A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: towards control and elimination

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Annotation Summary

Term Occurence Count Dictionary
tuberculosis 4 infectiousdiseases
filariasis 5 infectiousdiseases
infectious disease 8 infectiousdiseases
loiasis 1 infectiousdiseases
mebendazole 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
praziquantel 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
trypanosomiasis 2 infectiousdiseases
AIDS 1 infectiousdiseases
cysticercosis 6 infectiousdiseases
malaria 9 infectiousdiseases
pneumonia 1 infectiousdiseases
strongyloidiasis 1 infectiousdiseases
urinary schistosomiasis 1 infectiousdiseases
ivermectin 5 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
onchocerciasis 10 infectiousdiseases
schistosomiasis 10 infectiousdiseases
taeniasis 7 infectiousdiseases

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

Note: If this graph is empty, then there are no terms that meet the proximity constraint.

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
ivermectin 12271 diseases in general and helminthiases in particular.)A further example is that of the licensing of ivermectin for human use in 1987, and its subsequent donation by Merck & Co. for as long as needed against river
ivermectin 13132 assessment and mapping methods that ensued [15]–[17] also facilitated demarcation of areas prioritised for ivermectin distribution (e.g., meso- and hyperendemic areas), and more recently, identification of areas where
ivermectin 13408 (e.g., areas co-endemic for onchocerciasis and loiasis with a high risk of severe adverse events if ivermectin is administered) [18].Sensitive and specific parasite antigen tests for Wuchereria bancrofti, developed
ivermectin 31670 groups.Intervention ToolsThe donation by pharmaceutical companies of broad-spectrum anthelmintics ( ivermectin , albendazole, mebendazole), the increased affordability of generic drugs produced in disease-endemic
ivermectin 33620 malaria can have an impact on LF transmission [70], and distribution of anthelmintic treatment (e.g., ivermectin ) in areas co-endemic for LF and/or onchocerciasis and malaria may have an impact on malaria transmission
mebendazole 31695 ToolsThe donation by pharmaceutical companies of broad-spectrum anthelmintics (ivermectin, albendazole, mebendazole ), the increased affordability of generic drugs produced in disease-endemic countries (diethylcarbamazine,
praziquantel 31813 increased affordability of generic drugs produced in disease-endemic countries (diethylcarbamazine, praziquantel ) in comparison with (seemingly) more expensive and cumbersome vector or intermediate host control, and
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
AIDS 5498 collective morbidity that these diseases cause is considerable and comparable to that caused by malaria, HIV/ AIDS , or tuberculosis [2], and they are also responsible for excess mortality [3]–[5].Consequently, over
cysticercosis 8453 soil-transmitted helminthiases (intestinal nematode infections), and cestode infections (taeniasis/ cysticercosis ). (Note that some of these infections are zoonoses [e.g., Asian schistosomiasis, food-borne trematodiases,
cysticercosis 8584 of these infections are zoonoses [e.g., Asian schistosomiasis, food-borne trematodiases, taeniasis/ cysticercosis ] and recognised under the umbrella of neglected zoonotic diseases [NZDs] by the first World Health Organization
cysticercosis 16129 morbidity indicators [29]. For other diseases under our remit (e.g., food-borne trematodiases and taeniasis/ cysticercosis ), we refer the readers to [7]–[10], and the “One Health” approach that has been promoted extensively
cysticercosis 18957 importance encompassing onchocerciasis, LF, STHs, schistosomiasis, food-borne trematodiases, and taeniasis/ cysticercosis ; b) act as a think tank for research on helminth diseases of public health importance, including advocacy;
cysticercosis 22674 filariasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, food-borne trematodiases, and taeniasis/ cysticercosis .10.1371/journal.pntd.0001547.t001Table 1The Top Ten Priority Research Areas Identified by DRG4.Core
cysticercosis 35769 research and drugs for all listed infections (schistosomiasis, LF, onchocerciasis, STHs, taeniasis/ cysticercosis ); vaccines and novel diagnostics for schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, strongyloidiasis, and hookworm
filariasis 8245 The infections within the remit of this group include the filariases (onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis ), trematodiases (intestinal and urinary schistosomiasis; food-borne, liver fluke infections), the soil-transmitted
filariasis 10240 FilariasisJRMC, Joint Research Management Committee for Schistosomiasis Elimination in ChinaLF, lymphatic filariasis MDA, mass drug administrationMDGs, Millennium Development GoalsM&E, monitoring and evaluationNTDs, neglected
filariasis 13599 Wuchereria bancrofti, developed in a rapid card format, made the mapping of the distribution of Bancroftian filariasis operationally feasible [19]. This, together with the donation or affordability of drugs for safe mass
filariasis 14011 which can be transmitted to vectors, remains low), promoted the idea that elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) was attainable as a public health goal [20]. As the GPELF has advanced, and challenges have been
filariasis 22573 the control and elimination of human helminthiases under its remit, namely, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis , schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, food-borne trematodiases, and taeniasis/cysticercosis.10.1371/journal.pntd.0001547.t001Table
infectious disease 12161 optimal strategies aimed to reduce the parasite burden, transmission, and morbidity of poverty-related infectious disease s in general and helminthiases in particular.)A further example is that of the licensing of ivermectin
infectious disease 17176 strategy (http://www.who.int/tdr/about/strategy/en/) to foster “an effective global research effort on infectious disease s of poverty in which disease-endemic countries play a pivotal role” [31]. As part of this strategy,
infectious disease 17637 national and regional stakeholder consultations, set research priorities for accelerating the control of infectious disease s of poverty. Working in ten disease-specific and thematic reference groups (DRGs/TRGs; Table S1), one
infectious disease 17899 crucial contributors to TDR's stewardship mandate for the acquisition and analysis of information on infectious disease s of poverty (http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2007/TDR_GEN_07.1_EN_Rev.1_eng.pdf). Their work is ultimately
infectious disease 18226 disease-endemic countries to tackle public health problems related to the disproportionate burden of infectious disease s among the poor.The DRG4 started with 14 members (the authors of this review), recognised as academic
infectious disease 28715 delivered by mobile teams, community-directed interventions, or integrated programmes with other NTD and infectious disease interventions. There is a need to design robust cohort studies that allow quantification of changes
infectious disease 34325 al. [74], and updated in 2010 [75], aims to report accurate and comparable R&D investment figures for infectious disease s of poverty, contrasting the “Big Three” (HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria) with the NTDs. The report
infectious disease 44715 development for helminth infections has lagged behind the attention and resources devoted to other infectious disease s. As a result, major deficiencies exist in intervention and diagnostic tools that are appropriate to
loiasis 13355 management strategies or novel control tools are needed (e.g., areas co-endemic for onchocerciasis and loiasis with a high risk of severe adverse events if ivermectin is administered) [18].Sensitive and specific
malaria 5485 the collective morbidity that these diseases cause is considerable and comparable to that caused by malaria , HIV/AIDS, or tuberculosis [2], and they are also responsible for excess mortality [3]–[5].Consequently,
malaria 33335 help minimise the spread of anthelmintic resistance [67]–[69]. Integration of anthelmintic and anti malaria l interventions can make use of the fact that in some areas both Plasmodium spp. and W. bancrofti are
malaria 33518 spp. and W. bancrofti are transmitted by the same Anopheles mosquito species, so vector control for malaria can have an impact on LF transmission [70], and distribution of anthelmintic treatment (e.g., ivermectin)
malaria 33685 distribution of anthelmintic treatment (e.g., ivermectin) in areas co-endemic for LF and/or onchocerciasis and malaria may have an impact on malaria transmission [71]. Research is needed to determine optimal combinations
malaria 33715 (e.g., ivermectin) in areas co-endemic for LF and/or onchocerciasis and malaria may have an impact on malaria transmission [71]. Research is needed to determine optimal combinations of anthelmintics in particular
malaria 34049 scenarios, endemicity levels, transmission intensities, and vector species composition, as has been done in malaria [72].Funding for Research and Development (R&D)The G-FINDER (Global Funding of Innovation for Neglected
malaria 34413 figures for infectious diseases of poverty, contrasting the “Big Three” (HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria ) with the NTDs. The report noted that research funding is highly concentrated towards the former, but
malaria 34608 the former, but not necessarily correlated with disease burden. For instance, HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria accounted for 125 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in low- and middle-income countries
malaria 36329 positioning helminth infections in the 7th place of the R&D investment ranking table, preceded by HIV, malaria , tuberculosis, diarrhoeal diseases, dengue, and leishmaniasis/trypanosomiasis [75].Lack of knowledge
onchocerciasis 8216 Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR). The infections within the remit of this group include the filariases ( onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis), trematodiases (intestinal and urinary schistosomiasis; food-borne, liver
onchocerciasis 12477 river blindness, which prompted research into the “why”, “where”, and “how” to control onchocerciasis on a large scale with chemotherapy in addition to vector control or as the only measure being implemented
onchocerciasis 13336 where specific management strategies or novel control tools are needed (e.g., areas co-endemic for onchocerciasis and loiasis with a high risk of severe adverse events if ivermectin is administered) [18].Sensitive
onchocerciasis 18874 on helminth infections and other emerging helminth diseases of public health importance encompassing onchocerciasis , LF, STHs, schistosomiasis, food-borne trematodiases, and taeniasis/cysticercosis; b) act as a think
onchocerciasis 22547 Helminth Infections (DRG4) for the control and elimination of human helminthiases under its remit, namely, onchocerciasis , lymphatic filariasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, food-borne trematodiases, and
onchocerciasis 32610 for the job [63], [64]. There is an urgent need for a macrofilaricidal drug or drug combinations for onchocerciasis and LF. Antibiotic treatment regimes that deplete these parasites of their bacterial (Wolbachia) endosymbionts
onchocerciasis 33666 [70], and distribution of anthelmintic treatment (e.g., ivermectin) in areas co-endemic for LF and/or onchocerciasis and malaria may have an impact on malaria transmission [71]. Research is needed to determine optimal
onchocerciasis 35737 following range of R&D activities: basic research and drugs for all listed infections (schistosomiasis, LF, onchocerciasis , STHs, taeniasis/cysticercosis); vaccines and novel diagnostics for schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis,
onchocerciasis 35837 onchocerciasis, STHs, taeniasis/cysticercosis); vaccines and novel diagnostics for schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis , strongyloidiasis, and hookworm infection; and vector/intermediate host control products for schistosomiasis,
onchocerciasis 35962 strongyloidiasis, and hookworm infection; and vector/intermediate host control products for schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis , LF, and taeniasis. Although the proportion of total R&D funding allocated to helminthiases has shown
pneumonia 34785 low- and middle-income countries in 2004, and received nearly 80% of the total funding. By contrast, pneumonia and diarrhoeal diseases accounted for 165 million DALYs in the same countries and year, yet received
schistosomiasis 8296 include the filariases (onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis), trematodiases (intestinal and urinary schistosomiasis ; food-borne, liver fluke infections), the soil-transmitted helminthiases (intestinal nematode infections),
schistosomiasis 8531 infections (taeniasis/cysticercosis). (Note that some of these infections are zoonoses [e.g., Asian schistosomiasis , food-borne trematodiases, taeniasis/cysticercosis] and recognised under the umbrella of neglected zoonotic
schistosomiasis 14746 protection of the LF programme by monitoring drug resistance and developing new drugs [21], [22].For schistosomiasis , access to clean water and adequate sanitation systems, snail (intermediate host) control, and treatment
schistosomiasis 15353 become the tool of choice [23]. Currently, preventative chemotherapy is recommended by the WHO against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) [24]. The SCI adopted integrated schistosomiasis and intestinal
schistosomiasis 15444 against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) [24]. The SCI adopted integrated schistosomiasis and intestinal worm control in their strategy to support national control programmes in sub-Saharan
schistosomiasis 18900 other emerging helminth diseases of public health importance encompassing onchocerciasis, LF, STHs, schistosomiasis , food-borne trematodiases, and taeniasis/cysticercosis; b) act as a think tank for research on helminth
schistosomiasis 22585 and elimination of human helminthiases under its remit, namely, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, schistosomiasis , soil-transmitted helminthiases, food-borne trematodiases, and taeniasis/cysticercosis.10.1371/journal.pntd.0001547.t001Table
schistosomiasis 35716 require the following range of R&D activities: basic research and drugs for all listed infections ( schistosomiasis , LF, onchocerciasis, STHs, taeniasis/cysticercosis); vaccines and novel diagnostics for schistosomiasis,
schistosomiasis 35820 (schistosomiasis, LF, onchocerciasis, STHs, taeniasis/cysticercosis); vaccines and novel diagnostics for schistosomiasis , onchocerciasis, strongyloidiasis, and hookworm infection; and vector/intermediate host control products
schistosomiasis 35945 onchocerciasis, strongyloidiasis, and hookworm infection; and vector/intermediate host control products for schistosomiasis , onchocerciasis, LF, and taeniasis. Although the proportion of total R&D funding allocated to helminthiases
strongyloidiasis 35853 STHs, taeniasis/cysticercosis); vaccines and novel diagnostics for schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, strongyloidiasis , and hookworm infection; and vector/intermediate host control products for schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis,
taeniasis 8443 infections), the soil-transmitted helminthiases (intestinal nematode infections), and cestode infections ( taeniasis /cysticercosis). (Note that some of these infections are zoonoses [e.g., Asian schistosomiasis, food-borne
taeniasis 8574 that some of these infections are zoonoses [e.g., Asian schistosomiasis, food-borne trematodiases, taeniasis /cysticercosis] and recognised under the umbrella of neglected zoonotic diseases [NZDs] by the first
taeniasis 16119 and morbidity indicators [29]. For other diseases under our remit (e.g., food-borne trematodiases and taeniasis /cysticercosis), we refer the readers to [7]–[10], and the “One Health” approach that has been
taeniasis 18947 health importance encompassing onchocerciasis, LF, STHs, schistosomiasis, food-borne trematodiases, and taeniasis /cysticercosis; b) act as a think tank for research on helminth diseases of public health importance,
taeniasis 22664 lymphatic filariasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, food-borne trematodiases, and taeniasis /cysticercosis.10.1371/journal.pntd.0001547.t001Table 1The Top Ten Priority Research Areas Identified
taeniasis 35759 activities: basic research and drugs for all listed infections (schistosomiasis, LF, onchocerciasis, STHs, taeniasis /cysticercosis); vaccines and novel diagnostics for schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, strongyloidiasis,
taeniasis 35986 infection; and vector/intermediate host control products for schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, LF, and taeniasis . Although the proportion of total R&D funding allocated to helminthiases has shown a slight upwards
trypanosomiasis 35069 received less than half the funding for diseases caused by kinetoplastid protozoans (leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis ), although their disease burden was three times as high (12 million DALYs in 2004 for the helminthiases
trypanosomiasis 36399 ranking table, preceded by HIV, malaria, tuberculosis, diarrhoeal diseases, dengue, and leishmaniasis/ trypanosomiasis [75].Lack of knowledge of the health and socioeconomic impact of helminth diseases, and appropriate
tuberculosis 5507 morbidity that these diseases cause is considerable and comparable to that caused by malaria, HIV/AIDS, or tuberculosis [2], and they are also responsible for excess mortality [3]–[5].Consequently, over the past three
tuberculosis 34395 comparable R&D investment figures for infectious diseases of poverty, contrasting the “Big Three” (HIV, tuberculosis , and malaria) with the NTDs. The report noted that research funding is highly concentrated towards the
tuberculosis 34590 concentrated towards the former, but not necessarily correlated with disease burden. For instance, HIV, tuberculosis , and malaria accounted for 125 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in low- and middle-income
tuberculosis 36338 helminth infections in the 7th place of the R&D investment ranking table, preceded by HIV, malaria, tuberculosis , diarrhoeal diseases, dengue, and leishmaniasis/trypanosomiasis [75].Lack of knowledge of the health
urinary schistosomiasis 8288 group include the filariases (onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis), trematodiases (intestinal and urinary schistosomiasis ; food-borne, liver fluke infections), the soil-transmitted helminthiases (intestinal nematode infections),

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