Atypical leishmaniasis: A global perspective with emphasis on the Indian subcontinent

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
mucocutaneous leishmaniasis 1 infectiousdiseases
visceral leishmaniasis 9 infectiousdiseases
cutaneous leishmaniasis 11 infectiousdiseases

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cutaneous leishmaniasis 3663 In essence, it is a disease complex exhibiting a gradation of clinical manifestations ranging from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with skin lesions to mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) involving the mucous membrane to a lethal
cutaneous leishmaniasis 3717 gradation of clinical manifestations ranging from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with skin lesions to muco cutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) involving the mucous membrane to a lethal systemic form, visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The disease
cutaneous leishmaniasis 7421 10.3. Regional distributions of disease were georeferenced with UTM projection taking WGS84 datum. CL, cutaneous leishmaniasis ; VL, visceral leishmaniasis.10.1371/journal.pntd.0006659.g002Fig 2Geographical distribution of classical
cutaneous leishmaniasis 8338 10.3. Regional distributions of disease were georeferenced with UTM projection taking WGS84 datum. CL, cutaneous leishmaniasis ; VL, visceral leishmaniasis.Visceral leishmaniasisVL is the systemic form of the disease that can be
cutaneous leishmaniasis 10209 to be caused by L. tropica [[19]]. Similar L. tropica–associated VL cases, accompanied by diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL), have been reported from southern Iran [[18]]. In Kenya, both cutaneous and visceral forms are
cutaneous leishmaniasis 13128 parasite variants belonging to parasite species that generally cause VL (Fig 1 and S1 Table).Atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis Multiple reports from known and newer leishmaniasis-inflicted regions have implicated L. donovani, L.
cutaneous leishmaniasis 13363 infantum/L. chagasi as the causative agent of CL, at times with mucosal manifestations.L. infantum/L. chagasi cutaneous leishmaniasis L. infantum is known predominantly as the etiological agent of VL in the Mediterranean region compared
cutaneous leishmaniasis 23395 reports of CL in immigrants from the Middle East have been documented in Bangladesh [[68]].Atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinentCL is now reported from newer endemic regions in Sri Lanka and India in the
cutaneous leishmaniasis 38890 leishmaniasis control and elimination.Top five papersSharma NL, Mahajan VK, Kanga A et al. (2005) Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania donovani and Leishmania tropica: preliminary findings of the study of 161 new cases
cutaneous leishmaniasis 39202 medicine and hygiene 72: 819–824.Karunaweera N, Pratlong F, Siriwardane H et al (2003) Sri Lankan cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania donovani zymodeme MON-37. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine
cutaneous leishmaniasis 39983 genetic relationship but, also, genetic differences between Indian strains of Leishmania tropica causing cutaneous leishmaniasis and those causing visceral leishmaniasis. Parasites & vectors 7: 123Supporting informationS1 TableGeographical
mucocutaneous leishmaniasis 3713 gradation of clinical manifestations ranging from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with skin lesions to mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) involving the mucous membrane to a lethal systemic form, visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The disease
visceral leishmaniasis 3804 lesions to mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) involving the mucous membrane to a lethal systemic form, visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The disease has a wide geographical occurrence, covering 97 countries and territories with endemic
visceral leishmaniasis 7450 disease were georeferenced with UTM projection taking WGS84 datum. CL, cutaneous leishmaniasis; VL, visceral leishmaniasis .10.1371/journal.pntd.0006659.g002Fig 2Geographical distribution of classical and atypical leishmaniasis
visceral leishmaniasis 8367 disease were georeferenced with UTM projection taking WGS84 datum. CL, cutaneous leishmaniasis; VL, visceral leishmaniasis .Visceral leishmaniasisVL is the systemic form of the disease that can be fatal if not treated. An estimated
visceral leishmaniasis 9256 classically associated with cutaneous disease cause the viscerotropic phenotype (Fig 1 and S1 Table).Atypical visceral leishmaniasis A series of reports imply that L. tropica, L. amazonensis, and L. major, classically associated with
visceral leishmaniasis 9422 L. amazonensis, and L. major, classically associated with CL, can rarely cause VL disease.L. tropica visceral leishmaniasis Although L. tropica is typically associated with CL in the Old World, L. tropica isolates that exhibit
visceral leishmaniasis 11243 fraction of parasite isolates from classical VL cases have been typed as L. tropica [[4]].L. amazonensis visceral leishmaniasis L. amazonensis generally associated with CL is reported to cause all three forms of leishmaniasis in
visceral leishmaniasis 11626 manifestations exhibited genetic heterogeneity in a study carried out in northeastern Brazil [[27]].L. major visceral leishmaniasis L. major is classically associated with CL; however, more recently, viscerotropic dissemination of L.
visceral leishmaniasis 21734 to avoid resurgence and to achieve sustainable elimination of the disease from the country.Atypical visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinentApart from the newer VL foci discovered, a series of atypical disease manifestations
visceral leishmaniasis 40025 differences between Indian strains of Leishmania tropica causing cutaneous leishmaniasis and those causing visceral leishmaniasis . Parasites & vectors 7: 123Supporting informationS1 TableGeographical distribution of classical and

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