and Alimentary Tract Diseases: A Review of Its Biological Functions and Pathology

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
tuberculosis 1 infectiousdiseases
abscess 5 infectiousdiseases
infectious disease 3 infectiousdiseases
levofloxacin 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
nocardiosis 1 infectiousdiseases
ofloxacin 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
penicillin G 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
piperacillin 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
actinomycosis 53 infectiousdiseases
amoxicillin 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
ceftriaxone 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
metronidazole 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
amoxicillin 18493 Actinomyces do not produce beta-lactamases and often are susceptible to beta-lactams antibiotics notably amoxicillin and penicillin G. The effects of other broad-spectrum antibiotics against Actinomyces, such as cephalosporins,
amoxicillin 20076 systemic intravenous penicillin treatment is usually needed, and the combination of penicillin G and amoxicillin has also been reported [[60]]. In one patient with gastric actinomycosis, the empiric antibiotic therapy
ceftriaxone 18616 penicillin G. The effects of other broad-spectrum antibiotics against Actinomyces, such as cephalosporins, ceftriaxone , and piperacillin, remain controversial and the acquisition of resistant flora should be avoided [[21],
levofloxacin 20220 In one patient with gastric actinomycosis, the empiric antibiotic therapy of IV metronidazole and IV levofloxacin were prescribed resulting in a complete cure [[58]].6. Possible Relationships between Actinomyces Species
metronidazole 19844 the oral cavity, Thukral et al. treated a male patient aged 35 years with intravenous penicillin and metronidazole followed by orally administered antibiotics for between 2 and 4 weeks [[73]]. For cases of esophageal
metronidazole 20199 been reported [[60]]. In one patient with gastric actinomycosis, the empiric antibiotic therapy of IV metronidazole and IV levofloxacin were prescribed resulting in a complete cure [[58]].6. Possible Relationships between
ofloxacin 20223 one patient with gastric actinomycosis, the empiric antibiotic therapy of IV metronidazole and IV lev ofloxacin were prescribed resulting in a complete cure [[58]].6. Possible Relationships between Actinomyces Species
penicillin G 18509 produce beta-lactamases and often are susceptible to beta-lactams antibiotics notably amoxicillin and penicillin G . The effects of other broad-spectrum antibiotics against Actinomyces, such as cephalosporins, ceftriaxone,
penicillin G 20059 actinomycosis, systemic intravenous penicillin treatment is usually needed, and the combination of penicillin G and amoxicillin has also been reported [[60]]. In one patient with gastric actinomycosis, the empiric
piperacillin 18633 effects of other broad-spectrum antibiotics against Actinomyces, such as cephalosporins, ceftriaxone, and piperacillin , remain controversial and the acquisition of resistant flora should be avoided [[21], [69], [70]]. At
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
abscess 4923 characterized by the formation of granulomatous tissue, necrosis and major reactive fibrosis, draining sinuses, abscess es, and the development of fistulas as the infection progresses [[19]]. Multiple different clinical features
abscess 15495 early diagnosis of actinomycosis could significantly improve the clinical outcome [[55]].Diagnosis. Any abscess es or persistent infections in the alimentary tract should be suggestive of actinomycosis, although the
abscess 15964 tuberculosis [[5]] as it can spread to distant tissues and organs in the human body progressively to form abscess es, which is analogous to tumor metastasis through invasive mechanisms. The culture of Actinomyces is
abscess 16496 “sulfur granules” at the infection sites is a typical histopathological change, which often contains abscess es with yellowish sulfur-like granules [[66]]. Thus, histopathological examination of infected tissue
abscess 19542 widespread necrotic tissues or who are nonresponsive to antibiotic therapy need surgical approaches to drain abscess es and relieve obstructions. In addition, for patients who underwent surgery, antibiotic therapy should
actinomycosis 685 date (epub): 8/2018AbstractActinomyces are nonmotile, filamentous, Gram-positive bacteria that cause actinomycosis in immunodeficiency patients. Although the prognosis of actinomycosis is good, the diagnosis of actinomycosis
actinomycosis 755 Gram-positive bacteria that cause actinomycosis in immunodeficiency patients. Although the prognosis of actinomycosis is good, the diagnosis of actinomycosis is quite difficult. Recent studies on actinomycosis have shown
actinomycosis 795 actinomycosis in immunodeficiency patients. Although the prognosis of actinomycosis is good, the diagnosis of actinomycosis is quite difficult. Recent studies on actinomycosis have shown that Actinomyces play an important role
actinomycosis 847 prognosis of actinomycosis is good, the diagnosis of actinomycosis is quite difficult. Recent studies on actinomycosis have shown that Actinomyces play an important role in various biological and clinical processes, such
actinomycosis 1158 tract. Here, the distribution of Actinomyces in the digestive tract, and different biological effects of actinomycosis , and its clinical association with inflammatory diseases are discussed. Furthermore, an overview of
actinomycosis 1672 the oral cavity, pharynx, gut, genitourinary tract, and skin [[1]]. Actinomyces also readily cause actinomycosis in immunodeficiency patients, which is an indolent progressing granulomatous disease [[2]]. Actinomycosis
actinomycosis 1901 affect all tissues and organs, categorized as cervicofacial, thoracic, abdominopelvic and other types of actinomycosis [[3]] (Figure 1). Although the prognosis of these infections normally is good with medical and surgical
actinomycosis 2031 1). Although the prognosis of these infections normally is good with medical and surgical treatments, actinomycosis still can lead to the death of patients due to the difficulties of early diagnosis and the severe infection
actinomycosis 2786 Actinomyces species in the alimentary canal, (2) the biological function of Actinomyces species, (3) actinomycosis diseases in the digestive tract with diagnosis and treatment, and (4) possible correlations between
actinomycosis 3765 dentium have been documented as important pathogens involved in infections with similar symptoms to actinomycosis [[15], [16]]. However, A. gerencseriae and A. israelii are the most commonly reported species found
actinomycosis 4103 israelii, A. meyeri, and A. odontolyticus are mainly associated with the rare hematogenous dissemination of actinomycosis [[17]]. It is noteworthy that most Actinomyces species are found colonizing polymicrobial flora. Human
actinomycosis 4220 [[17]]. It is noteworthy that most Actinomyces species are found colonizing polymicrobial flora. Human actinomycosis lesions usually consist of other aerobic and/or anaerobic species including A. actinomycetemcomitans,
actinomycosis 4605 identification of the infecting bacteria by culture and pathology are crucial for the diagnosis of actinomycosis and the choice of adjunctive antibiotics due to its polymicrobial nature.Actinomyces species are the
actinomycosis 4741 adjunctive antibiotics due to its polymicrobial nature.Actinomyces species are the causative agents for actinomycosis , which is a rare invasive bacterial disease and usually characterized by the formation of granulomatous
actinomycosis 5042 development of fistulas as the infection progresses [[19]]. Multiple different clinical features of actinomycosis at various anatomical sites have been described, which cervicofacial actinomycosis being the most commonly
actinomycosis 5125 clinical features of actinomycosis at various anatomical sites have been described, which cervicofacial actinomycosis being the most commonly reported form, accounting for about 50% of all cases [[20]], followed by abdominal
actinomycosis 5246 the most commonly reported form, accounting for about 50% of all cases [[20]], followed by abdominal actinomycosis (20%) and thoracic actinomycosis (15-20%) [[21]]. Involvement of the CNS, bone, and skin are rare conditions,
actinomycosis 5279 accounting for about 50% of all cases [[20]], followed by abdominal actinomycosis (20%) and thoracic actinomycosis (15-20%) [[21]]. Involvement of the CNS, bone, and skin are rare conditions, most likely occurring as
actinomycosis 5569 infected lesions [[22], [23]]. It is widely assumed that the decline in the incidence of all forms of actinomycosis in recent years is due to improved oral hygiene and the organism's susceptibility to many antimicrobial
actinomycosis 5730 and the organism's susceptibility to many antimicrobial drugs used for bacteria diseases. However, actinomycosis is still widely distributed worldwide and affects mostly middle-aged individuals, especially males [[19],
actinomycosis 8902 naeslundii, and A. radicidentis may be involved in causing the disease [[39]]. For various types of actinomycosis in the alimentary tract, the major Actinomyces species leading to abdominal actinomycosis include A.
actinomycosis 8992 types of actinomycosis in the alimentary tract, the major Actinomyces species leading to abdominal actinomycosis include A. israelii and A. meyeri. Actinomycosis involvement of the liver and biliary tract is rare
actinomycosis 9291 Actinomyces species such as A. funkei, A. odontolyticus, and A. turicensis have been implicated in liver actinomycosis [[40]–[42]].4. Biological Functions of Actinomyces SpeciesAs one of the normal bacteria colonizing
actinomycosis 9819 recycle organic compounds in the human gastrointestinal system [[28]]. The specific pathogenesis of actinomycosis has still not been fully elucidated, but this type of infection is accompanied by long-term inflammatory
actinomycosis 10578 viscosus antigens [[45]]. However, usually the Actinomyces species would not produce infections alone and actinomycosis often involves companion bacteria such as Gram-negative bacilli and anaerobic Streptococci. Jordan et
actinomycosis 13097 infections, malignant tumors, and damage to the gastrointestinal mucosa [[55]–[60]].More examples of actinomycosis in the alimentary tract accompanied with other diseases are presented. Lee et al. reported a 41-year-old
actinomycosis 13356 [[59]]. Meanwhile, a 30-year-old man with a previous endodontic treatment history contracted periapical actinomycosis [[61]], and a 27-yar-old male who had a history of renal transplantation for renal disease secondary
actinomycosis 13510 history of renal transplantation for renal disease secondary to lupus was diagnosed with esophageal actinomycosis [[62]]. Also, Al-Obaidy et al. reported a case about primary gastric actinomycosis. Although the patient
actinomycosis 13593 with esophageal actinomycosis [[62]]. Also, Al-Obaidy et al. reported a case about primary gastric actinomycosis . Although the patient (87 years old) did not have a history of trauma or underwent abdominal surgery,
actinomycosis 14089 that age-related mucosal atrophy was able to induce diminished mucosal resistance [[58]]. Therefore, actinomycosis frequently occurs in immunodeficient or immunocompromised patients due to other infections or the prescribed
actinomycosis 14318 medication.The colon, cecum, and appendix are the gastrointestinal tract regions commonly associated with actinomycosis [[29]]. Actinomyces species infection can proceed over many weeks or even years after destruction of
actinomycosis 14673 predisposing factors [[63]]. Peitsidis et al. reported a 35-year-old woman who was diagnosed with appendix actinomycosis . This young woman had a long-standing intrauterine device, which can be a risk factor for infectious
actinomycosis 14896 [[64]].Although the prognosis of infectious disease is generally good, there was still one case of actinomycosis in the mediastinum leading to the death of the patient. In this case, the infection spreads from the
actinomycosis 15410 attention and raise high awareness about possible actinomycetic infections, when an early diagnosis of actinomycosis could significantly improve the clinical outcome [[55]].Diagnosis. Any abscesses or persistent infections
actinomycosis 15578 [[55]].Diagnosis. Any abscesses or persistent infections in the alimentary tract should be suggestive of actinomycosis , although the symptomatic diagnoses of these infectious diseases are often painless [[65]] and accompanied
actinomycosis 15794 accompanied by other systemic diseases [[58], [61], [62]]. It is important for physicians to be aware that actinomycosis frequently ‘imitates' malignancy nocardiosis or tuberculosis [[5]] as it can spread to distant tissues
actinomycosis 16818 sulfur granules containing filamentous Gram-positive bacilli and inflammatory cells [[67]].For suspected actinomycosis in the alimentary tract, endoscopic examinations and CT scans are useful to gain an overview of the
actinomycosis 17248 specimens, as the lesions are resected after misdiagnosis [[55], [57]]. In a rare case of ascending colon actinomycosis , Filippou et al. applied CT imaging to identify a tumor-like mass. The characteristics of the lesion
actinomycosis 17929 should be an appendiceal tumor but the histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed it was actinomycosis of the appendix [[56]].Nucleic acid probes and PCR techniques have recently been developed to identify
actinomycosis 18046 the appendix [[56]].Nucleic acid probes and PCR techniques have recently been developed to identify actinomycosis in an accurate and rapid manner. Hansen et al. applied a PCR method with mild decalcification to detect
actinomycosis 18335 of these genera was remarkably improved. Therefore, improved molecular methods for the diagnosis of actinomycosis would be one option.For the Treatment. Actinomyces do not produce beta-lactamases and often are susceptible
actinomycosis 18907 first-generation cephalosporins. Clavulanic acid, a beta-lactam inhibitor, should be combined to treat actinomycosis if copathogens, e.g., Enterobacteriaceae, have been implicated in the infection [[21], [69], [70]].
actinomycosis 19100 [[21], [69], [70]]. Applying prolonged therapies with high doses of antibiotics is the key to cure actinomycosis as the induration of the infection sites, which means the blood supply would be insufficient for antibiotics
actinomycosis 19340 the infected tissues. Although prolonged antimicrobial therapy is effective for most patients with actinomycosis , surgery should be considered in complicated cases. For example, patients with widespread necrotic tissues
actinomycosis 19726 antibiotic therapy should be prolonged to prevent the recurrence of the infection [[71], [72]].For actinomycosis in the oral cavity, Thukral et al. treated a male patient aged 35 years with intravenous penicillin
actinomycosis 19960 followed by orally administered antibiotics for between 2 and 4 weeks [[73]]. For cases of esophageal actinomycosis , systemic intravenous penicillin treatment is usually needed, and the combination of penicillin G and
actinomycosis 20147 combination of penicillin G and amoxicillin has also been reported [[60]]. In one patient with gastric actinomycosis , the empiric antibiotic therapy of IV metronidazole and IV levofloxacin were prescribed resulting in
actinomycosis 26088 indicated that the damage of the wall of the digestive tract was one of the leading etiology causes of actinomycosis [[93]], but primary gastric actinomycosis was also reported [[58]]. Therefore, further studies on the
actinomycosis 26130 digestive tract was one of the leading etiology causes of actinomycosis [[93]], but primary gastric actinomycosis was also reported [[58]]. Therefore, further studies on the pathogenesis of the actinomycosis in the
actinomycosis 26224 gastric actinomycosis was also reported [[58]]. Therefore, further studies on the pathogenesis of the actinomycosis in the alimentary tract are required.8. ConclusionsActinomycosis caused by Actinomyces species in the
actinomycosis 26623 from the oral to intestinal tract and have different biological functions and clinical features of actinomycosis . Changes of formation and interactions of Actinomyces species with other microbiota members contribute
actinomycosis 27156 techniques including PCR and 16S RNA sequencing have recently been developed for the speedy diagnosis of actinomycosis and to identify accurately the infective Actinomyces species. Patients with actinomycosis may “mimic”
actinomycosis 27246 diagnosis of actinomycosis and to identify accurately the infective Actinomyces species. Patients with actinomycosis may “mimic” other malignancy processes in different locations of the alimentary tract and usually
infectious disease 14777 actinomycosis. This young woman had a long-standing intrauterine device, which can be a risk factor for infectious disease s [[64]].Although the prognosis of infectious disease is generally good, there was still one case of
infectious disease 14830 intrauterine device, which can be a risk factor for infectious diseases [[64]].Although the prognosis of infectious disease is generally good, there was still one case of actinomycosis in the mediastinum leading to the death
infectious disease 15637 alimentary tract should be suggestive of actinomycosis, although the symptomatic diagnoses of these infectious disease s are often painless [[65]] and accompanied by other systemic diseases [[58], [61], [62]]. It is important
nocardiosis 15843 [62]]. It is important for physicians to be aware that actinomycosis frequently ‘imitates' malignancy nocardiosis or tuberculosis [[5]] as it can spread to distant tissues and organs in the human body progressively
tuberculosis 15858 important for physicians to be aware that actinomycosis frequently ‘imitates' malignancy nocardiosis or tuberculosis [[5]] as it can spread to distant tissues and organs in the human body progressively to form abscesses,

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