Interpreting rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for Plasmodium falciparum

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Chagas disease 1 infectiousdiseases
hepatitis C 1 infectiousdiseases
malaria 48 infectiousdiseases
trypanosomiasis 1 infectiousdiseases

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Chagas disease 12857 antibodies to produce a false positive results [[19]]. False positive results can arise from disease like Chagas disease s, leshmaniasis, trypanosomiasis and patients with rheumatoid factor (Fig. 3) [[19]–[21]].RDT negative
hepatitis C 8360 positive in a patient with fever is also a possibility [[19]] and have been reported in patients with hepatitis C , dengue virus and Toxoplasma gondii infections (Fig. 2) [[19], [20]]. Immunologic cross-reaction from
malaria 324 12/2018Publication date (collection): /2018AbstractObjectiveRapid diagnostic tests have been of tremendous help in malaria control in endemic areas, helping in diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases. It is heavily relied
malaria 396 been of tremendous help in malaria control in endemic areas, helping in diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases. It is heavily relied upon in many endemic areas where microscopy cannot be obtained. However,
malaria 671 clinical setting due to its limitations and inherent weakness. This paper seeks to present the varying malaria RDT test results, the possible interpretations and explanation of these results common in endemic regions.
malaria 805 possible interpretations and explanation of these results common in endemic regions. Published works on malaria RDT studies were identified using the following search terms “malaria RDT in endemic areas”, “Plasmodium
malaria 877 regions. Published works on malaria RDT studies were identified using the following search terms “ malaria RDT in endemic areas”, “Plasmodium falciparum and bacterial coinfection” “Plasmodium falciparum
malaria 1626 especially expert microscopy and other diagnostic tools is imperative.IntroductionPrompt and accurate malaria diagnosis is important to malaria control programs in endemic regions as it limits over diagnosis as
malaria 1660 other diagnostic tools is imperative.IntroductionPrompt and accurate malaria diagnosis is important to malaria control programs in endemic regions as it limits over diagnosis as well as provide evidence of infection
malaria 1894 and adequate treatment [[1]]. In 2010 for instance, the World Health Organization (WHO) revised the malaria management component of its Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) program to an evidence
malaria 2143 [[2]]. This is because, the IMCI program formerly recommended that children presenting with fever in malaria endemic regions be treated promptly with anti-malarials [[1], [3]]. This recommendation was hinged on
malaria 2197 recommended that children presenting with fever in malaria endemic regions be treated promptly with anti- malaria ls [[1], [3]]. This recommendation was hinged on two main reasons; the first being the limited parasitological
malaria 2452 constrained endemic regions and the second being the high prevalence of morbidity and mortality of clinical malaria infections among children in endemic regions [[1], [3]]. The World Health Organization fully aware of
malaria 2567 infections among children in endemic regions [[1], [3]]. The World Health Organization fully aware of this malaria diagnostic challenge common in endemic regions collaborated with manufactures, scientists and clinicians
malaria 2888 test in 2010 [[4], [5]]. Hence, rapid diagnostic test (RDT) was introduced into clinical management of malaria and since then, more than one million RDTs are used yearly in various health facilities in malaria endemic
malaria 2987 malaria and since then, more than one million RDTs are used yearly in various health facilities in malaria endemic areas [[6], [7]]. Although RDT can be used alone in areas where there is no microscopy, it is
malaria 3813 not much significant difference between HRP2 and pLDH in terms of their effectiveness in detecting malaria parasites [[10]]. Rapid diagnostic tests employ lateral flow immunochromatographic assay methods in
malaria 3921 parasites [[10]]. Rapid diagnostic tests employ lateral flow immunochromatographic assay methods in malaria antigens detection. This involves antigen–antibody interactions on a nitrocellulose test strip [[11],
malaria 4049 This involves antigen–antibody interactions on a nitrocellulose test strip [[11], [12]].Although, malaria RDTs are of tremendous help, a number of studies have highlighted some weaknesses of the test kits.
malaria 4335 results, and the possible interpretation and explanations. Hence, this paper seeks to present the varied malaria RDT test results common in endemic regions and provide interpretations for these diverse test results
malaria 4586 on the subject.Main textMethodsA review of published research work was used to present the diverse malaria RDT test results, provide possible causes and interpretations of the test outcomes. The search words
malaria 6517 parasites in the blood [[14]]. There are instances too, when RDT will be positive but there is no clinical malaria or, the fever is not caused by malaria [[15]]. Despite the fact that RDTs have been recommended as a
malaria 6556 instances too, when RDT will be positive but there is no clinical malaria or, the fever is not caused by malaria [[15]]. Despite the fact that RDTs have been recommended as a means of laboratory confirmation of malaria
malaria 6662 malaria [[15]]. Despite the fact that RDTs have been recommended as a means of laboratory confirmation of malaria before the prescription of antimalarial, the interpretation of test results should be done with caution
malaria 6701 have been recommended as a means of laboratory confirmation of malaria before the prescription of anti malaria l, the interpretation of test results should be done with caution to ensure better clinical outcome in
malaria 6938 [[12]–[14]].RDT positive in a patient with feverMalaria RDT positive results in patient with fever, aside malaria , can be caused by other possible infections (Fig. 2). It may be a risky clinical practice to solely
malaria 7056 caused by other possible infections (Fig. 2). It may be a risky clinical practice to solely consider malaria and ignore other possible causes of fever in a patient with positive RDT results. This is because it
malaria 7424 (Fig. 2) [[14]]. This means that a patient can have P. falciparum infection but there will be no clinical malaria , suggesting that fever might be caused by another fever causing pathogen like bacteria or virus. This
malaria 7858 infections (Fig. 2) [[14]]. Therefore, relying solely on RDT positive results and subsequently treating for malaria may sometimes prove fatal for the patients [[14]].Fig. 2Possible presentation and interpretations of
malaria 8131 possibility where the fever is indeed caused by P. falciparum infection together with a bacteria, making it a malaria and bacteria co-infection, which is another common presentation in malaria endemic area (Fig. 2) [[16]–[18]].
malaria 8206 a bacteria, making it a malaria and bacteria co-infection, which is another common presentation in malaria endemic area (Fig. 2) [[16]–[18]]. False positive in a patient with fever is also a possibility [[19]]
malaria 8637 implicated as the cause of these false positive results [[21]].RDT negative in a patient with feverAnti malaria l treatment is not recommended in RDT negative patient with fever, as per the current malaria treatment
malaria 8730 feverAntimalarial treatment is not recommended in RDT negative patient with fever, as per the current malaria treatment protocol, such fevers are considered not to be caused by malaria. However, cases of false
malaria 8805 fever, as per the current malaria treatment protocol, such fevers are considered not to be caused by malaria . However, cases of false negative have been reported in patient with high parasite densities, a phenomenon
malaria 10327 RDT) to cause fever (Fig. 2) [[12]]. However, studies have shown that it is safe to withhold anti malaria from febrile infants and young children with negative RDT [[26], [27]].RDT negative result in a patient
malaria 10625 antibiotics [[28], [29]]. The main explanation for this is that the health worker assumes that a major non malaria cause of fever is probably a bacterial infection [[29]]. The interpretation and subsequent decision
malaria 11371 well-established fact [[15]]. However, classifying their status as heathy or unhealthy and if they require anti malaria l treatment is where some argument still abound. Some studies show that asymptomatic infection confers
malaria 11553 asymptomatic infection confers protection and treating it can increase the risk of subsequent clinical malaria [[33], [34]]. Others did not show protection and also revealed that treatment did no increase the risk
malaria 11685 not show protection and also revealed that treatment did no increase the risk of subsequent clinic malaria [[35], [36]]. Some studies even show that asymptomatic infection is detrimental to the health and intellectual
malaria 12121 Plasmodium falciparumPositive RDT results without fever can also occur in patients recovering from malaria after treatment (Fig. 3) [[38]]. This is because despite successful parasite clearance there can be
malaria 12419 persists weeks after treatment resulting in positive result, wrong diagnosis and unnecessary treatment of malaria , defeating the whole aim of RDT which is to prevent misdiagnosis and treatment [[38], [40]].In some
malaria 13052 [[19]–[21]].RDT negative in a patient without feverA patient without fever and testing negative for malaria with RDT is most likely free from malaria. However, if they are asymptomatic, their true status will
malaria 13094 without feverA patient without fever and testing negative for malaria with RDT is most likely free from malaria . However, if they are asymptomatic, their true status will evade RDT especially if the parasite density
malaria 13406 especially when afebrile. But again, cases have been reported where health workers treat patients with anti malaria ls, although they tested negative for RDT and are afebrile, thereby showing a total disregard of the
malaria 13637 [[19]].ConclusionThe introduction of RDTs have reduced over prescription and indiscriminate use of anti malaria l in endemic areas. However, RDT may be flawed by some weakness in estimating parasite densities and
malaria 13888 densities. Furthermore, its inability to differentiate between the exact causes of fever in patients with malaria and bacterial infection or other fever causing pathogens has made it dicey in managing febrile patients
malaria 14009 infection or other fever causing pathogens has made it dicey in managing febrile patients with anti malaria l alone. There is also the problem of false positive results from diseases that produce heterophile antigens
malaria 14226 and false negative from, prozone effect, HRP2 gene deletion and poor quality RDT.These weaknesses in malaria RDT kits shows that it cannot solve all the problems of malaria diagnosis in endemic areas. The success
malaria 14290 poor quality RDT.These weaknesses in malaria RDT kits shows that it cannot solve all the problems of malaria diagnosis in endemic areas. The success of RDT cannot drown the nagging need of a scale up of laboratory
malaria 14597 other necessary laboratory tools to aid in the overall diagnosis of febrile and afebrile patients in malaria endemic areas.Limitations of the studyTwo search engines were used for this review and the researchers
trypanosomiasis 12888 positive results [[19]]. False positive results can arise from disease like Chagas diseases, leshmaniasis, trypanosomiasis and patients with rheumatoid factor (Fig. 3) [[19]–[21]].RDT negative in a patient without feverA

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