Scoping review on vector-borne diseases in urban areas: transmission dynamics, vectorial capacity and co-infection

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
cutaneous leishmaniasis 1 infectiousdiseases
Chagas disease 6 infectiousdiseases
bubonic plague 2 infectiousdiseases
filariasis 1 infectiousdiseases
dengue fever 3 infectiousdiseases
infectious disease 4 infectiousdiseases
malaria 93 infectiousdiseases
plague 10 infectiousdiseases
trypanosomiasis 2 infectiousdiseases
visceral leishmaniasis 1 infectiousdiseases
yellow fever 4 infectiousdiseases
chikungunya 11 infectiousdiseases
dengue hemorrhagic fever 1 infectiousdiseases
spotted fever 2 infectiousdiseases

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Chagas disease 5675 resulted in serious epidemics in these regions [[10], [11]]. Other VBDs, such as American trypanosomiasis ( Chagas disease ), leishmaniasis, and filariasis, have affected hundreds of millions of people globally [[12]].Approximately
Chagas disease 12999 30%), and 3) others (n = 15; 30%), which included parasitic diseases: leishmaniasis (n = 4) and Chagas disease (n = 2); other arboviruses: chikungunya (n = 2), West Nile virus (n = 2), yellow fever (n = 2),
Chagas disease 13665 (ordered by parasitic, viral and bacterial diseases) by continentContinentDengueMalariaLeishmaniasis Chagas disease West NileChikungunyaYellow feverRoss River virusPlagueRickettsiaeTotalAmericas1223220100123Europe00000100001Africa180000100010Asia751001001015Australia00000001001Total20154222211150Fig.
Chagas disease 44076 adopted not only in rural areas but also in urban areas.IGChagasMedrano-Mercado et al., 2008 [[67]] Chagas disease BoliviaEcologicalDemographics of Chagas infections in 5–13 year-old children (n = 2218) in Cochabamba,
Chagas disease 44673 which is not restricted to rural areas and small villages of Bolivia.NGOSalazar et al., 2007 [[66]] Chagas disease MexicoEcologicalT. cruzi antibody seroprevalence and associated risk factors in individuals < 18 year
Chagas disease 70521 to reduce infection risk both in urban and peri-urban areas, with specific focus on dog populations. Chagas disease was detected in young individuals in Mexico (1% of people aged < 18 years) [[66]] and Bolivia (> 20%
bubonic plague 50954 individuals.Plague outbreaks likely due to multiple ecological factors linked to classical reservoir and vector of bubonic plague ; further research warranted.NGRickettsiaSouza et al., 2015 [[75]]Brazilian spotted fever (BSF)BrazilCase-controlled
bubonic plague 73139 diseases studied included tick-transmitted Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) in Brazil [[75]] and human bubonic plague in the Vietnam Central Highland plateau [[76]], for which multiple ecological factors were identified,
chikungunya 1578 concerning VBD epidemiology in urban areas concerned dengue and malaria. Other arboviruses covered included chikungunya and West Nile virus, other parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis, and bacterial
chikungunya 5542 areas [[9]]. Dengue incidence has increased dramatically in the Americas, and recent introductions of chikungunya and Zika have resulted in serious epidemics in these regions [[10], [11]]. Other VBDs, such as American
chikungunya 13045 included parasitic diseases: leishmaniasis (n = 4) and Chagas disease (n = 2); other arboviruses: chikungunya (n = 2), West Nile virus (n = 2), yellow fever (n = 2), and Ross River virus (n = 1); and
chikungunya 46720 infections occur.UChikungunyaHo et al., 2011 [[71]]ChikungunyaSingaporeOutbreak studyEpidemiology of chikungunya establishing itself as endemic disease2006–2009: 812/1072 (76%) were indigenous cases, imported from
chikungunya 48153 Positive IgM-antibodies in 5/18 recently symptomatic, and 4/16 asymptomatic unvaccinated persons. Also chikungunya IgM detected in a few cases, (both ill and asymptomatic).Serology evidence for both chikungunya and
chikungunya 48249 Also chikungunya IgM detected in a few cases, (both ill and asymptomatic).Serology evidence for both chikungunya and YF during outbreak. Migration and drought likely contributors to outbreak; Ae. aegypti most abundant,
chikungunya 48496 sylvatic YF to both monkeys and humans.Outbreak diagnosis and response delayed/limited. True YF and chikungunya cases likely underestimated.Limited clinical information and possible recall bias (retrospective study).Need
chikungunya 71787 outbreaks.Role of tourism, migration and occupational exposure on transmission of infectionTwo studies reviewed chikungunya occurrence, one in Italy following virus introduction by a symptomatic individual visiting from India
chikungunya 72613 adequate response contributed to a yellow fever outbreak where there was concurrent transmission of chikungunya [[73]].Influence of disease ecology on transmissionA field survey found seasonal abundance of amplifying
chikungunya 75799 selected studies assessed the co-circulation of VBDs transmitted by the same vector, such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika, which coexist in many regions across the globe [[11]]. A syndromic approach focusing on patients’
chikungunya 75996 focusing on patients’ main symptoms, such as fever and rash (equally common symptoms for dengue, chikungunya , Mayaro, Zika, etc.), rather than only on isolated pathogens, might help to adapt VBD research more
cutaneous leishmaniasis 70021 host have been recognised [[50], [51]].Other diseasesFour studies focused on leishmaniasis: two on cutaneous leishmaniasis (in Argentina and Brazil) [[62], [63]] and two on visceral leishmaniasis (in Brazil and Nepal) [[64],
dengue fever 15723 epidemics and for establishing more effective prevention strategies.Using information about reported dengue fever (DF) cases may represent only part of the total number of dengue virus infections, rainfall data were
dengue fever 23721 2007 [[43]]DengueChinaTaiwanKaohsuingTime series modellingAssociation between weather variability and dengue fever Incidence of DF was negatively associated with monthly temperature deviation and relative humidity; time
dengue fever 56166 variation in relation to vector abundance, and the role of socioeconomic conditions. The role of imported dengue fever cases in triggering outbreaks in non-endemic cities was highlighted [[24]]. Human movement due to economic
dengue hemorrhagic fever 22986 IGFouque et al., 2004 [[40]]DengueFrench GuianaDescriptiveEpidemiology of dengue after the 1st epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) (1991–1993) and during endemic period (1993–1995)DENV1, 2 and 4 were isolated from dengue
filariasis 5711 regions [[10], [11]]. Other VBDs, such as American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), leishmaniasis, and filariasis , have affected hundreds of millions of people globally [[12]].Approximately half of the world’s population
infectious disease 3277 the World Health Organization (WHO), vector-borne diseases (VBDs) account for more than 17% of all infectious disease s and cause more than 1 million deaths annually [[1]]. Vector-borne diseases are transmitted from person
infectious disease 6191 especially those less developed [[14]]. Urbanization has had an impact on the epidemiological pattern of infectious disease s. The main factors are urban sprawl into forested areas, overcrowding, and precarious urban infrastructures
infectious disease 27436 poor housing.Underreporting and/or misclassification of dengue.Importance of a surveillance system for infectious disease s control.Surveillance needed in rapidly urbanized areas and among immigrants.NGSang et al., 2014 [[24]]DengueChinaGuangzhouModelling
infectious disease 79590 benefit of this approach was a more comprehensive picture that combined at least two components of infectious disease s in urban areas. At the same time, we acknowledge limitations arising from this final step, which may
malaria 1534 Australia. The largest body of evidence concerning VBD epidemiology in urban areas concerned dengue and malaria . Other arboviruses covered included chikungunya and West Nile virus, other parasitic diseases such as
malaria 4215 than one organism, either by different strains of the same (e.g. two genetically different falciparum malaria protozoa), or entirely different pathogens (e.g. falciparum malaria protozoa and intestinal helminths).
malaria 4283 genetically different falciparum malaria protozoa), or entirely different pathogens (e.g. falciparum malaria protozoa and intestinal helminths). Here, also co-circulation is considered, when more than one different
malaria 4660 most of them in children under 5 years of age [[5]]. Traditionally associated with rural transmission, malaria is increasing found in urban and peri-urban areas [[6], [7]]. An entomological marker of malaria transmission
malaria 4757 transmission, malaria is increasing found in urban and peri-urban areas [[6], [7]]. An entomological marker of malaria transmission is the entomological inoculation rate (EIR). It describes the number of infected bites
malaria 5063 per person per time unit) and the sporozoite rate (rate of infected mosquitoes, i.e. those carrying malaria parasites ready to infect humans).Currently dengue, a virus transmitted through Aedes mosquitoes, threatens
malaria 12877 Fig. 2). Selected articles were organized into three groups of diseases: 1) dengue (n = 20; 40%), 2) malaria (n = 15; 30%), and 3) others (n = 15; 30%), which included parasitic diseases: leishmaniasis (n = 4)
malaria 13348 studies reported on co-infections, one on multiple Plamodium falciparum strains, the other on combined malaria , helminth, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in pregnant women. Studies are summarized
malaria 13546 summarized in Table 2.Table 1Final selection of N = 50 references: Group of diseases: dengue, malaria and others (ordered by parasitic, viral and bacterial diseases) by continentContinentDengueMalariaLeishmaniasisChagas
malaria 29353 public health policy & practiceFundingAFRICAWoyessa et al., 2004 [[7]]MalariaEthiopiaDescriptiveStudy malaria transmission in Akaki town, at 2110 m altitude; parasitaemia prevalence; malaria/mosquito species frequencyParasitaemia
malaria 29435 [[7]]MalariaEthiopiaDescriptiveStudy malaria transmission in Akaki town, at 2110 m altitude; parasitaemia prevalence; malaria /mosquito species frequencyParasitaemia in 3.7% of 2136 blood films/3 months (69% vivax, 31% falciparum),
malaria 30160 extra breeding sites during rainy season.Address vulnerability of highland population of short period malaria transmission and associated epidemics. Apply sustainable and integrated vector control (breeding sites)/case
malaria 30451 [[56]]MalariaNigeriaDescriptive, modelling, spatialCorrelation of An. gambiae entomological inoculation rate (EIR) and malaria prevalence and incidence rates in various ecozonesMan-biting rate high (6.9) in mangrove coastal water,
malaria 30862 across different eco-vegetational zones of Bayelsa State.Authors propose EIR is a more direct measure of malaria transmission intensity, compared to PR or IR alone.Methods unclear whether any malaria species or FM
malaria 30949 direct measure of malaria transmission intensity, compared to PR or IR alone.Methods unclear whether any malaria species or FM only.EIR not suitable for inter-age/population comparisons, due to variable factors such
malaria 32104 climate, economic, social and political changes to Sudanese capital in recent decades.Need for improved malaria control to reflect increasing urbanization and changing malaria epidemiology in Africa.Aim for sustained
malaria 32168 in recent decades.Need for improved malaria control to reflect increasing urbanization and changing malaria epidemiology in Africa.Aim for sustained decrease in malaria morbidity and mortality from epidemics.IGIvan
malaria 32229 reflect increasing urbanization and changing malaria epidemiology in Africa.Aim for sustained decrease in malaria morbidity and mortality from epidemics.IGIvan et al., 2012 [[51]]Malaria and helminth co-infection (HIV
malaria 33690 children.Only passive follow-up for febrile illness as possible source of bias (non-attendance, or longterm anti malaria l treatment).Investigate pathophysiology of multiplicity infections: frequently found in asymptomatic
malaria 34440 data collection in temporary breeding sites.Small-scale mapping or prediction models to make urban malaria control in Africa more effective.NRSissoko et al., 2015 [[48]]MalariaMaliDescriptive, modelling, spatialPrevalence
malaria 34581 effective.NRSissoko et al., 2015 [[48]]MalariaMaliDescriptive, modelling, spatialPrevalence of (a)symptomatic malaria /mosquito in 2 areas with different trans-mission/vector distributionAnopheles density/malaria parasitaemia
malaria 34675 (a)symptomatic malaria/mosquito in 2 areas with different trans-mission/vector distributionAnopheles density/ malaria parasitaemia spatial clusters observed in dry season, sometimes associated; but high Anopheles density
malaria 34928 the hotspots.Mosquito density and parasitaemia spatial clusters in small villages (low or mesoendemic malaria transmission), best detected during dry season.Study areas fairly small and mosquitoes possibly outreaching
malaria 35720 variation increasing vector abundance with increasing temperature 14 days after rainfall; in P. falciparum malaria infection incidence.Model of parasitological data in children ≤5 years, while entire population contributing
malaria 35843 incidence.Model of parasitological data in children ≤5 years, while entire population contributing to malaria transmission.Local-scale FM prediction beneficial to guide control; incidence depends on daily vector
malaria 36106 targets of control measures.IG, NGOASIADev et al., 2004 [[54]]MalariaIndiaDescriptiveFever surveys for malaria incidence and risk factors: distance-breeding sites, healthcare facility (IR/RR); vector EIR and weather
malaria 36410 streams and foothills/forest areas; lower in areas < 5 km to nearest healthcare facility. EIR and % malaria among fever cases not correlated.Areas with low-to-moderate EIR could reduce malaria significantly by
malaria 36495 facility. EIR and % malaria among fever cases not correlated.Areas with low-to-moderate EIR could reduce malaria significantly by using campaigns and other tools in combination with GIS methods to target intervention
malaria 36870 promoting parasite development in vector).Health planners and policy makers to consider characteristics of malaria transmission and risk factors in vaccine trials and other, newer approaches for malaria control in this
malaria 36958 characteristics of malaria transmission and risk factors in vaccine trials and other, newer approaches for malaria control in this part of the world.NRDhiman et al., 2013 [[47]]MalariaIndiaDescriptiveImpact of altitude
malaria 37081 part of the world.NRDhiman et al., 2013 [[47]]MalariaIndiaDescriptiveImpact of altitude on monthly malaria incidence and vector density↗ temperature coinciding with peak malaria incidence. Malaria transmission
malaria 37154 [[47]]MalariaIndiaDescriptiveImpact of altitude on monthly malaria incidence and vector density↗ temperature coinciding with peak malaria incidence. Malaria transmission window decreased by 1 month with 400 m increase in altitude.Reduced
malaria 37515 cross-sectional study of parasitaemia population).Highland urban areas to be considered vulnerable for malaria transmission, especially due to environmental changes.NRLee et al., 2009 [[53]]MalariaSingaporeDescriptiveMalaria
malaria 37840 incidence ranged from 3 to 11 per 100 000 population, with deaths in 92% due to FM, and 8% vivax malaria , and a sharp decline after 1997.One P. knowlesi outbreak.> 90% of cases imported from other Asian
malaria 38079 associated with larger outbreaks in relapsing P. vivax cases.Medical practitioners to highlight risk of malaria to travellers visiting endemic areas and also to consider possibility of simian malaria.Singapore vulnerable
malaria 38167 highlight risk of malaria to travellers visiting endemic areas and also to consider possibility of simian malaria .Singapore vulnerable to reintroduction of malaria, requiring high vigilance (e.g. screening; educating
malaria 38217 areas and also to consider possibility of simian malaria.Singapore vulnerable to reintroduction of malaria , requiring high vigilance (e.g. screening; educating on prophylaxis). Consider simian malaria if no
malaria 38311 reintroduction of malaria, requiring high vigilance (e.g. screening; educating on prophylaxis). Consider simian malaria if no travel history.NRZhang et al., 2012 [[55]]MalariaChinaDescriptive, modelling, spatialTime series
malaria 38454 al., 2012 [[55]]MalariaChinaDescriptive, modelling, spatialTime series regression of 2006–2010 vivax malaria , vector density, weather variables.Strong seasonal pattern; peak during 2nd half of year; visual spatial
malaria 38737 lag); previous month’s incidence.Increasing An. sinensis density likely to contribute only little to malaria incidence in low transmission areas.Predictive model does not account for human interventions since
malaria 39085 control efforts according to incidence.NGZhao et al., 2013 [[52]]MalariaChinaDescriptiveEpidemiology of malaria in Ningbo city. Data from case and vector surveillance, local weather and 2008 outbreak analysis95%
malaria 39222 case and vector surveillance, local weather and 2008 outbreak analysis95% of cases were imported vivax malaria from domestic endemic areas, leading to limited local transmission, determined by An. sinensis vector
malaria 39425 vector density.Domestic endemic areas are important source for limited, local transmission of vivax malaria .Strengthen monitoring for imported malaria, ensure timely diagnosis/treatment.No data on floating population
malaria 39468 important source for limited, local transmission of vivax malaria.Strengthen monitoring for imported malaria , ensure timely diagnosis/treatment.No data on floating population (might have significant impact on
malaria 39760 female An. sinensis.Future studies to determine impact of floating population on dynamics of local malaria incidence.Focus on timely case detection, diagnosis and treatment.NRAMERICASGirod et al., 2011 [[58]]MalariaFrench
malaria 39908 detection, diagnosis and treatment.NRAMERICASGirod et al., 2011 [[58]]MalariaFrench GuianaDescriptiveExplore malaria vectors and associated transmission dynamicsAn. darlingi density high at (though variable between) 3
malaria 40152 Plasmodium positive and none at the village with highest rates of human cases.Variable relationships between malaria incidence, An. darling density, rainfall, and nearest river water levels.Low numbers of infectedAn.
malaria 40577 [[57]]MalariaVenezuelaDescriptive/ longitudinal studyDetermine anopheline mosquito characteristics and climate factors/ malaria incidence (prevalence)Transmission throughout the year, with malaria prevalence between 12.5 to 21.4
malaria 40646 characteristics and climate factors/ malaria incidence (prevalence)Transmission throughout the year, with malaria prevalence between 12.5 to 21.4 per 1000 population; An. darlingii and An. marajoara important vectors,
malaria 41083 behaviour in villages located in forested areas.To identify bionomics of Anopheles species relevant to malaria transmission in Venezuela for planning and implementing vector control programs.NG, IGOther diseasesLeishmaniasisCamargo-Neves,
malaria 48800 YFV/other arboviruses;Promote YF vaccinationin endemic areas and mosquito control for both arboviruses and malaria .NGOVasconcelos et al., 2001 [[72]]YFBrazilOutbreak studyYF outbreaks in Goias and Bahia states, 200077
malaria 52172 organizationGIS: Geographic information system; IR: Incidence rate; RR: Risk Ratio; FM: Falciparum malaria ; ART: Antiretroviral therapy; NR: Not reported; NG: Non Governmental; IG: International Government;
malaria 53405 spatial (30%) or dynamic (15%) modeling, followed by one third (20% and 13%, respectively) on studies on malaria .. The remainder of malaria research included mostly cross-sectional (n = 4; 27%) and cohort studies
malaria 53432 modeling, followed by one third (20% and 13%, respectively) on studies on malaria.. The remainder of malaria research included mostly cross-sectional (n = 4; 27%) and cohort studies (n = 6; 40%). Studies
malaria 54306 Similar315%213%320%816%Methods applied in n = 50 quantitative descriptive studies in numbers and %, for dengue, malaria and other pathogens (some studies employ more than one different study method)We applied the MMAT to
malaria 54781 approximately 65% of studies on dengue and other pathogens, but to a lesser degree (n = 4, 27%) in malaria work. Representation of the population under study was also better addressed in studies on dengue and
malaria 54928 under study was also better addressed in studies on dengue and other pathogens (around 70%) than in malaria studies (n = 6; 40%). Appropriate measurement was captured well in both dengue and malaria studies
malaria 55022 than in malaria studies (n = 6; 40%). Appropriate measurement was captured well in both dengue and malaria studies (n = 17, 85% and, n = 13; 87%, respectively). Response rate (where appropriate) was clearly
malaria 55544 the extraction.Fig. 4Quality of studies according to modified MMAT tool in numbers (%), for dengue, malaria and other pathogensDescription of findings of the scoping reviewDengue transmission dynamics and vectorial
malaria 62052 seroprevalence in each population [[37]].Malaria transmission dynamics and vectorial capacity studiesThe malaria research retrieved was mostly conducted in the African region, where yearly estimates indicate to be
malaria 62183 mostly conducted in the African region, where yearly estimates indicate to be the highest burden of malaria cases (191 million cases in WHO African Region vs. 21 million in other parts of the world) and deaths;
malaria 62579 regions [[45]], further aggravating the impact of the disease on populations and economies.Incidence of malaria cases or infectionThere has been controversy about a potential expansion of malaria from rural areas
malaria 62663 economies.Incidence of malaria cases or infectionThere has been controversy about a potential expansion of malaria from rural areas into cities. Research evidence suggests increased malaria risk to urban dwellers, and
malaria 62738 a potential expansion of malaria from rural areas into cities. Research evidence suggests increased malaria risk to urban dwellers, and transmission in urban and periurban setting [[46]]. In the studies selected
malaria 63701 [[50]] found a protective effect in children infected by multiple, genetically different Pl. falciparum malaria parasite co-infections. Further, there was a protective effect against episodes of febrile illness during
malaria 64132 phenomenon, in particular the effects on the host in chronic infections [[50]]. Another group studied malaria and helminth dual infections among pregnant women with HIV infections on treatment for > 1 year.
malaria 64550 effects of co-infection on anemia, which is a consequence of each of these three types of infection ( malaria , helminths, HIV).Mobility of human populations as a source of outbreaks and/or disease persistenceZhao
malaria 64686 human populations as a source of outbreaks and/or disease persistenceZhao et al. [[52]] found most malaria cases in Ningbo City, China, to be caused by Pl. vivax imported from domestic endemic areas, leading
malaria 64942 sinensis. The authors suggested that more research was needed on the role of floating populations in local malaria transmission [[52]]. Migration and travel were also identified as important risk factors for malaria
malaria 65043 malaria transmission [[52]]. Migration and travel were also identified as important risk factors for malaria re-introduction in Singapore, evidenced by an analysis of 25-year reporting data. The authors advocated
malaria 65268 screening, education, and good case management. Finally, they suggested that also simian Plasmodium knowlesi malaria would need to be considered as a possible source of fever in their study population [[53]].Vectorial
malaria 65407 a possible source of fever in their study population [[53]].Vectorial capacity and the incidence of malaria infection or diseaseSeveral studies demonstrated changes in vector composition according to geography
malaria 65688 [55]]. There was diversity among studies on the correlation between entomological parameters and human malaria . The EIR as indicator for transmission was found to correlate with clinical prevalence and incidence
malaria 65854 correlate with clinical prevalence and incidence data in Nigeria [[56]], similar to Anopheles density and malaria cases in Ningbo, China [[52]]. An important factor for malaria transmission in forested villages in
malaria 65917 [[56]], similar to Anopheles density and malaria cases in Ningbo, China [[52]]. An important factor for malaria transmission in forested villages in Venezuela was the presence of mosquito species displaying predominantly
malaria 66146 (outdoor) biting behaviour [[57]].In contrast, no correlation was found between EIR and percentage of malaria among reported fever cases in India [[54]], nor between Anopheles density and human case rates in French
malaria 66842 peak rainfall [[60]]. In northwest China, monthly An. sinensis vector density (relevant for Pl. vivax malaria transmission) was strongly correlated not only with temperature (R = 0.958, P < 0.001), but
malaria 67196 average maximum and minimum temperatures (at 1 month lag) and rainfall (10-week lag) in Ethiopia had malaria incidence risk ratios of 1.4 (for maximum temperature), 1.3 (for minimum temperature), and 1.0 (for
malaria 67349 temperature), 1.3 (for minimum temperature), and 1.0 (for rainfall) [[49]]. Zhang et al. (2012) showed malaria epidemiology in China to have strong spatial associations with average temperature. They proposed optimizing
malaria 67627 low-transmission areas [[55]].Other environmental factors, geography, and complexity of urban setting influencing malaria infection or diseasePeterson et al. (2009) identified not only proximity to a large Anopheles breeding
malaria 67840 site as a source of increased transmission, but also poor housing as a further important risk factor ( malaria incidence risk ratio = 2.0) in Adama, Ethiopia [[49]]. Similar observations were made in semi-arid
malaria 68143 areas than in suburban higher-income areas of Khartoum [[59]].Certain ecological areas show higher malaria transmission than others. In Nigeria, transmission rates (MBR and EIR) were higher near mangrove coastal
malaria 68518 [[49], [54], [59]].Further, changes to ecology and climate were considered to be causing increasing malaria transmission in urbanized highland areas of Africa and Asia [[7], [47]]. Capable Anopheles vectors and
malaria 68640 in urbanized highland areas of Africa and Asia [[7], [47]]. Capable Anopheles vectors and short-term malaria transmission were observed during the rainy season (due to short-term extra breeding sites) in Ethiopia,
malaria 73367 authors proposed using rodent density and rainfall as ecological risk indicators.DiscussionDengue and malaria studies constituted the largest groups of published research in our review—dengue predominantly in
malaria 73503 largest groups of published research in our review—dengue predominantly in Asia and the Americas, and malaria in Africa. Dengue has the highest burden and vectors capable of transmitting in urban and peri-urban
malaria 73703 peri-urban areas of these regions. The urbanization of the population in Africa has also reflected in malaria transmission that can be currently considered an urban problem [[77]]. Despite being different pathogens
malaria 74382 recent studies) promoting vector abundance and associated disease incidence. Since the beginning of 1900 malaria research employed the theory of Ross-MacDonald for the dynamics and control of mosquito-transmitted
malaria 76648 Harmonization of syndrome-based protocols would increase the effectiveness of such efforts.Similarly, malaria has been studied largely in conventional frameworks. In some studies, quality was very basic: questionable
malaria 77396 asymptomatic infections, especially among floating populations.Discussing other infections than dengue and malaria , we detected recommendations on specific surveillance and control measures that were included in most
malaria 80452 which did not report the relevant sampling strategy. Compared to the studies on other pathogens, the malaria studies were less representative of true population (therefore producing less generalizable results),
malaria 82249 another limiting factor was that only two studies reported on co-infections, and both of those addressed malaria . This is concerning in view of how little is known about this phenomenon, the immunological mechanisms
malaria 83917 between outbreak onset and response.3. Asymptomatic individuals contribute to persistence of dengue and malaria transmission, reinforcing the need for population screening (e.g. biological marker laboratory testing
plague 1711 other parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis, and bacterial rickettsiosis and plague . Most articles retrieved in our review combined transmission dynamics and vectorial capacity; only two
plague 13183 virus (n = 2), yellow fever (n = 2), and Ross River virus (n = 1); and two bacterial diseases: plague (n = 1) and rickettsiosis (n = 1) (Table 1). Two studies reported on co-infections, one on multiple
plague 50325 disease burden.NRPlaguePham et al., 2009 [[76]]PlagueVietnamEcologicalEnvironmental factors and human plague in Vietnam central highland plateau, 1997–2002 (risk ratio)472 plague cases; 4 main flee and 3 rodent
plague 50397 [[76]]PlagueVietnamEcologicalEnvironmental factors and human plague in Vietnam central highland plateau, 1997–2002 (risk ratio)472 plague cases; 4 main flee and 3 rodent species. Increasing risk during dry and hot months; decreasing rainfall;
plague 50637 index/rodent density.Flea index, rodent density, and rainfall could be used as ecological indicators of plague risk in Vietnam’s central highlands plateau.No wider animal sampling; hence, collected rodents in
plague 50962 outbreaks likely due to multiple ecological factors linked to classical reservoir and vector of bubonic plague ; further research warranted.NGRickettsiaSouza et al., 2015 [[75]]Brazilian spotted fever (BSF)BrazilCase-controlled
plague 73147 studied included tick-transmitted Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) in Brazil [[75]] and human bubonic plague in the Vietnam Central Highland plateau [[76]], for which multiple ecological factors were identified,
plague 77746 Chagas’ disease [[66], [67]], and arboviruses (West Nile Virus [[68], [69]], Chikungunya [[71]]), and plague [[76]]. Also, the need of targeted surveillance and interventions focusing on important animal reservoirs
plague 78007 West Nile Virus (clustering of dead birds) [[68]], Ross River Virus (abundance of house mice), and plague /BSF (rodents) [[75], [76]]. The importance of increasing such measures specifically in urban and periurban
plague 81136 of other pathogens included (e.g. Leishmaniasis, West Nile Virus, Yellow Fever, Ross River virus and plague ) rely on non-human host species, such non-human primates, dogs, rodents or birds. Presence of those
spotted fever 51044 vector of bubonic plague; further research warranted.NGRickettsiaSouza et al., 2015 [[75]]Brazilian spotted fever (BSF)BrazilCase-controlled multivariate regressionRisk factors associated with BSF, 2003–2013, Piracicaba
spotted fever 73092 interventions to control the disease [[74]].Bacterial diseases studied included tick-transmitted Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) in Brazil [[75]] and human bubonic plague in the Vietnam Central Highland plateau [[76]], for
trypanosomiasis 1662 covered included chikungunya and West Nile virus, other parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis , and bacterial rickettsiosis and plague. Most articles retrieved in our review combined transmission
trypanosomiasis 5658 Zika have resulted in serious epidemics in these regions [[10], [11]]. Other VBDs, such as American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), leishmaniasis, and filariasis, have affected hundreds of millions of people globally
visceral leishmaniasis 70095 on leishmaniasis: two on cutaneous leishmaniasis (in Argentina and Brazil) [[62], [63]] and two on visceral leishmaniasis (in Brazil and Nepal) [[64], [65]]. Agricultural male workers were identified as a risk group; further
yellow fever 5224 virus transmitted through Aedes mosquitoes, threatens a half-billion people globally [[8]]. Unlike yellow fever , where sylvatic (forest) mosquito species and non-human primate reservoirs play a critical role in the
yellow fever 13097 and Chagas disease (n = 2); other arboviruses: chikungunya (n = 2), West Nile virus (n = 2), yellow fever (n = 2), and Ross River virus (n = 1); and two bacterial diseases: plague (n = 1) and rickettsiosis
yellow fever 72245 the need for effective disease surveillance to prevent outbreaks.In Brazil, researchers identified a yellow fever transmission link to tourism and occupational exposure (agricultural workers, carpenters, fishermen,
yellow fever 72548 Sudan, drought, migration, and the lack of diagnostic capabilities or adequate response contributed to a yellow fever outbreak where there was concurrent transmission of chikungunya [[73]].Influence of disease ecology

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