Pyrethroid resistance in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in Southeast Asia: present situation and prospects for management.

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dengue fever 2 infectiousdiseases
dengue hemorrhagic fever 1 infectiousdiseases
infectious disease 1 infectiousdiseases
malathion 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
permethrin 43 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
yellow fever 2 infectiousdiseases
chikungunya 2 infectiousdiseases

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malathion 27912 Malaysia at all times since the first outbreak in 1973. Regardless of extensive fogging operations with malathion in Malaysia as early as the 1970s, and followed by the replacement of pyrethroids like permethrin and
malathion 31001 adulticides used in Malaysia [[76]]. Moreover, the development of permethrin resistance at a higher rate than malathion and temephos [[77]] might be closely associated with gene activation due to the exposure to insecticidal
permethrin 4323 gene by depolarizing neurons [[4], [5]], paralyzing and eventually killing the insect. Deltamethrin, cy permethrin , cyfluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, pyrethrum, bifenthrin, d-phenothrin,
permethrin 4367 paralyzing and eventually killing the insect. Deltamethrin, cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin , alpha-cypermethrin, pyrethrum, bifenthrin, d-phenothrin, z-cypermethrin and etofenprox are the major
permethrin 4387 killing the insect. Deltamethrin, cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, alpha-cy permethrin , pyrethrum, bifenthrin, d-phenothrin, z-cypermethrin and etofenprox are the major types of pyrethroids
permethrin 4440 cyfluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, pyrethrum, bifenthrin, d-phenothrin, z-cy permethrin and etofenprox are the major types of pyrethroids used, and that their treatments usually involve either
permethrin 4635 usually involve either residual or space spray [[6]]. Narrowing down to Southeast Asia, deltamethrin, permethrin , alpha-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin are commonly employed in suppressing Ae. aegypti,
permethrin 4655 residual or space spray [[6]]. Narrowing down to Southeast Asia, deltamethrin, permethrin, alpha-cy permethrin , cyfluthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin are commonly employed in suppressing Ae. aegypti, particularly in
permethrin 16232 be overexpressed in resistant strains in many studies, projecting their capability in metabolizing permethrin [[25], [53], [54]].Esterase hydrolysis of pyrethroids resulting in the detoxification process has assumed
permethrin 21045 encompassing Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Kampong Cham and Battambang using both temephos and pyrethroids ( permethrin and deltamethrin). Resistance to permethrin and deltamethrin were reported in Ae. aegypti populations
permethrin 21089 Cham and Battambang using both temephos and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin). Resistance to permethrin and deltamethrin were reported in Ae. aegypti populations from all the aforementioned study sites [[59]].
permethrin 22848 Ae. aegypti populations from West Java (Ciamis, Purwakarta and Bogor) and Bandung were resistant to permethrin , lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and d-allethrin [[11], [37]]. Despite high LT90 values being recorded
permethrin 22882 Java (Ciamis, Purwakarta and Bogor) and Bandung were resistant to permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cy permethrin and d-allethrin [[11], [37]]. Despite high LT90 values being recorded [[11]], their resistant status
permethrin 23955 and Surabaya [[12]]. Adult Ae. aegypti from Bandung demonstrated the highest resistance level to both permethrin and deltamethrin, corresponding to the high levels of activity of enzymes tested, i.e. oxidases, esterase
permethrin 25574 [66]]. The V1016G mutation was most frequently detected in high frequencies, remarkably associated with permethrin and deltamethrin resistance in Ae. aegypti. Previous reports discovered relatively low frequency of
permethrin 27101 from five provinces and populations involved in the study identified high level of resistance against permethrin , which contrast with deltamethrin that exhibited high susceptibility in Ae. aegypti [[43]]. Higher quantities
permethrin 28009 with malathion in Malaysia as early as the 1970s, and followed by the replacement of pyrethroids like permethrin and deltamethrin in early 1998 until today [[71]], dengue remains number one infectious disease with
permethrin 28587 Kelantan and Pahang. The urban strain of Ae. aegypti from Kuala Lumpur showed the highest resistance to permethrin , validating the high levels of esterase compared to the laboratory strain [[73]]. This result was in
permethrin 28983 Both larval and adult bioassays of the field strains confirmed the development of tolerance towards permethrin with several folds higher than the laboratory strain [[7]], indicating high reliability on chemical
permethrin 29273 hotspots. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) was also reported to be effective in enhancing the effectiveness of permethrin through which strong correlations were confirmed between LC50 or LT50 values and oxidase levels for
permethrin 29459 values and oxidase levels for all strains [[7]], implying the involvement of oxidase activity in causing permethrin resistance in this mosquito species.Another similar study performed at dengue-prone sites of Selangor
permethrin 29637 at dengue-prone sites of Selangor documented resistance and incipient resistance of Ae. aegypti to permethrin (mortality ≤ 80%) and cyfluthrin (mortality 45–97.8%), respectively [[8]]. Although cyfluthrin was
permethrin 30787 more than 10 years. Of several studies conducted in the country, insecticide susceptibility status of permethrin was often tested against Ae. aegypti in Malaysia because this insecticide is one of the main adulticides
permethrin 30957 this insecticide is one of the main adulticides used in Malaysia [[76]]. Moreover, the development of permethrin resistance at a higher rate than malathion and temephos [[77]] might be closely associated with gene
permethrin 31307 the field strains of Ae. aegypti from Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Johor Bharu and Kota Bharu tested against permethrin and deltamethrin, the mosquito strains from Kuala Lumpur remained to exhibit the highest resistance
permethrin 37176 use of pyrethroid was completed in 1997 in Cebu city. It was proven that treatment of curtains with permethrin was an effective vector control measure [[89]]. These preliminary studies facilitated in verifying the
permethrin 38074 [[90]]. In the 1970s, pyrethroids were first introduced to the country to deprive the populations but permethrin resistance was identified in field Ae. aegypti later [[91]]. Subsequently, an assessment in 1999 revealed
permethrin 38240 [[91]]. Subsequently, an assessment in 1999 revealed a 12.9-fold of RR50 of field Ae. aegypti against permethrin [[13]]. Resistance of Ae. aegypti to cypermethrin was also reported in a study between 2004–2007 [[92]].
permethrin 38290 a 12.9-fold of RR50 of field Ae. aegypti against permethrin [[13]]. Resistance of Ae. aegypti to cy permethrin was also reported in a study between 2004–2007 [[92]]. More recently, the detection of resistance
permethrin 38538 further verified by two comprehensive nationwide insecticide resistance studies on larvae tested with permethrin and etofenprox, as well as adults with cypermethrin, deltamethrin and etofenprox [[14], [15]]. Despite
permethrin 38590 insecticide resistance studies on larvae tested with permethrin and etofenprox, as well as adults with cy permethrin , deltamethrin and etofenprox [[14], [15]]. Despite the a few decades of gap between these studies, high
permethrin 40457 aegypti were first reported in Singapore. They exerted the largest pressure in channel sensitivity to permethrin and deltamathrin by 1100-fold and 90-fold [[94]], implying the likelihood of reduced efficacy to pyrethroid
permethrin 40970 mirrored by the highly-resistant Ae. aegypti Singapore (SP) strain, showing 1,650-fold of resistant to permethrin and PBO has reduced the resistance by 48-fold [[25]]. P450 genes (CYP4C50, 6BB2, 6F2, 6F3, 6Z7, 6Z8,
permethrin 42896 decades. Increasing tolerance or resistance to different types of pyrethroids, namely deltamethrin, permethrin , dieldrin, bioallethrin, bioresmethrin or alphacypermethrin, has been reported in larval and adult Ae.
permethrin 42956 types of pyrethroids, namely deltamethrin, permethrin, dieldrin, bioallethrin, bioresmethrin or alphacy permethrin , has been reported in larval and adult Ae. aegypti in Thailand [[16]–[18], [96]–[101]]. The absence
permethrin 43562 Ae. aegypti addressed the issue that all 32 strains of Ae. aegypti were discovered to be resistant to permethrin , ranging between 4.0–56.4% [[102]]. The frequency of susceptibility to deltamethrin in this species
permethrin 43958 aegypti were entirely susceptible to lambda-cyhalothrin with 100% mortality. Significantly high levels of permethrin resistance were documented by [[18]] (5% mortality) and [[96]] (2–9% mortality) which contrast with
permethrin 44195 This may attribute to the differences in sampling sites and the alterations in levels of exposure to permethrin .Personal protection tools, for instance mosquito coils, are extensively used in Thailand but these products
permethrin 47559 resistance. Subsequently, the F1534C mutation was discovered as a novel amino acid mutation in 2010 in permethrin -resistant Ae. aegypti, and was reported to play a significant role in contributing permethrin resistance
permethrin 47653 2010 in permethrin-resistant Ae. aegypti, and was reported to play a significant role in contributing permethrin resistance in multiple field strains [[108]]. The wide distribution of this mutation led to the development
permethrin 47972 and an AS-PCR assay, which proved to be consistent in detecting the F1534C resistance mutation in the permethrin -resistance Ae. aegypti populations [[108]]. Recently, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was
permethrin 50831 required when a difference of low kdr resistant allele frequency of S989P and V1016G with high level of permethrin resistance was reported in field strains of Ae. aegypti, which this implies detoxification enzymes show
permethrin 51497 higher relative to the susceptible strain, signifying that both enzyme groups show no major role in permethrin resistance [[113]]. In contrast, the subsequent biochemical assay of metabolic enzymes tested with field
permethrin 51719 aegypti to pyrethroid resistance revealed esterase, monooxygenase and GST are closely associated with permethrin resistance whereas deltamethrin resistance is related to esterase and monooxygenase [[21]]. Later, a
permethrin 53226 insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti and the respective biochemical mechanisms using pyrethroids ( permethrin , resmethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin). These insecticides were in line with the other insecticides used more
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
chikungunya 401 (collection): /2018AbstractHuman arboviral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever remain global public health threats to date. Of these diseases, dengue fever is particularly
chikungunya 1952 research needs are also discussed.BackgroundDengue virus (DENV) and other arboviruses such as Zika virus, chikungunya virus and yellow fever virus are transmitted by Aedes aegypti. This highly adapted species thrives in
dengue fever 494 Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever remain global public health threats to date. Of these diseases, dengue fever is particularly prevalent in Southeast Asia. Relentless vector control efforts are performed to curtail
dengue fever 3525 pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegyptiGeographical expansion of Aedes aegypti has fostered the incidence of dengue fever s (DF) to gain an apparent increase worldwide, which put an estimation of almost half of the world’s
dengue hemorrhagic fever 41732 species is widespread in many countries in this sub-region. Thailand first experienced outbreaks of dengue hemorrhagic fever in 1958 and the disease has since then distributed nationwide [[95]]. To date, DF or DHF remain a severe
infectious disease 28097 pyrethroids like permethrin and deltamethrin in early 1998 until today [[71]], dengue remains number one infectious disease with a total of 101,357 cases reported in the country [[72]]. Numerous surveillance activities have
yellow fever 417 /2018AbstractHuman arboviral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever remain global public health threats to date. Of these diseases, dengue fever is particularly prevalent
yellow fever 1974 discussed.BackgroundDengue virus (DENV) and other arboviruses such as Zika virus, chikungunya virus and yellow fever virus are transmitted by Aedes aegypti. This highly adapted species thrives in urban and suburban areas.

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