Protective Role of T Cells in Different Pathogen Infections and Its Potential Clinical Application

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
syphilis 1 infectiousdiseases
tuberculosis 6 infectiousdiseases
viral hepatitis 1 infectiousdiseases
hepatitis B 1 infectiousdiseases
infectious disease 11 infectiousdiseases
infectious mononucleosis 2 infectiousdiseases
malaria 7 infectiousdiseases
pneumonia 1 infectiousdiseases

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hepatitis B 30687 Vδ1 T cells are expanded in liver diseases (especially acute-on-chronic liver failure infected by hepatitis B virus) when compared with Vδ2 T cells and defense against liver damage by producing increased cytotoxicity
infectious disease 890 subgroups are widely distributed in different parts of the human body and are attractive effectors for infectious disease immunity. γδ T cells are activated and expanded by nonpeptidic antigens (P-Ags), major histocompatibility
infectious disease 1199 pathogen infections. Activation and proliferation of γδ T cells play a significant role in diverse infectious disease s induced by viruses, bacteria, and parasites and exert their potential effector function to effectively
infectious disease 1379 potential effector function to effectively eliminate infection. It is well known that many types of infectious disease s are detrimental to human life and health and give rise to high incidence of illnesses and death rate
infectious disease 1613 world. To date, there is no comprehensive understanding of the correlation between γδ T cells and infectious disease s. In this review, we will focus on the various subgroups of γδ T cells (mainly Vδ1 T cells and Vδ2
infectious disease 2037 HIV, EBV, and HBV. Hopefully, the gamma-delta T cell study will provide a novel effective way to treat infectious disease s.1. IntroductionInfectious diseases are mainly caused by pathogen infection (including viruses, bacteria,
infectious disease 2192 are mainly caused by pathogen infection (including viruses, bacteria, and parasites). Many types of infectious disease s are detrimental to human life and health and give rise to high incidence of illnesses and death rate
infectious disease 11291 DiseasesIn early report, researchers pay more attention on αβ T cells' protective immunity during infectious disease s. But there is no systematic understanding on γδ T cells' direct or indirect protective ability to
infectious disease 11512 fight against pathogens. This review will summarize the diverse functions of γδ T cells in various infectious disease s.3.1. Bacteria3.1.1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)γδ T cells play a significant role in MTB infection.
infectious disease 11854 in mycobacterial infections [[67]]. On the contrary, Vδ1 T cells seem to be more relevant to other infectious disease s, such as HIV diseases [[68]].Vγ9Vδ2 T cells recognize HMBPP via forming tight complexes following
infectious disease 43648 role in the elimination of pathogens. In view of the promising implications of γδ T cells to treat infectious disease s in preclinical studies, it is hoped that γδ T cells will provide a potentially effective new way
infectious disease 43776 preclinical studies, it is hoped that γδ T cells will provide a potentially effective new way to treat infectious disease s.Figure 1γδ T cells recognize antigens. Diverse subtypes of γδ T cells could recognize different
infectious mononucleosis 27456 B cell, could cause severe infections in individuals and more likely cause diseases including acute infectious mononucleosis , chronic active EBV infection, Burkitt lymphoma, and tumor (nasopharyngeal carcinoma) [[123]–[125]].
infectious mononucleosis 28312 mevalonate pathway by TCR of Vγ9Vδ2 T and BTN3A1 in EBV-infected individuals [[129], [130]]. In acute infectious mononucleosis , the expression of γδ TCR and the number of γδ T cells were increased analyzed by whole transcriptome
malaria 32649 [[151]]. In γδ T cell depletion mice, the level of protective antibody (IgG2a) which eradicates the malaria parasite exhibits an apparent decline when compared with control [[152]]. In mouse models without sufficient
malaria 33326 TNF are also crucial for controlling Plasmodium infection and decrease the risk of fever, clinical malaria , and parasitemia [[155]]. IL-12 and IL-18 are essential for expression of TIM3 (T cell immunoglobulin
malaria 33545 and mucin domain 3), one member of the TIM protein family, in γδ T cell, which could offer clinical malaria important opportunities for risk reduction [[156]]. Especially, IL-17A, which is largely produced by
malaria 33980 [[157]]. Some cytokines and chemokines (such as TNF and MIP-1β/1α) which increase the risks of severe malaria , however, are derived from γδ T cell [[158]]. Collectively, cytokines and chemokines have dual effects
malaria 34466 infection [[159]]. The proportion of Vδ2+γδ T cells increased in previously naïve adults following malaria infection. But children with repeated malaria were associated with reduced percentages of Vδ2+γδ
malaria 34512 cells increased in previously naïve adults following malaria infection. But children with repeated malaria were associated with reduced percentages of Vδ2+γδ T cells and cytokine secretion and increased expression
malaria 34745 immunoregulatory genes. Taken together, the loss and dysfunction of Vδ2+γδ T cells in children with repeated malaria may lead to clinical tolerance of the parasite [[160]]. Moreover, the diminished Vδ2+γδ T cell proinflammatory
pneumonia 20500 to smoke or air. Mice exposed to chronic cigarette smoke recovered poorly from primary influenza A pneumonia but recruited γδ T cells to the lungs that predominantly expressed IL-17A. Depletion of IL-17A significantly
syphilis 23463 HIV-1 infection, the phenomenon of the lopsided proportion of Vδ1 and Vδ2 T cells can be reversed by syphilis coinfection.The effects of both Vδ1 and Vδ2 T cells to defend against HIV have been identified in
tuberculosis 1877 responses or effective functions to fight against common pathogen infections, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Listeria monocytogenes, influenza viruses, HIV, EBV, and HBV. Hopefully, the gamma-delta T cell study
tuberculosis 9106 metabolic pathways are different to each other. For example, HMBPP primarily comes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Listeria monocytogenes, and so on [[57]]. Some clinical medicines can alter the intracellular level
tuberculosis 11566 diverse functions of γδ T cells in various infectious diseases.3.1. Bacteria3.1.1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)γδ T cells play a significant role in MTB infection. Interestingly, Vγ9Vδ2 T cells which exist
tuberculosis 38798 infections (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/). In nonhuman primate models infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis , adoptive transfer of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells has no or reduced tuberculosis dissemination when compared with
tuberculosis 38868 models infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, adoptive transfer of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells has no or reduced tuberculosis dissemination when compared with control [[180]]. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells by adoptive transfer therapy display
tuberculosis 39096 central/effector memory and exert their effector function defense against MTB infections via secreting anti-M. tuberculosis cytokines and inhibiting intracellular bacteria [[180]]. Adoptive transfer therapy based on γδ T cells
viral hepatitis 30048 Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)HBV and HCV are involved in liver damage and can lead to viral hepatitis and even liver cancer [[137], [138]]. The liver is rich with multiple innate immune cells (like natural

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