New insights into leishmaniasis in the immunosuppressed.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
AIDS 1 infectiousdiseases
cutaneous leishmaniasis 4 infectiousdiseases
pentamidine 12 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
amphotericin b 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
fluconazole 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
infectious disease 1 infectiousdiseases
mucocutaneous leishmaniasis 1 infectiousdiseases
paromomycin 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
tuberculosis 2 infectiousdiseases
visceral leishmaniasis 8 infectiousdiseases

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
amphotericin b 23355 immunocompetent individuals: a total dose of 21 mg/kg of AmBisome; however, other therapies, such as antimonial, amphotericin b , or allopurinol, have also been used with varying success (Table 4). Relapse rates in these patients
fluconazole 21402 AntimonialsLiver1[[69]]Cutaneous leishmaniasisKidney5[[70]–[74]]Antimonials, Ambisome B, Allopurinol + fluconazole Mucocutaneous leishmaniasisKidney3[[75]–[77]]AntimonialsLiver2[[78], [79]]Amphotericin B, AmBisomeAsymptomatic
paromomycin 6457 first-line treatment in HIV-negative patients consists of parenteral administration of antimonials and paromomycin for 17 days. Overall, this combination therapy was found effective and safe, although the daily intramuscular
pentamidine 8995 [[13]]Preventing VL relapse (secondary prophylaxis)Single-arm clinical trial evaluating monthly administration of pentamidine 4 mg/kg IV for a minimum of 12 months; a 6-month extension was given for those with CD4 counts ≤ 200
pentamidine 9136 12 months; a 6-month extension was given for those with CD4 counts ≤ 200 cells/μL by 12 months of pentamidine [[6], [14]]. No relapse after pentamidine discontinuation if CD4 counts > 200 cells/μL by 12 months
pentamidine 9178 for those with CD4 counts ≤ 200 cells/μL by 12 months of pentamidine [[6], [14]]. No relapse after pentamidine discontinuation if CD4 counts > 200 cells/μL by 12 months of pentamidine (0/28)3 out of 17 relapses
pentamidine 9252 [[6], [14]]. No relapse after pentamidine discontinuation if CD4 counts > 200 cells/μL by 12 months of pentamidine (0/28)3 out of 17 relapses in those with CD4 counts ≤ 200 cells/μL by 12 months, despite a 6-month
pentamidine 9366 (0/28)3 out of 17 relapses in those with CD4 counts ≤ 200 cells/μL by 12 months, despite a 6-month pentamidine extensionPreventing primary VL (primary prophylaxis)PreLeisH study (Northern Ethiopia): Multicentre
pentamidine 11112 donovani) areas are limited to a single-arm trial, evaluating the use of monthly administration of pentamidine , a drug currently not in use for VL treatment in East Africa. Previously, the outcomes at 12 months
pentamidine 11227 drug currently not in use for VL treatment in East Africa. Previously, the outcomes at 12 months of pentamidine use supporting the effectiveness, safety, and feasibility of this intervention have been reported [[17]].
pentamidine 11406 intervention have been reported [[17]]. Data on the risk of relapse after discontinuing 12 months of pentamidine have been published recently [[6], [14]]. For those reaching a cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) count
pentamidine 11660 relapses were seen (Table 1). Those with a CD4 count ≤ 200 cells/μL remained at risk, suggesting that pentamidine continuation might be needed on a case-by-case basis until CD4 count levels have increased. The overall
pentamidine 11829 until CD4 count levels have increased. The overall risk of VL relapse was 37% by 2 years after starting pentamidine , highest amongst those with low baseline CD4 counts and a history of (multiple) relapses. The Ethiopian
pentamidine 30541 improved treatment regimens and options for secondary prophylaxis are urgently needed. In Africa, monthly pentamidine and elsewhere weekly or biweekly liposomal amphotericin B, potentially combined with miltefosine, are
pentamidine 33955 M, Fikre H, Adera C, Colebunders R, van Loen H, Menten J, Lynen L, Hailu A, van Griensven J. Use of pentamidine as secondary prophylaxis to prevent Visceral Leishmaniasis relapse in HIV infected patients, the first
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
AIDS 33699 Aparicio P, Aseffa A, Den Boer M, Canavate C, Dedet JP, et al. The relationship between leishmaniasis and AIDS : the second 10 years. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2008;21(2):334–59.Diro E, Ritmeijer K, Boelaert M, Alves
cutaneous leishmaniasis 2353 Leishmania donovani–L. infantum complex. However, other species of Leishmania that cause cutaneous or muco cutaneous leishmaniasis have also been described as resulting in immunosuppression.Immunosuppression in leishmaniasis may stem
cutaneous leishmaniasis 3803 control L. donovani growth in the liver and spleen [[1]]. The influence of helminth coinfection on cutaneous leishmaniasis has also been presented in a number of studies but with conflicting results, which may be because the
cutaneous leishmaniasis 4136 helminth infections have been reported to influence the clinical course and the immune response to cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis. Patients with L. braziliensis coinfected with helminths healed at a slower
cutaneous leishmaniasis 21417 AntimonialsLiver1[[69]]Cutaneous leishmaniasisKidney5[[70]–[74]]Antimonials, Ambisome B, Allopurinol + fluconazoleMuco cutaneous leishmaniasis Kidney3[[75]–[77]]AntimonialsLiver2[[78], [79]]Amphotericin B, AmBisomeAsymptomatic leishmaniasisKidney42[[35],
infectious disease 25084 condition of the host; genetic factors, immune suppression, malnutrition, and the presence of other infectious disease s all play a role [[83], [84]]. Observational studies have suggested that both protein malnutrition and
mucocutaneous leishmaniasis 2349 Leishmania donovani–L. infantum complex. However, other species of Leishmania that cause cutaneous or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis have also been described as resulting in immunosuppression.Immunosuppression in leishmaniasis may stem
tuberculosis 18095 emerging and poorly understoodAbbreviations: ISC, Indian subcontinent; RDT, rapid diagnostic test; TB, tuberculosis ; VL, visceral leishmaniasis.Late presentation of coinfected patients poses the most difficult obstacle
tuberculosis 18548 amplification test (CB-NAAT) screening in VL–HIV coinfected patients, up to 20% are being identified with tuberculosis (TB) infection. These patients have the highest risk for mortality [[28]] and present therapeutic challenges
visceral leishmaniasis 939 5/2018Publication date (collection): 5/2018AbstractImmunosuppression contributes significantly to the caseload of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). HIV coinfection, solid organ transplantation, malnutrition, and helminth infections are the most
visceral leishmaniasis 1966 areas.IntroductionImmunosuppression is associated with leishmaniasis. It is more frequently described in association with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) as it is one of the consequences of the disease, especially in the latter stages. VL occurs both
visceral leishmaniasis 9929 antiretroviral treatment; CD4, cluster of differentiation 4; IV, intravenously; PO, per os (oral treatment); VL, visceral leishmaniasis .Several studies from Ethiopia have shown the importance of ART initiation in VL–HIV coinfected patients
visceral leishmaniasis 16797 West Bengal, India [[29]].Abbreviations: ART, antiretroviral therapy; ISC, Indian subcontinent; VL, visceral leishmaniasis .10.1371/journal.pntd.0006375.t003Table 3Challenges in VL–HIV infection in Asia.Epidemiological Limited
visceral leishmaniasis 18113 understoodAbbreviations: ISC, Indian subcontinent; RDT, rapid diagnostic test; TB, tuberculosis; VL, visceral leishmaniasis .Late presentation of coinfected patients poses the most difficult obstacle in improving patient outcomes.
visceral leishmaniasis 34228 Trop Dis. 2015;9(10):e0004087.Burza S, Mahajan R, Sanz MG, Sunyoto T, Kumar R, Mitra G, et al. HIV and visceral leishmaniasis coinfection in Bihar, India: an underrecognized and underdiagnosed threat against elimination. Clin
visceral leishmaniasis 34510 Girão E, Ramos AS, Govedic F, Merino E, Muñoz P et al. Risk factors, clinical features and outcomes of visceral leishmaniasis in solid-organ transplant recipients: a retrospective multicenter case-control study. Clin Microbiol
visceral leishmaniasis 34756 2015;21(1):89–95.Badaró R, Jones TC, Lorenço R, Cerf BJ, Sampaio D, Carvalho EM et al. A prospective study of visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil. J Infect Dis. 1986;154(4):639–49

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