Role of Human Macrophage Polarization in Inflammation during Infectious Diseases.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
hepatitis B 1 infectiousdiseases
hepatitis C 1 infectiousdiseases
infectious disease 5 infectiousdiseases
tuberculosis 4 infectiousdiseases
visceral leishmaniasis 1 infectiousdiseases
cutaneous leishmaniasis 1 infectiousdiseases

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cutaneous leishmaniasis 30513 S100A9) were downmodulated in human macrophages infected with L. major parasites, the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis [[77]]. Hence, macrophage polarization is critically important during Leishmania infection because of
hepatitis B 24719 inflammation excess within the damaged tissues. However, and although elevated IL-10 expression during hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have been demonstrated to promote an anti-inflammatory
hepatitis C 24747 damaged tissues. However, and although elevated IL-10 expression during hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have been demonstrated to promote an anti-inflammatory phenotype [[59],[60]],
infectious disease 957 macrophages is rather represented by a continuum, where boundaries are still unclear. Indeed, human infectious disease s, are characterized by either a back and forth or often a mixed profile between the pro-inflammatory
infectious disease 1549 ligand (CCL)1, CCL2, CCL17, CCL18, and CCL22). This review brews the complexity of the situation during infectious disease s by stressing on this continuum between M1-like and M2-like extremes. We first discuss the basic biology
infectious disease 5485 inflammation and their role in resistance to infection, infectious pathogenesis, and chronic evolution of infectious disease s, with a particular emphasis on their role during leishmaniasis. We argue that understanding the continuum
infectious disease 34882 ConclusionsAs highlighted here, there is evidence that this differential polarization of macrophages in diverse infectious disease conditions demonstrates the plasticity of these cells, with M1-like polarization evident in inflammatory
infectious disease 35514 and inflammation could be a promising therapeutic modality worthy of future consideration in several infectious disease s.Figure 1Summary of the main macrophage polarization states of activated macrophages. Different stimuli
tuberculosis 21309 driving the polarization toward an M2 phenotype to reduce the inflammatory response.Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis acute infection induces macrophage polarization toward the M1 phenotype, which secretes high amounts
tuberculosis 21717 thus providing microbicidal macrophage properties and reducing proliferation of the intracellular M. tuberculosis [[47]]. To counteract such a response, it has been shown that these intracellular bacteria have the
tuberculosis 21978 target genes, a cytokine implicated in M1 polarization [[48]] and contributing to the development of tuberculosis pleural effusion [[49]]. However, polarization of granulomatous macrophages co-expressing proinflammatory
tuberculosis 22145 granulomatous macrophages co-expressing proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers in the lung of M. tuberculosis -infected patients has been described, indicating that polarization is not binary, but occurs along a
visceral leishmaniasis 33085 polarization of monocytes during the post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), the dermal sequel of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). They demonstrated that monocytes obtained from PKDL patients showed a decreased expression of

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