Predictors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in primary care among adults living in developed countries: a systematic review.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
AIDS 13 infectiousdiseases
Condyloma 2 infectiousdiseases
candidiasis 3 infectiousdiseases
hepatitis B 1 infectiousdiseases
oral candidiasis 1 infectiousdiseases
syphilis 2 infectiousdiseases
genital herpes 1 infectiousdiseases
herpes zoster 1 infectiousdiseases
pneumonia 1 infectiousdiseases

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AIDS 1138 demographic, socio-economic or clinical characteristics associated with the outcome, laboratory confirmed HIV/ AIDS infection. Observational studies with a comparator group were included in the systematic review. Electronic
AIDS 3118 weakens the immune system and is a subsequent causative agent of acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome ( AIDS ) [[1], [2]]. The virus is transmitted through the exchange of a variety of bodily fluids mainly sexually,
AIDS 3271 the exchange of a variety of bodily fluids mainly sexually, perinatal and blood-borne [[2], [3]]. HIV/ AIDS is one of the highest contributors to morbidity and the sixth leading cause of mortality worldwide [[2],
AIDS 3469 worldwide [[2], [4]]. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 1.5 million people died of HIV/ AIDS -related diseases and 36.7 million lived with HIV worldwide, in 2015 [[5]]. In 2015, it was estimated
AIDS 3616 with HIV worldwide, in 2015 [[5]]. In 2015, it was estimated that 594 deaths were associated with HIV\ AIDS in England and 101,200 people were estimated to live with HIV in the UK [[6]].The life expectancy of
AIDS 4441 moved to earlier HIV diagnosis [[10]]. WHO developed a strategy aimed at reducing new HIV infections, AIDS -related mortality and discrimination to zero with one of the HIV strategies being optimisation of ‘HIV
AIDS 6496 laboratory confirmation [[9]]. However, among those who visit their GP, a challenge is the fact that HIV/ AIDS has many signs and symptoms such as rashes, weight loss and respiratory infections and these are not
AIDS 6618 and symptoms such as rashes, weight loss and respiratory infections and these are not specific to HIV/ AIDS .Current UK guidelines from British HIV Association (BHIVA) recommend HIV testing to individuals from
AIDS 8766 related to the demographic, lifestyle, clinical and laboratory characteristics associated with HIV/ AIDS infection in adults in the developed world [[23], [24]].MethodsThis systematic review conforms to the
AIDS 9879 either people without risk factors or no comparison group. The outcome is laboratory-confirmed HIV/ AIDS infection.Study designThis review considers observational (analytical) studies, comparing groups and
AIDS 13682 2002–2012YesYesYesCannot say+2. Damery S. et al. (2013) [[17]]Case-control study939 cases and 2576 control, UKHIV/ AIDS diagnosis: Jan 1989–Sept 2010YesYesYesYes++3. Szerlip M.A. et al. (2005) [[39]]Case-control study
AIDS 15269 follow-upYesYesYesYes++12. Niyonsenga T (2013) [[37]]Cohort studyN = 20,528 (all cases with HIV/ AIDS diagnosis), FL, USAAIDS/HIV incidence: 1998–2002YesCannot sayYesCannot say+13. Ross, J. D. (1997)
AIDS 15293 follow-upYesYesYesYes++12. Niyonsenga T (2013) [[37]]Cohort studyN = 20,528 (all cases with HIV/AIDS diagnosis), FL, USA AIDS /HIV incidence: 1998–2002YesCannot sayYesCannot say+13. Ross, J. D. (1997) [[31]]Cohort studyN = 8466
Condyloma 24159 lymphoma12.6(2.13–15)Lymphogranuloma venereum7.1*(0.6–∞) GynaecologyCervical dysplasia2.9*(0.4–232.4) Condyloma acuminata12.1(1.2–600.9) HaematologyLeucocytopenia11.5(1.2–∞)Blood dyscrasia5.7(2.44–4) ENTLymphadenopathy11.3(5.15–5.3)29.8(4.4–∞)Parotitis8.6(1.68–11) OtherMononucleosis-like
Condyloma 30054 BLikely to be presentChronic liver diseaseLikely to be presentNon-Hodgkin’s lymphomaLikely to be present Condyloma acuminataLikely to be presentLeucocytopeniaLikely to be presentBlood dyscrasiaLikely to be presentLymphadenopathyLikely
candidiasis 23901 neuropathy15.9(2–∞)Neurologic disability in women2.4Neurologic disability in men1.9(1.1–3.2) GastroenterologyOral candidiasis 29.4(4.57–21.8)7.1*(0.6–∞)Hepatitis B11.5(1.2–∞)8.3(2.65–26.2)Chronic liver disease22%(15%–29%) OncologyNon-Hodgkin’s
candidiasis 26117 women and 1.9 times the risk in men [[43]]. The gastroenterological conditions identified were oral candidiasis (2 studies); 7.1 and 29.4 times the risk [[17], [41]], hepatitis B (2 studies); 8.3 and 11.5 times the
candidiasis 29907 to be presentPeripheral neuropathyLikely to be presentNeurologic disabilityLikely to be presentOral candidiasis Likely to be presentHepatitis BLikely to be presentChronic liver diseaseLikely to be presentNon-Hodgkin’s
genital herpes 27608 the risk [[30], [35]]; (iii) gonorrhoea (2 studies), 6.5 to 15.9 times the risk [[30], [41]] and (iv) genital herpes (1 study), 2.9 times the risk [[41]].DiscussionThis systematic review identified 10 demographic and
hepatitis B 26184 conditions identified were oral candidiasis (2 studies); 7.1 and 29.4 times the risk [[17], [41]], hepatitis B (2 studies); 8.3 and 11.5 times the risk [[44], [41]] and liver diseases (1 study), affecting 22% of
herpes zoster 25701 dermatological conditions identified were psoriasis (2 studies); 2.6 to 3 times the risk [[17], [41]] and herpes zoster (2 studies); 10.9 and 25.4 times the risk [[17], [41]].The evidence revealed that HIV infection was
oral candidiasis 26112 risk in women and 1.9 times the risk in men [[43]]. The gastroenterological conditions identified were oral candidiasis (2 studies); 7.1 and 29.4 times the risk [[17], [41]], hepatitis B (2 studies); 8.3 and 11.5 times the
pneumonia 25460 ophthalmology, ear, nose and throat (ENT) and other (not classified).The respiratory conditions identified were pneumonia (2 studies); 8 and 48 times the risk [[17], [41]] and pneumocystis in 52% of the HIV-infected patients
syphilis 24806 patientOne14.6(5.5–45.6)≥ 237.9(5.6-∞)Syphilis39.3(5.7–1703.9)7.35(2.52–21.5)12.7(7.28–22.3)Seropositive for syphilis *7.29(4.15–12.8)Infectious Syphilis diagnosis≤ 2 years3.86(1.99–7.5)≤ 14 days4.9(2.51–9.56)Chlamydia11.8(3–67.5)Chlamydia
syphilis 27391 37.9 times the risk [[17], [30], [35], [44], [41]], and the following infections were identified: (i) syphilis (3 studies), 3.9 to 39.3 times the risk [[30], [44], [41]]; (ii) chlamydia (2 studies), 2.3 to 11.8

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