Yarrowia lipolytica: a beneficious yeast in biotechnology as a rare opportunistic fungal pathogen: a minireview

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
Ketoconazole 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
fluconazole 9 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
Voriconazole 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
abscess 2 infectiousdiseases
candidemia 2 infectiousdiseases
candidiasis 2 infectiousdiseases
flucytosine 4 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
Caspofungin 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
Itraconazole 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
Nystatin 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
tuberculosis 1 infectiousdiseases

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

Note: If this graph is empty, then there are no terms that meet the proximity constraint.

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Caspofungin 19512 lanosterol in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway (Ghannoum and Rice [29]). Echinocandins (Anidulafungin, Caspofungin and Micafungin) are inhibitors of glucan synthesis in the cell wall (Ghannoum and Rice [29]). Another
Caspofungin 22463 antifungalsKetoconazole1334––11Fluconazole123141512584> 6451Itraconazole1217163130.5234Posaconazole1331254130.5432Voriconazole119952440.064235EchinocandinsAnidulafungin375621––24 Caspofungin 11712910.250.531Micafungin12885––24Others5-Fluorocytosine13436––17*MIC50 and MIC90 values were
Itraconazole 19331 group of antifungal agents. The most common in clinical use are triazoles, such as Fluconazole and Itraconazole . Mechanism of their action is to inhibit 14a-demethylation of lanosterol in the ergosterol biosynthetic
Itraconazole 22341 antifungalsAmphotericin B722196411259Azole antifungalsKetoconazole1334––11Fluconazole123141512584> 6451 Itraconazole 1217163130.5234Posaconazole1331254130.5432Voriconazole119952440.064235EchinocandinsAnidulafungin375621––24Caspofungin11712910.250.531Micafungin12885––24Others5-Fluorocytosine13436––17*MIC50
Ketoconazole 22286 ofMIC50*MIC90*Observations0.0080.0160.0320.0640.1250.250.512481632≥ 64Polyene antifungalsAmphotericin B722196411259Azole antifungals Ketoconazole 1334––11Fluconazole123141512584> 6451Itraconazole1217163130.5234Posaconazole1331254130.5432Voriconazole119952440.064235EchinocandinsAnidulafungin375621––24Caspofungin11712910.250.531Micafungin12885––24Others5-Fluorocytosine13436––17*MIC50
Nystatin 18987 following classes: polyenes, azoles, echinocandins, and others. Polyenes, such as Amphotericin B and Nystatin bind to sterols in the cell membrane, mainly ergosterol, which causes disruption of the cell membrane
Voriconazole 22395 antifungalsKetoconazole1334––11Fluconazole123141512584> 6451Itraconazole1217163130.5234Posaconazole1331254130.5432 Voriconazole 119952440.064235EchinocandinsAnidulafungin375621––24Caspofungin11712910.250.531Micafungin12885––24Others5-Fluorocytosine13436––17*MIC50
fluconazole 11869 et al. ([18]), Özdemir et al. ([58]) and Trabelsi et al. ([70]). Predominantly amphotericin B and fluconazole were used to cure the patents, which 42.73% (n = 47) were cleared, and 32 (29.09%) patients died.Virulence
fluconazole 21414 clinical significance of that yeast species is uncertain and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fluconazole is higher than MIC obtained for C. albicans (Arendrup et al. [3]). MIC distribution of Yarrowia lipolytica
fluconazole 22927 of < 4 µg/ml to flucytosine and susceptibility to azoles was more diverse, where MIC values for fluconazole were highest. Diekema et al. ([20]) examined the susceptibility of 658 clinical isolates of rare species
fluconazole 23119 isolates of rare species of Candida yeasts (including 16 strains of Y. lipolytica) to amphotericin, fluconazole , posaconazole, voriconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin. Echinocandins and voriconazole
fluconazole 23419 not higher than 2 µg/ml, but most of the tested strains were not susceptible to amphotericin B and fluconazole .Barchiesi et al. ([4]) compared in vitro activity of five antifungals (fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole,
fluconazole 23502 amphotericin B and fluconazole.Barchiesi et al. ([4]) compared in vitro activity of five antifungals ( fluconazole , itraconazole, ketoconazole, flucytosine and amphotericin B) against uncommon clinical isolates of Candida
fluconazole 23796 agents. Among the tested strains authors identified a strain of Y. lipolytica, with low susceptible to fluconazole and also that strain was cross-resistant to ketoconazole and itraconazole. Sixty-seven percent of Y.
fluconazole 24213 show that voriconazole, caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin may be better treatment options than fluconazole or 5-fluorocytosine. Results show also a phenomenon of increasing resistance to azoles. Mechanism of
fluconazole 27113 in the literature strains of Y. lipolytica differed in susceptibility to antifungal agents, mainly fluconazole and other azoles were investigated. In some cases mentioned in the review, infections were resolved
flucytosine 22847 isolates showed low MICs to echinocandins and amphotericin B, 4 isolates had MICs of < 4 µg/ml to flucytosine and susceptibility to azoles was more diverse, where MIC values for fluconazole were highest. Diekema
flucytosine 23543 al. ([4]) compared in vitro activity of five antifungals (fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, flucytosine and amphotericin B) against uncommon clinical isolates of Candida spp. Results showed that strains differ
flucytosine 23989 Sixty-seven percent of Y. lipolytica strains have been defined as isolates with reduced susceptibility to flucytosine , therefore that antifungal agent is rarely used in monotherapy of fungal infections.The studies quoted
flucytosine 25882 the fact that mutations in cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase lead to defects in flucytosine metabolism what result in resistance to that antifungal drug (Ghannoum and Rice [29]). Mechanisms of
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
abscess 10321 clinical specimens such as: breast tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, duodenal mass, intraabdominal abscess , mesenteric mass, sinus aspirate, vagina and stool. When analysing the characteristics of patients in
abscess 16023 survived 14 days of experiment. Mouse which received the highest inoculum of Y. lipolytica had two abscess es in the left kidney and in the culture with kidney tissue that yeasts were present. Other tissues (brain,
candidemia 11450 the most usually identified disease entity was fungemia (51%) or both: fungemia and catheter-related candidemia (20%). Only one case of granuloma, cutaneous infection, vaginal colonization, ocular candidiasis and
candidemia 20208 vein catheter in conjunction with an antifungal drug was the best way in treatment of catheter-related candidemia . On the other hand, sometimes catheter could not be removed due to patient’s condition or type of
candidiasis 7019 Yarrowia lipolyticaFirst Y. lipolytica (C. lipolytica) infection was reported in 1976 and it was ocular candidiasis (Nitzulescu and Niculescu [55]). Then in 1985 there was evidenced the first case of fungemia caused
candidiasis 11546 catheter-related candidemia (20%). Only one case of granuloma, cutaneous infection, vaginal colonization, ocular candidiasis and acute keratitis were described. Noteworthy, commonly the patients have catheter (88%, n = 82),
tuberculosis 10747 Candida species (n = 5), staphylococci (n = 4), streptococci (n = 2), E. coli (n = 2), M. tuberculosis (n = 2) and some other individual species were isolated together with Y. lipolytica colonies. In

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