A scoping review on the field validation and implementation of rapid diagnostic tests for vector-borne and other infectious diseases of poverty in urban areas

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
cholera 7 infectiousdiseases
leprosy 7 infectiousdiseases
leptospirosis 12 infectiousdiseases
schistosomiasis 13 infectiousdiseases
trachoma 1 infectiousdiseases
tuberculosis 13 infectiousdiseases
Chagas disease 13 infectiousdiseases
echinococcosis 1 infectiousdiseases
infectious disease 14 infectiousdiseases
onchocerciasis 1 infectiousdiseases
trypanosomiasis 8 infectiousdiseases
visceral leishmaniasis 12 infectiousdiseases
filariasis 11 infectiousdiseases
malaria 26 infectiousdiseases
viral encephalitis 1 infectiousdiseases

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Chagas disease 1822 n = 5), enteric fever and schistosomiasis (each n = 3), dengue and leprosy (each n = 2), and Chagas disease , human African trypanosomiasis, and cholera (each n = 1). Reported sensitivity of rapid tests was
Chagas disease 2779 more evidence on performance of current tests or development of new alternatives is needed for dengue, Chagas disease , filariasis, leptospirosis, enteric fever, human African trypanosomiasis, schistosomiasis and cholera.Electronic
Chagas disease 13048 enteric fever and schistosomiasis (n = 3 each, 1.7%), dengue and leprosy (n = 2 each, 1%), and Chagas disease , African trypanosomiasis, and cholera (n = 1 each, 0.6%). More than half of the studies were carried
Chagas disease 17023 combination of ELISA plus indirect haemagglutination (IHA) plus immunofluorescent antibody assay for Chagas disease , and culture for cholera (Additional file 3: Table S2: Details of included studies).MalariaThere were
Chagas disease 34414 and 72.2% of community contacts [[191]]. (Additional file 3: Table S2: Details of included studies). Chagas disease One study assessed the Chagas Detect Plus rapid test (InBios, Seattle, WA, USA) against conventional
Chagas disease 36078 (visceral leishmaniasis, filariasis, leptospirosis, enteric fever, schistosomiasis, dengue, leprosy, Chagas disease , human African trypanosomiasis, and cholera), supporting the need to further improve research and product
Chagas disease 40021 relatively few studies on visceral leishmaniasis, dengue, schistosomiasis, leprosy, enteric fever, Chagas disease , and human African trypanosomiasis, even though at least one systematic review of diagnostics for each
Chagas disease 42108 not by themselves, but potentially in combination with other tests [[208]]. While the rapid test for Chagas disease was highly sensitive and specific, the performance of the rapid test for human African trypanosomiasis
Chagas disease 42249 specific, the performance of the rapid test for human African trypanosomiasis was disappointing. For Chagas disease and human African trypanosomiasis, the available systematic reviews do not include the identified rapid
Chagas disease 42453 identified rapid tests we found in this search [[209], [210]]. A systematic review of rapid tests for Chagas disease could provide the evidence required to inform decisions. This is also true for filariasis and leptospirosis,
Chagas disease 44635 rapid diagnostics. • Conduct systematic reviews of diagnostic performance of rapid tests for TB, Chagas disease , filariasis, leptospirosis, and simultaneous detection of NS1 and IgM for dengue. • Harmonize protocols
Chagas disease 49504 that have been evaluated and fewer options for other diseases, such as visceral leishmaniasis, dengue, Chagas disease , leptospirosis, filariasis, and leprosy. The field performance of malaria rapid diagnostics depends
Chagas disease 50145 reviews of rapid diagnostics for dengue using simultaneous detection of both NS1 and IgM, as well as for Chagas disease , filariasis, and leptospirosis, are required to provide evidence on their performance and hence, suitability
cholera 1873 n = 3), dengue and leprosy (each n = 2), and Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis, and cholera (each n = 1). Reported sensitivity of rapid tests was variable depending on several factors. Overall,
cholera 2052 depending on several factors. Overall, specificities were high (> 80%), except for schistosomiasis and cholera . Impact and implementation outcomes, mainly acceptability and cost, followed by adoption, feasibility,
cholera 2888 disease, filariasis, leptospirosis, enteric fever, human African trypanosomiasis, schistosomiasis and cholera .Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s40249-018-0474-8) contains
cholera 13093 each, 1.7%), dengue and leprosy (n = 2 each, 1%), and Chagas disease, African trypanosomiasis, and cholera (n = 1 each, 0.6%). More than half of the studies were carried out in Africa (n = 99, 55%), followed
cholera 17055 indirect haemagglutination (IHA) plus immunofluorescent antibody assay for Chagas disease, and culture for cholera (Additional file 3: Table S2: Details of included studies).MalariaThere were 100 studies on malaria,
cholera 35098 screening [[193]]. (Additional file 3: Table S2: Details of included studies).CholeraThere was one study on cholera that showed 91.7% sensitivity and 72.9% specificity of the Crystal VC kit (Span Diagnostics, Surat,
cholera 36129 enteric fever, schistosomiasis, dengue, leprosy, Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis, and cholera ), supporting the need to further improve research and product development, including rapid diagnostics,
echinococcosis 36392 the other diseases included in our search strategy (viral encephalitis, viral haemorrhagic fevers, echinococcosis , rickettsial diseases, onchocerciasis, and trachoma) might reflect the even lower investment in diagnostic
filariasis 1685 Fewer studies, assessing mainly performance, were identified for visceral leishmaniasis (n = 9), filariasis and leptospirosis (each n = 5), enteric fever and schistosomiasis (each n = 3), dengue and leprosy
filariasis 2795 performance of current tests or development of new alternatives is needed for dengue, Chagas disease, filariasis , leptospirosis, enteric fever, human African trypanosomiasis, schistosomiasis and cholera.Electronic
filariasis 12897 (n = 100, 56%) and tuberculosis (n = 47, 26%), followed by visceral leishmaniasis (n = 9, 5%), filariasis and leptospirosis (n = 5 each, 3%), enteric fever and schistosomiasis (n = 3 each, 1.7%), dengue
filariasis 15954 studies. Light microscopy was the diagnostic reference standard most frequently used in malaria and filariasis . For malaria, microscopy alone was used in 37 studies, and together with PCR in 12 studies. All four
filariasis 16066 For malaria, microscopy alone was used in 37 studies, and together with PCR in 12 studies. All four filariasis studies used microscopy as reference standard. More variability in the standards used was observed in
filariasis 29930 specificity [[176]]. (Additional file 3: Table S2: Details of included studies).FilariasisFive studies on filariasis assessed performance or acceptability of rapid tests. They reported excellent agreement, with kappa
filariasis 36002 funding agencies. Fewer studies were found on neglected tropical diseases (visceral leishmaniasis, filariasis , leptospirosis, enteric fever, schistosomiasis, dengue, leprosy, Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis,
filariasis 42547 tests for Chagas disease could provide the evidence required to inform decisions. This is also true for filariasis and leptospirosis, which showed contrasting results in the performance of the available rapid tests.The
filariasis 44651 diagnostics. • Conduct systematic reviews of diagnostic performance of rapid tests for TB, Chagas disease, filariasis , leptospirosis, and simultaneous detection of NS1 and IgM for dengue. • Harmonize protocols for validation
filariasis 49535 options for other diseases, such as visceral leishmaniasis, dengue, Chagas disease, leptospirosis, filariasis , and leprosy. The field performance of malaria rapid diagnostics depends upon epidemiological, technical
filariasis 50161 diagnostics for dengue using simultaneous detection of both NS1 and IgM, as well as for Chagas disease, filariasis , and leptospirosis, are required to provide evidence on their performance and hence, suitability of
infectious disease 150 review on the field validation and implementation of rapid diagnostic tests for vector-borne and other infectious disease s of poverty in urban areasLyda OsorioJonny Alejandro GarciaLuis Gabriel ParraVictor GarciaLaura TorresStéphanie
infectious disease 1017 was conducted. Peer-reviewed and grey literature were searched using terms describing the targeted infectious disease s, diagnostics evaluations, rapid tests, and urban setting. The review was limited to studies published
infectious disease 3781 acceptable in relation to the expected needs of the patient, the physician, and the health system. For infectious disease s, there is a recognized need for speed in this process, as timely correct treatment can improve patients’
infectious disease 4442 made to improve validation and prioritize research and development of rapid diagnostics for tropical infectious disease s in developing countries as a key element in case management both within and outside hospital settings,
infectious disease 4765 [[2]].Research and development of rapid diagnostics for vector-borne diseases (VBDs) and other poverty-related infectious disease s have been hampered by lack of investment, weak and heterogeneous regulatory standards, and insufficient
infectious disease 5345 where social and environmental determinants facilitate the emergence, re-emergence and dissemination of infectious disease s [[4]]. Hence, the objective of the present study was to summarize the evidence on field validation
infectious disease 5538 evidence on field validation and implementation in urban areas of rapid diagnostics for VBDs and other infectious disease s of poverty to inform decision-makers and future research. This is part of a series of scoping reviews
infectious disease 6675 strategy was constructed to answer the research questions of what rapid diagnostic tests for VBD and other infectious disease s of poverty in urban areas have been evaluated and what those evaluations were and found [[5]]. Search
infectious disease 6868 were and found [[5]]. Search terms were defined that described four key concepts: 1) VBDs and other infectious disease s; 2) urban area; 3) diagnostic technologies; and 4) characteristics of rapid diagnostic technologies,
infectious disease 8693 The following exclusion criteria were applied to titles, abstracts, and full texts: not relating to infectious disease s; none of our targeted infectious diseases; not conducted in humans or on human samples; not conducted
infectious disease 8735 applied to titles, abstracts, and full texts: not relating to infectious diseases; none of our targeted infectious disease s; not conducted in humans or on human samples; not conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs),
infectious disease 35429 of included studies).DiscussionWe sought to identify which rapid diagnostic tests for VBDs and other infectious disease s of poverty in urban areas have been evaluated in the field and what were the evaluation results. The
infectious disease 45062 documents in four languages (English, Spanish, French, and Portuguese) and a comprehensive list of infectious disease s. In fact, a substantial number of titles and abstracts were retrieved. The aim of this scoping review
infectious disease 49270 overview of the field validation and implementation studies of rapid diagnostic tests for VBD and other infectious disease s of poverty in urban areas. We identified a relatively large number of available malaria rapid diagnostic
leprosy 1793 filariasis and leptospirosis (each n = 5), enteric fever and schistosomiasis (each n = 3), dengue and leprosy (each n = 2), and Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis, and cholera (each n = 1). Reported
leprosy 13015 leptospirosis (n = 5 each, 3%), enteric fever and schistosomiasis (n = 3 each, 1.7%), dengue and leprosy (n = 2 each, 1%), and Chagas disease, African trypanosomiasis, and cholera (n = 1 each, 0.6%).
leprosy 33528 [[189]]. (Additional file 3: Table S2: Details of included studies).LeprosyTwo studies reported on leprosy assessed the impact and performance of the ML Flow rapid test, and one reported the acceptability of
leprosy 36069 diseases (visceral leishmaniasis, filariasis, leptospirosis, enteric fever, schistosomiasis, dengue, leprosy , Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis, and cholera), supporting the need to further improve
leprosy 39997 review.Our search retrieved relatively few studies on visceral leishmaniasis, dengue, schistosomiasis, leprosy , enteric fever, Chagas disease, and human African trypanosomiasis, even though at least one systematic
leprosy 41667 diagnostics that could be more sensitive than the commonly used reference test (Kato-Katz smear) [[206]]. In leprosy , the ML Flow rapid test that detects IgM to specific phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I) is used to improve
leprosy 49551 other diseases, such as visceral leishmaniasis, dengue, Chagas disease, leptospirosis, filariasis, and leprosy . The field performance of malaria rapid diagnostics depends upon epidemiological, technical and clinical
leptospirosis 1700 assessing mainly performance, were identified for visceral leishmaniasis (n = 9), filariasis and leptospirosis (each n = 5), enteric fever and schistosomiasis (each n = 3), dengue and leprosy (each n = 2),
leptospirosis 2807 current tests or development of new alternatives is needed for dengue, Chagas disease, filariasis, leptospirosis , enteric fever, human African trypanosomiasis, schistosomiasis and cholera.Electronic supplementary
leptospirosis 12912 and tuberculosis (n = 47, 26%), followed by visceral leishmaniasis (n = 9, 5%), filariasis and leptospirosis (n = 5 each, 3%), enteric fever and schistosomiasis (n = 3 each, 1.7%), dengue and leprosy (n = 2
leptospirosis 16217 standard. More variability in the standards used was observed in tuberculosis, visceral leishmaniasis, leptospirosis , enteric fever and schistosomiasis. For tuberculosis, liquid culture alone (n = 7) was the most common
leptospirosis 16549 the combination of bone marrow microscopy and direct agglutination test was used in 2 studies. For leptospirosis , the microscopy agglutination test plus culture, and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) alone
leptospirosis 28774 (Additional file 3: Table S2: Details of included studies).LeptospirosisFive studies carried out on leptospirosis assessed the performance of commercial and in-house rapid tests. Dip-S-Tick (PanBio InDx, Inc., Baltimore,
leptospirosis 36014 agencies. Fewer studies were found on neglected tropical diseases (visceral leishmaniasis, filariasis, leptospirosis , enteric fever, schistosomiasis, dengue, leprosy, Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis, and
leptospirosis 42562 disease could provide the evidence required to inform decisions. This is also true for filariasis and leptospirosis , which showed contrasting results in the performance of the available rapid tests.The impacts and implementation
leptospirosis 44663 Conduct systematic reviews of diagnostic performance of rapid tests for TB, Chagas disease, filariasis, leptospirosis , and simultaneous detection of NS1 and IgM for dengue. • Harmonize protocols for validation of schistosomiasis,
leptospirosis 44791 simultaneous detection of NS1 and IgM for dengue. • Harmonize protocols for validation of schistosomiasis, leptospirosis , and enteric fever rapid diagnosticsStrengths and limitations of this reviewTo widen the coverage of
leptospirosis 49520 evaluated and fewer options for other diseases, such as visceral leishmaniasis, dengue, Chagas disease, leptospirosis , filariasis, and leprosy. The field performance of malaria rapid diagnostics depends upon epidemiological,
leptospirosis 50177 dengue using simultaneous detection of both NS1 and IgM, as well as for Chagas disease, filariasis, and leptospirosis , are required to provide evidence on their performance and hence, suitability of further implementation
malaria 2524 in the urban context with demonstrated impact on case detection. However, most evidence comes from malaria rapid diagnostics, with variable results. While rapid tests for tuberculosis and visceral leishmaniasis
malaria 12785 theses (Fig. 1).Fig. 1Flow chart of included studiesThe majority of studies were about diagnosis of malaria (n = 100, 56%) and tuberculosis (n = 47, 26%), followed by visceral leishmaniasis (n = 9, 5%),
malaria 13653 with 83% (n = 150) of the studies published after 2009. This trend was particularly observed for malaria (from 2009 onwards), tuberculosis (from 2010 onwards), and visceral leishmaniasis (from 2012 onwards)
malaria 15942 in all but 6 studies. Light microscopy was the diagnostic reference standard most frequently used in malaria and filariasis. For malaria, microscopy alone was used in 37 studies, and together with PCR in 12 studies.
malaria 15970 microscopy was the diagnostic reference standard most frequently used in malaria and filariasis. For malaria , microscopy alone was used in 37 studies, and together with PCR in 12 studies. All four filariasis studies
malaria 17157 cholera (Additional file 3: Table S2: Details of included studies).MalariaThere were 100 studies on malaria , of which 63 assessed performance of rapid tests. Among the evaluated assays were: OptiMAL-IT (DiaMed
malaria 17543 Systems, Verna, Goa, India), CareStart Pf/Pv, SD Bioline Malaria Pf/Pan, Paramax-3 Pan/Pv/Pf, DiaSpot® malaria (Acumen Diagnostics Inc., USA), Mal Card™, ICT Malaria Combo (ICT Diagnostics, Cape Town, South Africa),
malaria 17751 Africa), ParaHIT f (Span Diagnostics, Surat, India), PALUTOP+ 4 (All.Diag, Strasbourg, France), ICT malaria (Healgen Scientific LCC, Houston, TX, USA), ICT Parascreen test kit (Zephyr Biomedicals, Verna, Goa,
malaria 18339 knowlesi), whether hospital or community-based study, age of patients, and pregnancy (i.e., placental malaria ) [[16]–[78]].Impact was evaluated in 18 studies that reported that antimalarials were used in both
malaria 18420 pregnancy (i.e., placental malaria) [[16]–[78]].Impact was evaluated in 18 studies that reported that anti malaria ls were used in both rapid tests positive and negative patients; however, there was a decrease in use
malaria 18536 used in both rapid tests positive and negative patients; however, there was a decrease in use of anti malaria ls for presumptive treatment. Reductions in incidence of confirmed cases were observed plus a twofold
malaria 18673 Reductions in incidence of confirmed cases were observed plus a twofold or fourfold decrease in anti malaria l prescription [[17], [23], [59], [63], [79]–[91]].Acceptability was measured in 15 studies that showed
malaria 35743 reporting on the field evaluation of these type of tests is dominated, by a large margin, by studies on malaria and tuberculosis. This could be attributed partially to the burden of disease, the availability of devices
malaria 37057 field evaluation and, hence, at least one field performance evaluation per disease was identified. In malaria , a relatively large number of rapid tests are available on the market; hence, there is a greater need
malaria 37631 Performance studies were carried out in several countries on several continents, but local studies of malaria rapid diagnostics may be required, since the results from one region cannot necessarily be extrapolated
malaria 38106 within the same continent was not assessed, and this systematic review included only P. falciparum malaria [[196]]. A separate systematic review analyzed the performance of rapid tests for non-falciparum malaria
malaria 38211 malaria [[196]]. A separate systematic review analyzed the performance of rapid tests for non-falciparum malaria [[197]]. The separate analysis by falciparum and non-falciparum malaria does not necessarily reflect
malaria 38283 rapid tests for non-falciparum malaria [[197]]. The separate analysis by falciparum and non-falciparum malaria does not necessarily reflect the performance of the diagnostics under field conditions where several
malaria 38732 Despite the few studies identified in our review, there was a systematic review of rapid diagnosis of malaria in pregnancy that included a relatively large number of studies from Africa, but not enough to compare
malaria 39065 Xpert® MTB/RIF with heterogeneous results, but the sources of heterogeneity were clearer compared to malaria rapid tests. Decreased sensitivity in respiratory samples was reported in smear negative cases and HIV-infected
malaria 43053 conditions, ranging from cultural to technical and administrative issues. The reported reduction in anti malaria l drugs use as a result of the implementation of rapid tests is consistent with a systematic review of
malaria 43234 with a systematic review of controlled trials in rural endemic areas that also found the impact of malaria rapid tests to be directly correlated with provider compliance [[211]], which in turn depends on other
malaria 44026 to discern the target of the test (e.g. patients believing they are being tested for HIV and not for malaria ); burden of work to providers; sustainability of supplies; training issues; and routine quality assessment.
malaria 46559 detection, rational use of drugs, and even decreased mortality. Nevertheless, most evidence comes from malaria rapid tests, where there are multiple options whose performance is heterogeneous. Decision-makers are
malaria 49370 infectious diseases of poverty in urban areas. We identified a relatively large number of available malaria rapid diagnostic tests that have been evaluated and fewer options for other diseases, such as visceral
malaria 49585 leishmaniasis, dengue, Chagas disease, leptospirosis, filariasis, and leprosy. The field performance of malaria rapid diagnostics depends upon epidemiological, technical and clinical factors. There is evidence of
onchocerciasis 36430 search strategy (viral encephalitis, viral haemorrhagic fevers, echinococcosis, rickettsial diseases, onchocerciasis , and trachoma) might reflect the even lower investment in diagnostic development for these diseases,
schistosomiasis 1749 visceral leishmaniasis (n = 9), filariasis and leptospirosis (each n = 5), enteric fever and schistosomiasis (each n = 3), dengue and leprosy (each n = 2), and Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis,
schistosomiasis 2032 tests was variable depending on several factors. Overall, specificities were high (> 80%), except for schistosomiasis and cholera. Impact and implementation outcomes, mainly acceptability and cost, followed by adoption,
schistosomiasis 2868 for dengue, Chagas disease, filariasis, leptospirosis, enteric fever, human African trypanosomiasis, schistosomiasis and cholera.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s40249-018-0474-8)
schistosomiasis 12965 visceral leishmaniasis (n = 9, 5%), filariasis and leptospirosis (n = 5 each, 3%), enteric fever and schistosomiasis (n = 3 each, 1.7%), dengue and leprosy (n = 2 each, 1%), and Chagas disease, African trypanosomiasis,
schistosomiasis 16250 standards used was observed in tuberculosis, visceral leishmaniasis, leptospirosis, enteric fever and schistosomiasis . For tuberculosis, liquid culture alone (n = 7) was the most common reference test used followed by
schistosomiasis 16876 Widal test alone for enteric fever; and Kato-Katz alone, Kato-Katz plus ELISA, or urine microscopy for schistosomiasis . RTPCR was used for dengue, a combination of ELISA plus indirect haemagglutination (IHA) plus immunofluorescent
schistosomiasis 31859 [[184]]. (Additional file 3: Table S2: Details of included studies).SchistosomiasisThree studies on schistosomiasis evaluated circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) immunochromatographic tests (Rapid Medical Diagnostics,
schistosomiasis 36044 found on neglected tropical diseases (visceral leishmaniasis, filariasis, leptospirosis, enteric fever, schistosomiasis , dengue, leprosy, Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis, and cholera), supporting the need to
schistosomiasis 39980 a systematic review.Our search retrieved relatively few studies on visceral leishmaniasis, dengue, schistosomiasis , leprosy, enteric fever, Chagas disease, and human African trypanosomiasis, even though at least one
schistosomiasis 41397 hence more studies in the future to assess the combination of tests would be useful [[204], [205]]. In schistosomiasis , we observed the effect of the gold standard used. A systematic review summarized the challenges of
schistosomiasis 41542 the gold standard used. A systematic review summarized the challenges of assessing the performance of schistosomiasis diagnostics that could be more sensitive than the commonly used reference test (Kato-Katz smear) [[206]].
schistosomiasis 44774 leptospirosis, and simultaneous detection of NS1 and IgM for dengue. • Harmonize protocols for validation of schistosomiasis , leptospirosis, and enteric fever rapid diagnosticsStrengths and limitations of this reviewTo widen
schistosomiasis 50430 establish valid reference standards to evaluate the performance of rapid diagnostic tests, particularly for schistosomiasis , and harmonised field validation research protocols to take into account potential sources of heterogeneity
trachoma 36450 encephalitis, viral haemorrhagic fevers, echinococcosis, rickettsial diseases, onchocerciasis, and trachoma ) might reflect the even lower investment in diagnostic development for these diseases, the lack of a
trypanosomiasis 1852 schistosomiasis (each n = 3), dengue and leprosy (each n = 2), and Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis , and cholera (each n = 1). Reported sensitivity of rapid tests was variable depending on several
trypanosomiasis 2851 alternatives is needed for dengue, Chagas disease, filariasis, leptospirosis, enteric fever, human African trypanosomiasis , schistosomiasis and cholera.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s40249-018-0474-8)
trypanosomiasis 13072 schistosomiasis (n = 3 each, 1.7%), dengue and leprosy (n = 2 each, 1%), and Chagas disease, African trypanosomiasis , and cholera (n = 1 each, 0.6%). More than half of the studies were carried out in Africa (n = 99,
trypanosomiasis 34744 and 96.9% in serum [[192]]. (Additional file 3: Table S2: Details of included studies).Human African trypanosomiasis One conference abstract reported kappa 0.27 (95% CI: 0.24–0.3) between rapid test SD BIOLINE® HAT
trypanosomiasis 36108 filariasis, leptospirosis, enteric fever, schistosomiasis, dengue, leprosy, Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis , and cholera), supporting the need to further improve research and product development, including rapid
trypanosomiasis 40055 visceral leishmaniasis, dengue, schistosomiasis, leprosy, enteric fever, Chagas disease, and human African trypanosomiasis , even though at least one systematic review of diagnostics for each of these diseases has been previously
trypanosomiasis 42210 Chagas disease was highly sensitive and specific, the performance of the rapid test for human African trypanosomiasis was disappointing. For Chagas disease and human African trypanosomiasis, the available systematic reviews
trypanosomiasis 42282 rapid test for human African trypanosomiasis was disappointing. For Chagas disease and human African trypanosomiasis , the available systematic reviews do not include the identified rapid tests we found in this search
tuberculosis 1446 179 documents of the 7806 initially screened were included in the analysis. Malaria (n = 100) and tuberculosis (n = 47) accounted for the majority of studies that reported diagnostics performance, impact, and
tuberculosis 2596 However, most evidence comes from malaria rapid diagnostics, with variable results. While rapid tests for tuberculosis and visceral leishmaniasis require further implementation studies, more evidence on performance of current
tuberculosis 9569 criteria [[9]]. One exception was made to include a rapid automated nucleic acid amplification test for tuberculosis (Xpert® MTB/RIF), as it is endorsed by WHO [[10]]. Second, it was not feasible to apply a standard
tuberculosis 12815 chart of included studiesThe majority of studies were about diagnosis of malaria (n = 100, 56%) and tuberculosis (n = 47, 26%), followed by visceral leishmaniasis (n = 9, 5%), filariasis and leptospirosis (n = 5
tuberculosis 13682 studies published after 2009. This trend was particularly observed for malaria (from 2009 onwards), tuberculosis (from 2010 onwards), and visceral leishmaniasis (from 2012 onwards) (Fig. 3).Fig. 3Frequency of studies
tuberculosis 16179 studies used microscopy as reference standard. More variability in the standards used was observed in tuberculosis , visceral leishmaniasis, leptospirosis, enteric fever and schistosomiasis. For tuberculosis, liquid
tuberculosis 16271 observed in tuberculosis, visceral leishmaniasis, leptospirosis, enteric fever and schistosomiasis. For tuberculosis , liquid culture alone (n = 7) was the most common reference test used followed by the combination
tuberculosis 22978 (Additional file 3: Table S2: Details of included studies).Tuberculosis (TB)There were 47 studies on tuberculosis of which 22 evaluated the performance of Xpert® MTB/RIF and reported sensitivities ranging from 58.7
tuberculosis 26703 showed sensitivity and specificity below 80% [[161]] and one field study of the amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct (AMTD) test (Gen-Probe, San Diego, CA, USA) showed higher sensitivities which varied in smear
tuberculosis 35755 field evaluation of these type of tests is dominated, by a large margin, by studies on malaria and tuberculosis . This could be attributed partially to the burden of disease, the availability of devices to be tested,
tuberculosis 38907 from Africa, but not enough to compare performance between rapid tests or parasite species [[198]].For tuberculosis , most studies evaluated the performance of Xpert® MTB/RIF with heterogeneous results, but the sources
tuberculosis 39655 Likewise, the low sensitivity of TB-LAM found was confirmed in a systematic review [[201]]. Detection of tuberculosis human antibodies by immunochromatography, such as ICT, On-site TBIgG/IgM, TB STAT PAK®, and PRIM, yielded
tuberculosis 49886 achieve their successful implementation. Based on their reported good performance, Xpert® MTB/RIF for tuberculosis and rapid diagnostics for visceral leishmaniasis that detect rK39 warrant more implementation studies.
viral encephalitis 36345 these groups of diseases. The lack of studies on the other diseases included in our search strategy ( viral encephalitis , viral haemorrhagic fevers, echinococcosis, rickettsial diseases, onchocerciasis, and trachoma) might
visceral leishmaniasis 1650 impact, and implementation outcomes. Fewer studies, assessing mainly performance, were identified for visceral leishmaniasis (n = 9), filariasis and leptospirosis (each n = 5), enteric fever and schistosomiasis (each n = 3),
visceral leishmaniasis 2613 comes from malaria rapid diagnostics, with variable results. While rapid tests for tuberculosis and visceral leishmaniasis require further implementation studies, more evidence on performance of current tests or development
visceral leishmaniasis 12858 studies were about diagnosis of malaria (n = 100, 56%) and tuberculosis (n = 47, 26%), followed by visceral leishmaniasis (n = 9, 5%), filariasis and leptospirosis (n = 5 each, 3%), enteric fever and schistosomiasis
visceral leishmaniasis 13720 trend was particularly observed for malaria (from 2009 onwards), tuberculosis (from 2010 onwards), and visceral leishmaniasis (from 2012 onwards) (Fig. 3).Fig. 3Frequency of studies by disease and year of publicationAll but six
visceral leishmaniasis 16193 microscopy as reference standard. More variability in the standards used was observed in tuberculosis, visceral leishmaniasis , leptospirosis, enteric fever and schistosomiasis. For tuberculosis, liquid culture alone (n = 7)
visceral leishmaniasis 16426 most common reference test used followed by the combination of microscopy plus culture (n = 6). For visceral leishmaniasis , the combination of bone marrow microscopy and direct agglutination test was used in 2 studies. For
visceral leishmaniasis 26938 HIV-infected patients [[162]]. (Additional file 3: Table S2).Visceral leishmaniasisNine studies on visceral leishmaniasis evaluated the performance, cost, or acceptability and appropriateness of commercial or in-house rapid
visceral leishmaniasis 35978 the research priorities of funding agencies. Fewer studies were found on neglected tropical diseases ( visceral leishmaniasis , filariasis, leptospirosis, enteric fever, schistosomiasis, dengue, leprosy, Chagas disease, human African
visceral leishmaniasis 39948 interesting potential topic for a systematic review.Our search retrieved relatively few studies on visceral leishmaniasis , dengue, schistosomiasis, leprosy, enteric fever, Chagas disease, and human African trypanosomiasis,
visceral leishmaniasis 40191 least one systematic review of diagnostics for each of these diseases has been previously published. In visceral leishmaniasis , most studies were conducted with rK39 as the target, although other rapid tests with other targets
visceral leishmaniasis 49472 malaria rapid diagnostic tests that have been evaluated and fewer options for other diseases, such as visceral leishmaniasis , dengue, Chagas disease, leptospirosis, filariasis, and leprosy. The field performance of malaria rapid
visceral leishmaniasis 49925 Based on their reported good performance, Xpert® MTB/RIF for tuberculosis and rapid diagnostics for visceral leishmaniasis that detect rK39 warrant more implementation studies. Multicentre studies and/or systematic reviews

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