Insights From Deep Sequencing of the HBV Genome-Unique, Tiny, and Misunderstood

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Annotation Summary

Term Occurence Count Dictionary
hepatitis A 1 infectiousdiseases
hepatitis B 4 infectiousdiseases
hepatitis C 2 infectiousdiseases
hepatitis E 1 infectiousdiseases
herpes simplex 1 infectiousdiseases
lamivudine 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
lymphocytic choriomeningitis 1 infectiousdiseases
meningitis 1 infectiousdiseases
tuberculosis 1 infectiousdiseases
hepatitis D 1 infectiousdiseases
infectious disease 1 infectiousdiseases
malaria 1 infectiousdiseases
tenofovir 4 infectiousdiseasesdrugs

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

Note: If this graph is empty, then there are no terms that meet the proximity constraint.

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
lamivudine 37134 infection, many patients have been exposed to antiretroviral therapy, including the nucleos(t)ide analogues lamivudine and tenofovir. Prior exposure to antiretroviral therapy could increase the risk for mutations in HBV
lamivudine 37301 could increase the risk for mutations in HBV that mediate resistance to treatment—particularly to lamivudine , which has a low barrier to resistance. Although strains of HBV that are resistant to tenofovir have
tenofovir 3592 treated with interferon and nucleos(t)ide analogue reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors—primarily tenofovir or entecavir—which can limit liver damage by suppressing viral replication.[15] However, interferon
tenofovir 37149 patients have been exposed to antiretroviral therapy, including the nucleos(t)ide analogues lamivudine and tenofovir . Prior exposure to antiretroviral therapy could increase the risk for mutations in HBV that mediate
tenofovir 37398 to lamivudine, which has a low barrier to resistance. Although strains of HBV that are resistant to tenofovir have been described, they are unusual and their effects on patient outcome are not clear.[116] Therefore,
tenofovir 37514 been described, they are unusual and their effects on patient outcome are not clear.[116] Therefore, tenofovir is often recommended after nonresponse to alternative therapies.[15], [127]Within-Patient DiversityAlthough
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
hepatitis A 9569 10.6084/m9.figshare.6080402. CMV, cytomegalovirus; dsRNA, double-stranded RNA; EBV, Epstein-Barr virus; gt, genotype; HAV, hepatitis A virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HDV, hepatitis D virus; HEV, hepatitis E virus; HHV, human herpesvirus;
hepatitis B 13264 (∼20 nm diameter), and long filaments[161]; free HBeAg and capsids also are secreted. C, core; HBeAg, hepatitis B e antigen; HBx, hepatitis B X protein; HSPG, heparan sulfate proteoglycan; NCTP, Na+-taurocholate co-transporting
hepatitis B 13292 filaments[161]; free HBeAg and capsids also are secreted. C, core; HBeAg, hepatitis B e antigen; HBx, hepatitis B X protein; HSPG, heparan sulfate proteoglycan; NCTP, Na+-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide pol,
hepatitis B 18466 subtypes can be found in Rajoriya et al[20] and Tong and Revill.[55]BCP, basal core promoter; HBeAg, hepatitis B e antigen.aInsertions and deletions relative to 3215-bp genome length.bG1896A mutation introduces a
hepatitis B 36667 evolutionary history could explain the increased substitution rates.[63]BCP, basal core promoter; HBeAg, hepatitis B e antigen.As with determination of genotype, baseline testing for drug resistance is rarely performed.
hepatitis C 9593 cytomegalovirus; dsRNA, double-stranded RNA; EBV, Epstein-Barr virus; gt, genotype; HAV, hepatitis A virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HDV, hepatitis D virus; HEV, hepatitis E virus; HHV, human herpesvirus; HPV, human papillomavirus;
hepatitis C 31126 interval, 0.18–0.21; P < .0001 by Mann-Whitney U-test). C, core; dsRNA, double-stranded RNA; HCV, hepatitis C virus; ssDNA, single-stranded DNA; ssRNA, single-stranded RNA.There is considerable variation in rates
hepatitis D 9617 double-stranded RNA; EBV, Epstein-Barr virus; gt, genotype; HAV, hepatitis A virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HDV, hepatitis D virus; HEV, hepatitis E virus; HHV, human herpesvirus; HPV, human papillomavirus; HSV, herpes simplex
hepatitis E 9641 Epstein-Barr virus; gt, genotype; HAV, hepatitis A virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HDV, hepatitis D virus; HEV, hepatitis E virus; HHV, human herpesvirus; HPV, human papillomavirus; HSV, herpes simplex virus; HTLV, human T-lymphotropic
herpes simplex 9716 hepatitis D virus; HEV, hepatitis E virus; HHV, human herpesvirus; HPV, human papillomavirus; HSV, herpes simplex virus; HTLV, human T-lymphotropic virus; LCMV, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus; MERS, Middle East
infectious disease 42913 pipelines, alongside carefully collated host metadata, has begun to affect management of patients with infectious disease s.[148], [149], [150] Although deep sequencing approaches have not been robustly applied to HBV, there
lymphocytic choriomeningitis 9778 herpesvirus; HPV, human papillomavirus; HSV, herpes simplex virus; HTLV, human T-lymphotropic virus; LCMV, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus; MERS, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome; SARS, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome; ssDNA, single-stranded
malaria 2903 In contrast to the decrease in mortality from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis, and malaria , HBV-associated mortality is increasing.[9] The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals set the
meningitis 9796 papillomavirus; HSV, herpes simplex virus; HTLV, human T-lymphotropic virus; LCMV, lymphocytic chorio meningitis virus; MERS, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome; SARS, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome; ssDNA, single-stranded
tuberculosis 2885 carcinoma (HCC).[7], [8] In contrast to the decrease in mortality from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis , and malaria, HBV-associated mortality is increasing.[9] The United Nations Sustainable Development

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