Mumps in the Vaccination Age: Global Epidemiology and the Situation in Germany

Existing Reviews

Please note, new claims can take a short while to show up.

No claims yet.

Annotation Summary

Term Occurence Count Dictionary
measles 4 infectiousdiseases
meningitis 11 infectiousdiseases
mumps 59 infectiousdiseases
rubella 4 infectiousdiseases

There are not enough annotations found in this document to create the proximity graph.

Review

Having read the paper, please pick a pair of statements from the paper to indicate that a drug and disease are related.

Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
measles 604 (epub): 7/2018Publication date (ppub): 8/2018AbstractVaccination against mumps virus (MuV) (mostly measles -mumps-rubella) is routinely performed in more than 120 countries and has resulted in a distinct decrease
measles 6087 because the binding sites of the antibodies are very similar.3. Vaccination against the MuVCommonly, the measles -mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) is used for vaccination. Before initiation of a vaccine program in the UK,
measles 7692 vaccination in Germany is that children entering kindergarten or school will be fully vaccinated against measles .Current vaccine schedules valid for countries of the European Union are available from the European
measles 26092 as Western Germany.ijerph-15-01618-t001_Table 1Table 1Measles, mumps, rubella (German pox) (MMR) and measles , mumps, rubella, varicella (chicken pox) vaccines (MMRV) available in Germany.NameManufacturerVirusesMumps
meningitis 2386 glands, resulting in painful swelling of one or both parotic glands. Complicated courses may result in meningitis , encephalitis, pancreatitis, and hearing defects. Female patients may also develop oophoritis, while
meningitis 9574 strain of JL (e.g., RIT4385). The manufacturers argue that these strains cause lower rates of aseptic meningitis , the major side effect of mumps vaccine. Indeed, an association of mumps vaccine strains other than
meningitis 9699 side effect of mumps vaccine. Indeed, an association of mumps vaccine strains other than JL to aseptic meningitis recently has been described [[19]].Variations in amino-acid sequences of MuV proteins have been discussed
meningitis 9855 in amino-acid sequences of MuV proteins have been discussed to facilitate the formation of aseptic meningitis . However, there was no association of certain polymorphisms in the NH and the SH gene with the development
meningitis 10104 two Brazilian studies the number of doses of Leningrad-Zagreb strain applied per one case of aseptic meningitis ranged from 3390 to 19,247 [[21],[22]]. In Slovenia two cases of aseptic meningitis occurred after having
meningitis 10188 case of aseptic meningitis ranged from 3390 to 19,247 [[21],[22]]. In Slovenia two cases of aseptic meningitis occurred after having applied 100,000 doses Leningrad-Zagreb vaccine (one case per 50,000 vaccinations)
meningitis 10438 markedly higher (90 cases/100,000 doses or one case per 1111 vaccinations) [[11]]. By contrast, aseptic meningitis was not observed in 453,119 Egyptian children after receiving MMR vaccine containing Leningrad-Zagreb
meningitis 10596 after receiving MMR vaccine containing Leningrad-Zagreb MuV [[23]]. In Slovenia, the rate of aseptic meningitis was estimated to be 20–100 cases after receiving 100,000 doses Leningrad-3 vaccine [[11]].The rate
meningitis 10719 estimated to be 20–100 cases after receiving 100,000 doses Leningrad-3 vaccine [[11]].The rate of aseptic meningitis was 0.1–1 case per 100,000 doses of the JL strain and, therefore, lower than those after applying
meningitis 11173 approval of these strains by the corresponding authorities is comprehensible, since the course of aseptic meningitis after vaccination is usually mild and VE seems to be similar to that of the JL strain [[24]].However,
meningitis 11315 mild and VE seems to be similar to that of the JL strain [[24]].However, due to high rates of aseptic meningitis , the approval of vaccines containing the Urabe strain was withdrawn in several countries and in 2015
mumps 578 Ingolstadt, GermanyPublication date (epub): 7/2018Publication date (ppub): 8/2018AbstractVaccination against mumps virus (MuV) (mostly measles-mumps-rubella) is routinely performed in more than 120 countries and has
mumps 612 7/2018Publication date (ppub): 8/2018AbstractVaccination against mumps virus (MuV) (mostly measles- mumps -rubella) is routinely performed in more than 120 countries and has resulted in a distinct decrease of
mumps 720 measles-mumps-rubella) is routinely performed in more than 120 countries and has resulted in a distinct decrease of mumps incidence. However, alteration of mumps epidemiology has been observed in several countries after implementation
mumps 760 than 120 countries and has resulted in a distinct decrease of mumps incidence. However, alteration of mumps epidemiology has been observed in several countries after implementation of the vaccine but is sparsely
mumps 1030 vaccination, even in highly vaccinated populations. In the former German Democratic Republic (DDR) mumps was a notifiable disease but vaccination against mumps was not implemented. In the five eastern German
mumps 1085 the former German Democratic Republic (DDR) mumps was a notifiable disease but vaccination against mumps was not implemented. In the five eastern German states forming the DDR until 1990, mumps was not notifiable
mumps 1174 vaccination against mumps was not implemented. In the five eastern German states forming the DDR until 1990, mumps was not notifiable until 2001. Except for the lack of reporting between 1990–2000, data from Eastern
mumps 1309 2001. Except for the lack of reporting between 1990–2000, data from Eastern Germany allow analysis of mumps epidemiology after initiating the vaccination campaign. For the period from 2001 to 2016 the data show
mumps 1440 initiating the vaccination campaign. For the period from 2001 to 2016 the data show that the incidence of mumps dropped notably after initiating vaccines, and was accompanied by an increase of the median age of patients
mumps 1559 notably after initiating vaccines, and was accompanied by an increase of the median age of patients with mumps . In Eastern Germany, no outbreaks were noted, while several outbreaks occurred in Western Germany, possibly
mumps 2072 populations, high rates of complicated courses occurred and were marked by orchitis, due to higher age of mumps patients. Therefore, refusing vaccination against mumps increases the risk of severe courses when living
mumps 2128 were marked by orchitis, due to higher age of mumps patients. Therefore, refusing vaccination against mumps increases the risk of severe courses when living in a vaccinated population.1. IntroductionMumps is
mumps 2631 orchitis.Like other childhood diseases, the severity of the disease increases with age. About one third of mumps virus (MuV) infections are asymptomatic [[1]] and small children often exhibit no symptoms [[2]]. Males
mumps 3288 tenacious virus particle and has a low transmission factor. Before vaccination was available, incidence of mumps was 100–1000 pro 100,000 persons per year, exhibiting epidemic peaks every 2–5 years. In the temperate
mumps 3902 proteins [[6]]. The core of the MuV is surrounded by an envelope (Figure 1). A glycoprotein called mumps hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and the fusion protein (F) decorate the envelope and form spikes visible
mumps 4198 only those targeting NH mediate protection [[9]].When comparing the nucleotide sequences of various mumps viruses, the sequence of the small hydrophobic protein (SH) shows highest diversity. Therefore, nucleotide
mumps 6095 binding sites of the antibodies are very similar.3. Vaccination against the MuVCommonly, the measles- mumps -rubella vaccine (MMR) is used for vaccination. Before initiation of a vaccine program in the UK, Anderson
mumps 6268 a vaccine program in the UK, Anderson et al. calculated that a vaccination rate of 60% will change mumps epidemiology extensively [[3]]. The incidence would be reduced and the period between epidemic peaks
mumps 6415 incidence would be reduced and the period between epidemic peaks would be increased. The total number of mumps related case complications was predicted to decrease, while the number of patients suffering from mumps
mumps 6519 mumps related case complications was predicted to decrease, while the number of patients suffering from mumps orchitis was expected to rise [[3]].Mumps vaccine had been introduced nationwide in 121 countries belonging
mumps 7896 European Centers for Disease Control (ECDC) website [[15]].As predicted by Anderson et al., incidence of mumps markedly decreased after vaccination campaigns had been started [[3]]. Unfortunately, after initiating
mumps 8027 vaccination campaigns had been started [[3]]. Unfortunately, after initiating vaccination campaign, mumps surveillance was performed only in a few countries. In the USA a 97% decrease was observed between 1968–1982
mumps 8865 Leningrad-Zagreb. Except for Rubini, all strains are recommended by the WHO for vaccination against mumps . The Rubini strain was excluded because of insufficient vaccine effectiveness. This is shown in a review
mumps 9611 manufacturers argue that these strains cause lower rates of aseptic meningitis, the major side effect of mumps vaccine. Indeed, an association of mumps vaccine strains other than JL to aseptic meningitis recently
mumps 9652 lower rates of aseptic meningitis, the major side effect of mumps vaccine. Indeed, an association of mumps vaccine strains other than JL to aseptic meningitis recently has been described [[19]].Variations in
mumps 11996 of Germany pays the costs resulting from side effects of a vaccination. In Germany vaccines against mumps are available as the MMR and the MMR varicella (MMRV) vaccine (Table 1). In comparison to MMR, the MMRV
mumps 14128 Outbreaks in the Vaccination AgeAfter vaccination campaigns had been initiated in various populations, mumps outbreaks occurred. Although excluded by the results of a German study [[38]], most authors identified
mumps 15293 prevent mismatch of wild-type and vaccine strains, consideration whether the application of a polyclonal mumps vaccine to overcome that problem was discussed [[54]]. The importance of a genetic match of vaccine
mumps 16951 text for hours in a crowded environment [[61]].In a period without an outbreak, effectiveness of the mumps vaccine is estimated up to 100%. As shown in Figure 2, even in an outbreak situation vaccine protects
mumps 18071 joined the Federal Republic of Germany (BRD) on the western territory. In the BRD vaccination against mumps was started in 1976. Mumps is a notifiable disease since 2013. Therefore, data about the situation in
mumps 18228 since 2013. Therefore, data about the situation in the Western part of Germany are rare. In the DDR mumps had been a notifiable disease since 1964 but after joining BRD reporting obligation was abolished. In
mumps 18831 campaign on the epidemiologic situation. The reported data in the DDR displayed the cyclic course of mumps incidence. The lowest incidence was observed in 1986 (155 infections/100,000 inhabitants) and the highest
mumps 19168 decreased. In 2016, 0.62 infections/100,000 inhabitants were noticed.Figure 3 shows the incidence of mumps basing on reporting obligation data in Eastern (2010–2016) and Western Germany (2013–2016). Data
mumps 19912 has far reaching implications on herd immunity. As shown by Figure 3c percentage of male and female mumps patients was similar in both parts of the countries and most infections were noticed the cold seasons
mumps 20136 2002 the median age of infected patients in Eastern Germany was 11 years. In 2016, the median age of mumps patients in that region was 33 years (Figure 4). As vaccination against mumps had been initiated only
mumps 20214 2016, the median age of mumps patients in that region was 33 years (Figure 4). As vaccination against mumps had been initiated only eleven years earlier, this is, to the best of our knowledge, the first proof
mumps 20340 only eleven years earlier, this is, to the best of our knowledge, the first proof that initiation of mumps vaccination increases the age of affected patients in a population in which no outbreaks had occurred.
mumps 20475 of affected patients in a population in which no outbreaks had occurred. In 2016 the median age of mumps infected individuals in Western Germany (25 years) was markedly lower than in Eastern Germany (33 years).
mumps 21319 daily papers. Apart from notifications to the health authority, information about the incidence of mumps , summarizing the outcome of laboratory tests were published in the German Reference Center for Measles,
mumps 21564 RKI. The NRC MMR receives patients’ samples from physicians and public health agencies to confirm mumps diagnosis. From 2008 to 2013 samples from 534 patients had been submitted and MuV infection was confirmed
mumps 22294 and Lower Saxony were observed [[77]].6. ConclusionsThe present study shows that vaccination against mumps was successful in reducing its incidence, although outbreaks occurred in various countries and eradication
mumps 22601 divergences of vaccine and wild-type strains are a matter of discussion.In Germany, vaccination against mumps resulted in a marked decrease in incidence. In Western Germany, incidence was higher due to local/regional
mumps 23349 limited the authors feel that application of a third dose to adolescents might be appropriate to prevent mumps outbreaks since young adults become affected the most. As shown before, in Germany the second MMR vaccine
mumps 23672 efficient compared to countries in which individuals are vaccinated later in live.Figure 1Structure of the mumps virus. The helical nucleocapsid consists of the nucleoprotein and RNA.Figure 2Vaccination effectiveness
mumps 23923 analyses. Studies were obtained by performing a “Pubmed” request [[42]] using the search terms “ mumps ” and “vaccination effectiveness” and “outbreak”. Data were accessed on 29 March 2018. Rhombuses:
mumps 24527 ≤3 years ago. >3 = Effectiveness when first vaccine dose was >3 years ago.Figure 3Notifications of mumps cases in Western and Eastern Germany 2001–2016. In Western Germany notification of mumps started in
mumps 24618 3Notifications of mumps cases in Western and Eastern Germany 2001–2016. In Western Germany notification of mumps started in 2013 and in Eastern Germany in 2001. (a) Number of affected individuals. (b) Incidence (cases/100,000
mumps 24821 (cases/100,000 persons). (c) Percentage of male and female patients. (d) Seasonal distributions of mumps notifications. E = Eastern Germany. W = Western Germany. U = Unknown sex. Data were obtained from the
mumps 25286 states including Berlin were regarded as Western Germany.Figure 4Age of notified patients suffering from mumps in Western and Eastern Germany. Age is given in interval of 5 years. (a) Age of affected patients in
mumps 25659 panels: Mumps incidences (cases/100,000 persons) per 5-years interval. In Western Germany notification of mumps started in 2013 and in Eastern Germany in 2001. Data were obtained from the Survstat tool of the German
mumps 26054 other 11 federal states were regarded as Western Germany.ijerph-15-01618-t001_Table 1Table 1Measles, mumps , rubella (German pox) (MMR) and measles, mumps, rubella, varicella (chicken pox) vaccines (MMRV) available
mumps 26101 Germany.ijerph-15-01618-t001_Table 1Table 1Measles, mumps, rubella (German pox) (MMR) and measles, mumps , rubella, varicella (chicken pox) vaccines (MMRV) available in Germany.NameManufacturerVirusesMumps
mumps 27193 Rupee.ijerph-15-01618-t002_Table 2Table 2Studies indicating waning immunity as a major risk factor of mumps in the MMR vaccination era. The studies were obtained through a “pubmed” search using the terms
mumps 27302 the MMR vaccination era. The studies were obtained through a “pubmed” search using the terms “ mumps ” AND “vaccination” AND “waning immunity” [[42]]. Data were accessed on 24 March 2018.StudyObservationRubin
mumps 28165 application.Lewnard et al., 2017 [[14]]In a meta-analysis it was calculated that immunity after receipt of any mumps vaccine persists on average 27.4 years (CI 16.7–51.1 years). Among vaccinated individuals 25% may
mumps 30044 in 2-year-olds to 72% (95% CI: 70–74%) in 15- to 19-year-olds.Vygen et al., 2016 [[48]]In various mumps clusters in France the odds of mumps significantly increased for individuals vaccinated twice by 10%
mumps 30081 70–74%) in 15- to 19-year-olds.Vygen et al., 2016 [[48]]In various mumps clusters in France the odds of mumps significantly increased for individuals vaccinated twice by 10% for every year that had passed since
mumps 30936 more than 10 years ago (RR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.10–1.02).Man et al., 2012 [[51]]VE for a single dose of mumps vaccine was 65% (95% CI: 19–85%) when applied within the past 3 years15% (95% CI: −2–25%) when
mumps 31434 enrollment (OR = 10.2, 95% CI: 1.5–70.7).Cardemil et al., 2017 [[53]]Attack rates of students during a mumps outbreak vaccinated twice depended on the time since the second vaccination:Time passed since the 2nd
rubella 618 7/2018Publication date (ppub): 8/2018AbstractVaccination against mumps virus (MuV) (mostly measles-mumps- rubella ) is routinely performed in more than 120 countries and has resulted in a distinct decrease of mumps
rubella 6101 sites of the antibodies are very similar.3. Vaccination against the MuVCommonly, the measles-mumps- rubella vaccine (MMR) is used for vaccination. Before initiation of a vaccine program in the UK, Anderson et
rubella 26061 federal states were regarded as Western Germany.ijerph-15-01618-t001_Table 1Table 1Measles, mumps, rubella (German pox) (MMR) and measles, mumps, rubella, varicella (chicken pox) vaccines (MMRV) available in
rubella 26108 Germany.ijerph-15-01618-t001_Table 1Table 1Measles, mumps, rubella (German pox) (MMR) and measles, mumps, rubella , varicella (chicken pox) vaccines (MMRV) available in Germany.NameManufacturerVirusesMumps Virus StrainDosage

You must be authorized to submit a review.