Sex-Related Differences in Immune Response and Symptomatic Manifestations to Infection with Species

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
cutaneous leishmaniasis 1 infectiousdiseases
infectious disease 6 infectiousdiseases
tuberculosis 1 infectiousdiseases
visceral leishmaniasis 5 infectiousdiseases

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cutaneous leishmaniasis 17508 can result in localized CL (LCL) with ulcers at the site of parasite inoculation or anergic diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (ADCL). ADCL is characterized by high parasite loads, suppressed cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity,
infectious disease 1015 pathogen and host factors determines the outcome of infection. Leishmaniasis, as well as numerous other infectious disease s, exhibits sex-related differences that cannot be explained solely in terms of environmental exposure
infectious disease 4748 underlie distinct male or female susceptibility to certain cancers and autoimmune conditions as well as infectious disease s, including several that are caused by parasites [[8], [12]–[16]]. Both pathogen and host factors
infectious disease 15672 shows clear hormonal differences between boys and girls and has been implicated in other sex-biased infectious disease s [[54], [55]]. Overall, the prevalence of CL among males increased at puberty, reached its highest level
infectious disease 21445 with a protective role for estrogen [[59]]. Similar sex-based differences have been observed in other infectious disease models including Staphylococcus aureus, in which female resistance to dermonecrosis is associated with
infectious disease 28059 and antimicrobial differences in macrophages of male versus female origin have been shown in various infectious disease s including Cryptococcus neoformans, group B streptococci, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis [[19], [20],
infectious disease 50585 with disease progression. We propose that effective control and treatment of leishmaniasis and other infectious disease s should take into account the influence of biological sex in pathogenesis, immune response, and drug
tuberculosis 34203 granuloma formation. In agreement with this notion, the BALB/c and C57BL/6 models of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection have shown that lung granulomas form earlier and reach a larger size in female than in male
visceral leishmaniasis 851 Infection can remain asymptomatic or lead to a spectrum of diseases including cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis . Ultimately, the combination of both pathogen and host factors determines the outcome of infection.
visceral leishmaniasis 1577 experimental findings and new avenues of research concerning sex-specific responses in cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis . The limitations of current therapies and the emergence of drug-resistant parasites underscore the need
visceral leishmaniasis 2394 spectrum of human diseases called leishmaniasis, including cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) as prominent forms [[1], [3]]. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a complication of
visceral leishmaniasis 5700 [16]–[19]].In this review, we will explore epidemiological patterns of sex-related differences in cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis , in addition to other manifestations of symptomatic infection. We also outline ongoing efforts to elucidate
visceral leishmaniasis 39535 marrow of VL patients infected with L. infantum, although recent studies have shown that progressive visceral leishmaniasis in humans and mouse models is associated with IL-10-producing CD4+ T cells [[128]–[132]]. In addition

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