AIDS Clinical Research in Spain-Large HIV Population, Geniality of Doctors, and Missing Opportunities.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
abscess 2 infectiousdiseases
infectious disease 2 infectiousdiseases
lamivudine 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
pneumonia 1 infectiousdiseases
stavudine 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
visceral leishmaniasis 2 infectiousdiseases
gonorrhea 1 infectiousdiseases
hepatitis B 5 infectiousdiseases
syphilis 1 infectiousdiseases
toxoplasmosis 4 infectiousdiseases
viral hepatitis 7 infectiousdiseases
efavirenz 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
meningitis 1 infectiousdiseases
multidrug-resistant tuberculosis 1 infectiousdiseases
ritonavir 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
tenofovir 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
tuberculosis 6 infectiousdiseases
AIDS 22 infectiousdiseases
abacavir 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
didanosine 3 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
hepatitis C 6 infectiousdiseases
ribavirin 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
zidovudine 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
abacavir 15729 introduction of pharmacogenetics in HIV medicine. Although the best example is HLA-B5701 typing to prevent abacavir -associated hypersensitivity, Spanish authors have contributed significantly to unveil many other aspects
didanosine 16877 replacement of the first wave of antiretrovirals associated with lipodystrophy (stavudine, zidovudine, didanosine , etc.), lipid abnormalities and increased cardiovascular risk emerged as a serious threat for antiretroviral-treated
didanosine 21984 whereas severe portal hypertension was a major feature, advanced liver fibrosis was not. Exposure to didanosine was unveiled as the cause of this cryptogenic liver disease [[90],[91]]. Liver biopsy depicted unique
didanosine 22519 and prognosis [[93]]. As part of a collaborative European project, a host genetic predisposition for didanosine hepatopathy was more recently characterized [[94]].9. Reproductive Options in HIVHeterosexual contact
efavirenz 14399 researchers were pioneers in examining the clinical relevance of plasma concentrations of drugs, such as efavirenz or tenofovir, on neuropsychiatric effects and kidney abnormalities, respectively [[43],[44]].More recently,
lamivudine 25778 experimental monotherapies or dual therapies generally with boosted protease inhibitors with or without lamivudine (i.e., less costly, easier dosing, and lower side effects) have been subject to criticism in the modern
ribavirin 18174 monotherapy in HIV–HCV coinfected patients was run in Spain in the mid-1990s [[63]]. With the addition of ribavirin and the advent of weekly subcutaneous pegylated interferon, new studies attempted distinct strategies
ribavirin 19565 posted freely available in the website that allowed to predict treatment outcomes using peginterferon- ribavirin , and in this way assist treatment decision making. The algorithm was endorsed by the European AIDS Clinical
ritonavir 14997 drug exposures. Through this mechanism, HIV protease inhibitors, especially when co-formulated with ritonavir or cobicistat as pharmacoenhancers, and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors interact with
stavudine 16854 [[52]].Following the replacement of the first wave of antiretrovirals associated with lipodystrophy ( stavudine , zidovudine, didanosine, etc.), lipid abnormalities and increased cardiovascular risk emerged as a serious
tenofovir 14412 pioneers in examining the clinical relevance of plasma concentrations of drugs, such as efavirenz or tenofovir , on neuropsychiatric effects and kidney abnormalities, respectively [[43],[44]].More recently, ageing
tenofovir 20178 The advent of all-oral direct-acting antivirals for treating hepatitis C [[81]] and the wide use of tenofovir as treatment for chronic hepatitis B [[82]] have dramatically changed outcomes of viral hepatitis in
zidovudine 16865 [[52]].Following the replacement of the first wave of antiretrovirals associated with lipodystrophy (stavudine, zidovudine , didanosine, etc.), lipid abnormalities and increased cardiovascular risk emerged as a serious threat
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
AIDS 14 Title: Viruses AIDS Clinical Research in Spain—Large HIV Population, Geniality of Doctors, and Missing OpportunitiesVicente
AIDS 642 jvicfer@gmail.comPublication date (epub): 5/2018Publication date (collection): 6/2018AbstractThe first cases of AIDS in Spain were reported in 1982. Since then over 85,000 persons with AIDS have been cumulated, with 60,000
AIDS 715 6/2018AbstractThe first cases of AIDS in Spain were reported in 1982. Since then over 85,000 persons with AIDS have been cumulated, with 60,000 deaths. Current estimates for people living with HIV are of 145,000,
AIDS 2111 all attended at clinics belonging to the government health public system. Overall, the impact of HIV/ AIDS publications by Spanish teams is the third most important in Europe. HIV research in Spain has classically
AIDS 2742 antiretrovirals, immunopathogenesis, ageing, and vaccine development.1. IntroductionThe first cases of AIDS in Spain were identified in 1982 [[1],[2]]. They corresponded to hemophiliacs and homosexual males.
AIDS 2884 [[1],[2]]. They corresponded to hemophiliacs and homosexual males. Since then, over 85,000 persons with AIDS have been cumulated (male 70%), with 60,000 deaths. However, estimates for people living with HIV in
AIDS 4795 Three international journals have recorded the major contribution of Spaniards in the HIV field, namely AIDS , Clinical Infectious Diseases, and Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy [[5]]. Three Spanish groups,
AIDS 6836 rarely among native Spaniards [[10]].3. Toxoplasmosis and LeishmaniasisDuring the first years of the AIDS epidemic, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia was the most frequent classical opportunistic infection at
AIDS 8209 infantum was a major opportunistic parasite in persons with HIV and low CD4 counts. Roughly 5–10% of AIDS patients in Spain suffered from visceral leishmaniasis before the advent of triple antiretroviral therapy
AIDS 10406 million people infected worldwide. HIV-2 is less efficiently transmitted than HIV-1 by sex. Although AIDS may develop in HIV-2 carriers, it takes on average 25–30 years. In contrast with HIV-1 infection,
AIDS 11025 reported at the Spanish HIV-2 registry. Roughly one-third presented with CD4 counts <200 cells/μL and/or AIDS clinical events. Plasma HIV-2 RNA was undetectable at baseline in 40% [[30]]. To date, one-third of
AIDS 12964 research in Spain.Another major step was the decision by the Spanish government to fund a national AIDS research network (RIS, Red de Investigación en SIDA). One of the platforms was devoted to antiretroviral
AIDS 17777 publications recorded in PubMed on HIV-hepatitis coinfection by Spanish authors.From the beginning of the AIDS epidemic, it became clear that chronic viral liver disease behaved worst in the HIV population [[59],[62]].
AIDS 19669 peginterferon-ribavirin, and in this way assist treatment decision making. The algorithm was endorsed by the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS).The participation of Spanish teams in registrational trials with new oral HCV
AIDS 28612 Contributions to HIV ResearchBeing aware that discussing 35 years of scientific contributions in HIV/ AIDS by Spanish authors is something too pretentious, we would like to complete the list of major topics
AIDS 29116 international (COHERE, SMART, HIDN, etc.) networks that have provided crucial information in the HIV/ AIDS field.For many years, postgraduate courses and masters, mostly run in Madrid and Barcelona, have been
AIDS 30774 [[149]]. Indeed, adequate HIV care should include prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, non- AIDS cancers, renal insufficiency, osteoporosis, diabetes, neurocognitive disorders, liver diseases, and
AIDS 31255 face these new issues.The prospects for HIV eradication are currently the major focus of attention for AIDS scientists. Several Spanish teams are involved in this fascinating adventure [[150],[151]]. At the same
AIDS 31788 must be solved [[152]].15. Future Challenges for Spanish HIV ResearchEnthusiasm unabated, Spanish HIV/ AIDS scientists are subject to new and unique challenges in the near future. Of note, the peak of interest
AIDS 31905 are subject to new and unique challenges in the near future. Of note, the peak of interest about HIV/ AIDS is rapidly declining as survival of patients improves and the epidemics slow down. As a result, funding
AIDS 33499 accepted and declining, venereal diseases are rising [[100],[102],[103]].Another challenge for HIV/ AIDS researchers is the lack of commitment and prioritization of scientific excellence. The result is that
AIDS 36086 important, the ultimate goal of the health system: the patients.Figure 1Number of publications on HIV/ AIDS recorded yearly in PubMed by Spanish authors.Figure 2Number of publications recorded yearly in PubMed
abscess 5860 tuberculosis seen in Spain at that time. Atypical forms of the disease, including meningitis [[6]] and splenic abscess es [[7]] were reported.Beginning in the 1990s, outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)
abscess 7483 that were not taken cothrimoxazole as prophylaxis for Pneumocystis [[11]]. Multiple bilateral cerebral abscess es with inflammatory component and focal neurological deficits were the most common clinical presentation.
gonorrhea 23873 engaged in high-risk sexual practices, other sexually transmitted infections are on the rise, including gonorrhea , syphilis, and even acute hepatitis C [[100],[101],[102]]. This observation reinforces that education
hepatitis B 17401 users dominated the HIV epidemic in Spain during the first two decades [[4]], the high rate of viral hepatitis B , C, and delta in this group requested and attracted much attention [[59],[60],[61]]. This is contrast
hepatitis B 18648 field.For many years, Spanish teams led European epidemiological studies carried out by EuroSIDA on viral hepatitis B [[67]], C [[68]], and delta [[69]]. Likewise, Spaniards coordinated worldwide initiatives to confront
hepatitis B 18784 delta [[69]]. Likewise, Spaniards coordinated worldwide initiatives to confront the impact of chronic hepatitis B [[70]] and C [[71]], including the hepatotoxicity of antiretroviral agents that was enhanced in HIV–HCV
hepatitis B 20213 direct-acting antivirals for treating hepatitis C [[81]] and the wide use of tenofovir as treatment for chronic hepatitis B [[82]] have dramatically changed outcomes of viral hepatitis in HIV patients. At this time, only hepatitis
hepatitis B 36204 yearly in PubMed by Spanish authors.Figure 2Number of publications recorded yearly in PubMed on HIV and hepatitis B /C coinfection by Spanish authors.Figure 3Major prospective clinical trials on treatment of hepatitis
hepatitis C 20030 faldaprevir [[80]]. Figure 3 records the most cited studies led or co-led by Spanish investigators on hepatitis C therapy in HIV-coinfected patients. The advent of all-oral direct-acting antivirals for treating hepatitis
hepatitis C 20139 C therapy in HIV-coinfected patients. The advent of all-oral direct-acting antivirals for treating hepatitis C [[81]] and the wide use of tenofovir as treatment for chronic hepatitis B [[82]] have dramatically changed
hepatitis C 21478 Outcomes in this population are rapidly improving following the advent of new direct acting antivirals for hepatitis C [[89]].8. Non-Cirrhotic Portal Hypertension in HIVIn year 2006, close attention to a subset of HIV-infected
hepatitis C 22317 condition may develop in HIV patients superpose to other more common liver conditions (i.e., chronic hepatitis C ), producing disproportionate portal hypertension and complicating diagnosis, management, and prognosis
hepatitis C 23909 other sexually transmitted infections are on the rise, including gonorrhea, syphilis, and even acute hepatitis C [[100],[101],[102]]. This observation reinforces that education and behavioral interventions should
hepatitis C 36307 hepatitis B/C coinfection by Spanish authors.Figure 3Major prospective clinical trials on treatment of hepatitis C in HIV coinfection led by Spanish researchers.Figure 4Number of publications recorded yearly in PubMed
infectious disease 1457 earlier 1990s, diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic infections was their major task. A new wave of infectious disease s specialists was born. Following the wide introduction of triple combination therapy in the late 1990s,
infectious disease 3648 the 1990s, diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic infections was their major task. A new wave of infectious disease s specialists was born. Following the wide introduction of triple combination therapy in the late 1990s,
meningitis 5831 explain the rebound in tuberculosis seen in Spain at that time. Atypical forms of the disease, including meningitis [[6]] and splenic abscesses [[7]] were reported.Beginning in the 1990s, outbreaks of multidrug-resistant
multidrug-resistant tuberculosis 5927 including meningitis [[6]] and splenic abscesses [[7]] were reported.Beginning in the 1990s, outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) were reported in hospitals and prisons in the eastern United States. From 1991 to 1995, MDR-TB
pneumonia 6873 [[10]].3. Toxoplasmosis and LeishmaniasisDuring the first years of the AIDS epidemic, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia was the most frequent classical opportunistic infection at first presentation of HIV-positive individuals
syphilis 23884 high-risk sexual practices, other sexually transmitted infections are on the rise, including gonorrhea, syphilis , and even acute hepatitis C [[100],[101],[102]]. This observation reinforces that education and behavioral
toxoplasmosis 2425 Chronologically, some of the major contributions of Spanish HIV research are being in the field of tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis , leishmaniasis, HIV variants including HIV-2, drug resistance, pharmacology, antiretroviral drug-related
toxoplasmosis 7174 explained that a few conditions were overrepresented with respect to other countries. This is the case for toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis that consequently attracted major attention.Toxoplasmosis: Neurological disease due
toxoplasmosis 7779 were common thereafter. Spanish authors pioneered several studies on secondary prophylaxis to prevent toxoplasmosis recurrences in this population [[12]]. After the advent of triple antiretroviral therapy, Spanish groups
toxoplasmosis 36810 of Spanish HIV research.Prevention and treatment of tuberculosis in HIVManagement of HIV-associated toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasisHIV variants, including HIV-2Antiretroviral drug resistanceAntiviral pharmacokinetics/pharmacogeneticsAntiretroviral-associated
tuberculosis 2411 Chronologically, some of the major contributions of Spanish HIV research are being in the field of tuberculosis , toxoplasmosis, leishmaniasis, HIV variants including HIV-2, drug resistance, pharmacology, antiretroviral
tuberculosis 5749 urban areas [[4]]. Poor socioeconomic conditions of this group contributed to explain the rebound in tuberculosis seen in Spain at that time. Atypical forms of the disease, including meningitis [[6]] and splenic abscesses
tuberculosis 5947 and splenic abscesses [[7]] were reported.Beginning in the 1990s, outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) were reported in hospitals and prisons in the eastern United States. From 1991 to 1995, MDR-TB
tuberculosis 6562 declines in injection drug use, and the success of antiretroviral therapy led to an extraordinary drop of tuberculosis in the HIV population in Spain. Currently, HIV-associated tuberculosis is mainly diagnosed in immigrants
tuberculosis 6633 to an extraordinary drop of tuberculosis in the HIV population in Spain. Currently, HIV-associated tuberculosis is mainly diagnosed in immigrants (Africans, Latin Americans, and Eastern Europeans) and rarely among
tuberculosis 36762 countries.viruses-10-00293-t001_Table 1Table 1Major contributions of Spanish HIV research.Prevention and treatment of tuberculosis in HIVManagement of HIV-associated toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasisHIV variants, including HIV-2Antiretroviral
viral hepatitis 2573 including HIV-2, drug resistance, pharmacology, antiretroviral drug-related toxicities, coinfection with viral hepatitis , design and participation in clinical trials with antiretrovirals, immunopathogenesis, ageing, and vaccine
viral hepatitis 17395 drug users dominated the HIV epidemic in Spain during the first two decades [[4]], the high rate of viral hepatitis B, C, and delta in this group requested and attracted much attention [[59],[60],[61]]. This is contrast
viral hepatitis 17921 viral liver disease behaved worst in the HIV population [[59],[62]]. However, treatment options for viral hepatitis were very poor until 2010, and mostly relied on interferon alpha [[60],[61]]. Precisely, one of the
viral hepatitis 18642 field.For many years, Spanish teams led European epidemiological studies carried out by EuroSIDA on viral hepatitis B [[67]], C [[68]], and delta [[69]]. Likewise, Spaniards coordinated worldwide initiatives to confront
viral hepatitis 20270 use of tenofovir as treatment for chronic hepatitis B [[82]] have dramatically changed outcomes of viral hepatitis in HIV patients. At this time, only hepatitis delta remains as a major threat [[83],[84]]. On the horizon,
viral hepatitis 21797 with liver decompensation events in the absence of any known hepatic injury, including alcohol abuse, viral hepatitis , etc. indicted a new life-threatening syndrome [[90]]. Interestingly, whereas severe portal hypertension
viral hepatitis 37055 pharmacokinetics/pharmacogeneticsAntiretroviral-associated lipodystrophy and metabolic abnormalitiesManagement and treatment of coinfection with viral hepatitis Characterization of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension in HIVReproductive options for HIV couplesAntiretroviral
visceral leishmaniasis 8246 parasite in persons with HIV and low CD4 counts. Roughly 5–10% of AIDS patients in Spain suffered from visceral leishmaniasis before the advent of triple antiretroviral therapy [[16]]. In this population, leishmania behaved as
visceral leishmaniasis 8825 assessing schedules and dosing pentavalent antimonials and thereafter liposomal amphotericin-B for treating visceral leishmaniasis in HIV-infected patients [[20],[21],[22]].4. HIV-1 Variants and Spanish HIV-2 NetworkImmigration from

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