract infections which included Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia e, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio fluvialis and Vibrio
pneumonia 17023 concentration (MBC) values of 3.1 mg/mL to 12.5 mg/mL against Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus hirae, Klebsiella pneumonia e, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The seed extract exhibited MIC values ranging from
pneumonia 17269 values ranging from 12.5 mg/mL to 50.0 mg/mL against Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus hirae, Klebsiella pneumonia e, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus [[46]]. Maliehe et al. [[47]] evaluated antibacterial
pneumonia 18062 pulp extract of S. cordatum against Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia e, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio fluvialis and Vibrio
tuberculosis 1260 burns, sores, wounds, colds, cough, respiratory complaints, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), tuberculosis , fever and malaria. Several phytochemical compounds including alkaloids, anthocyanidin, essential oils,
tuberculosis 8089 sores and wounds; colds, cough and respiratory complaints; sexually transmitted infections (STIs); tuberculosis (TB); fever; and malaria (Table 2) are the most commonly treated human diseases and ailments using concoctions

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