Adverse events following single dose treatment of lymphatic filariasis: Observations from a review of the literature.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
doxycycline 5 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
filariasis 17 infectiousdiseases
onchocerciasis 3 infectiousdiseases
AIDS 1 infectiousdiseases
azithromycin 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
diarrhea 1 infectiousdiseases
ivermectin 5 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
loiasis 6 infectiousdiseases
praziquantel 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
azithromycin 10759 antifilarial medications (i.e. doxycycline) • Co-administration of other medications (such as azithromycin or praziquantel)*We included studies that used a preliminary clearing dose [[13]–[16]] or when a “single
doxycycline 10687 with Onchocerca volvulus or Loa loa • Treatment with other antifilarial medications (i.e. doxycycline ) • Co-administration of other medications (such as azithromycin or praziquantel)*We included
doxycycline 26153 Wolbachia membrane [[106]]. Finally, depletion of Wolbachia with a three or six week treatment course of doxycycline prior to anti-filarial treatment with ALB plus either DEC or IVM decreased the risk of acute AEs [[107],
doxycycline 26331 decreased the risk of acute AEs [[107], [108]]; whether this was due to depletion of Wolbachia or to doxycycline -related reductions in Mf counts is unclear. Concurrent treatment with doxycycline and DEC reduced inflammatory
doxycycline 26413 of Wolbachia or to doxycycline-related reductions in Mf counts is unclear. Concurrent treatment with doxycycline and DEC reduced inflammatory cytokines and AE severity among microfilaremic patients in another study
doxycycline 26764 demonstrate a significant reduction in AEs in persons with LF after pre-clearance of Wolbachia with doxycycline [[110]].Circulating immune complexes. Circulating immune complexes may also contribute to the development
ivermectin 1293 anthelmintic medications to interrupt LF transmission in endemic areas. Recently, a single dose combination of ivermectin (IVM), diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and albendazole (ALB) was shown to be markedly more effective than
ivermectin 3029 administration to over 400 million people in LF-endemic areas each year. Two drug combinations (either DEC or ivermectin , given with albendazole) have been recommended in most endemic areas. With the exception of well-described
ivermectin 3477 infection. In this manuscript we synthesize published data on AEs following single-dose treatment of LF with ivermectin , DEC, or albendazole. This provides a background against which to compare the safety of triple drug
ivermectin 3597 albendazole. This provides a background against which to compare the safety of triple drug therapy ( ivermectin , DEC, and albendazole) recently endorsed by WHO, and provides a useful context for evaluating safety
ivermectin 5172 events (AEs) is important for program success.Medications used for MDA include diethylcarbamazine (DEC), ivermectin (IVM) and albendazole (ALB). The combination of IVM plus ALB is used in areas of Africa where onchocerciasis
praziquantel 10775 medications (i.e. doxycycline) • Co-administration of other medications (such as azithromycin or praziquantel )*We included studies that used a preliminary clearing dose [[13]–[16]] or when a “single dose”
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
AIDS 43173 for Adverse Events (available at https://evs.nci.nih.gov/ftp1/CTCAE/About.html) or the Division of AIDS Table for Grading the Severity of Adult and Pediatric Adverse Events (available at http://rsc.tech-res.com/clinical-research-sites/safety-reporting/daids-grading-tables).
diarrhea 15060 no filarial infections are generally limited to transient gastrointestinal upset (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea ), dizziness, or lightheadedness that occur within a few hours of ingestion [[19], [38]].Ivermectin (IVM).
filariasis 99 Title: PLoS Neglected Tropical DiseasesAdverse events following single dose treatment of lymphatic filariasis : Observations from a review of the literatureAlternative Title: Adverse events following treatment of
filariasis 222 Observations from a review of the literatureAlternative Title: Adverse events following treatment of lymphatic filariasis Philip J. Budge (Conceptualization) (Data curation) (Formal analysis) (Methodology) (Supervision) (Writing
filariasis 4125 suggest that adherence to common reporting standards would improve the usefulness of AE reporting in filariasis studies.Data AvailabilityAll relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.IntroductionInfection
filariasis 4372 filarial nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, or Brugia timori is known as lymphatic filariasis (LF). These infections cause severe, disabling conditions including lymphedema, elephantiasis, and hydroceles
filariasis 15459 reported in the late 1980s [[39]–[41]] and 15 early safety and efficacy studies of IVM for bancroftian filariasis were reviewed in a 1997 meta analysis [[42]]. IVM dosing for LF MDA is based on height and roughly corresponds
filariasis 20736 [77], [85]–[89]]. One notable exception was an initial dose-finding study of IVM against brugian filariasis that did not observe a correlation between AEs and pre-treatment Mf counts [[67]].Gender and age. Most
filariasis 21584 [84]].Species differences. Differences in susceptibility to treatment between brugian and bancroftian filariasis may affect AE rates among those who are Mf positive. For bancroftian filariasis, IVM appears to clear
filariasis 21664 brugian and bancroftian filariasis may affect AE rates among those who are Mf positive. For bancroftian filariasis , IVM appears to clear Mf more rapidly and more completely than DEC [[14], [16], [17], [25], [30], [45],
filariasis 22134 [[14], [25], [71], [96], [97]] or slightly better with DEC [[16], [17], [24], [45]]. For bancroftian filariasis , acute reactions tend to be higher with IVM and later (localized) reactions higher with DEC [[17], [45]].The
filariasis 22346 [45]].The decline in Mf counts following IVM treatment may be somewhat slower in persons with brugian filariasis [[65], [67]] and AEs following IVM treatment of brugian filariasis may be less severe and occur slightly
filariasis 22413 somewhat slower in persons with brugian filariasis [[65], [67]] and AEs following IVM treatment of brugian filariasis may be less severe and occur slightly later post-treatment (day 2–3) [[65]]. Brugia Mf may be more
filariasis 22719 more AEs when treated with DEC than W. bancrofti Mf carriers [[24], [73], [82]]. Treatment of brugian filariasis does not result in scrotal reactions, a finding that reflects Brugia’s lack of tropism for scrotal
filariasis 22887 reflects Brugia’s lack of tropism for scrotal lymphatic vessels and the lack of hydroceles in brugian filariasis [[24]].Medication dose. The initial evaluation of IVM for bancroftian filariasis suggested that 25 μg/kg
filariasis 22968 hydroceles in brugian filariasis [[24]].Medication dose. The initial evaluation of IVM for bancroftian filariasis suggested that 25 μg/kg worked as well as higher doses, but with fewer AEs [[40]]. The initial study
filariasis 23100 μg/kg worked as well as higher doses, but with fewer AEs [[40]]. The initial study of IVM for brugian filariasis also had a trend towards lower AEs with 25 μg/kg, but this was not statistically significant [[67]].
filariasis 40299 structured approach to AE reporting in LF treatment studies. Although this problem is not unique to filariasis [[128]], it can be compounded by the nature of community-based studies. We therefore suggest the following
filariasis 43477 for better reporting of harms in clinical trials [[129]].Box 1. Recommendation for AE reporting in filariasis studies.Clearly specify the method for ascertaining AEs. ○Was an attempt made to contact each participant
loiasis 3214 the exception of well-described serious adverse events (AEs) occurring in patients with high level loiasis , severe AEs due to these medications are extremely rare. Mild to moderate AEs, however, are common,
loiasis 5426 with LF. Twice yearly ALB alone is recommended for LF-endemic areas of Africa that are co-endemic for loiasis , and DEC plus ALB is used in the rest of the world. Serious (life-threatening) AEs due to MDA are exceedingly
loiasis 14807 vision and fatal encephalopathy can occur when DEC is given to persons with active onchocerciasis or loiasis [[37]]. DEC is therefore not used in areas of Africa where LF is co-endemic with O. volvulus or L. loa.
loiasis 17508 single-dose ALB to IVM or DEC for LF MDA increases AEs [[5]]. In areas where LF is co-endemic with loiasis , semiannual ALB alone (together with integrated vector management) is recommended for LF MDA, because
loiasis 17658 integrated vector management) is recommended for LF MDA, because ALB can be safely given to persons with loiasis [[60], [61]].AEs following treatment of LFTransient mild to moderate adverse reactions such as fever,
loiasis 24380 loss after treatment of onchocerciasis with DEC, and encephalopathy and death in persons with heavy loiasis infections [[52], [53]]. GI symptoms following MDA for LF may be partially related to the effects of
onchocerciasis 5277 ivermectin (IVM) and albendazole (ALB). The combination of IVM plus ALB is used in areas of Africa where onchocerciasis (river blindness) is co-endemic with LF. Twice yearly ALB alone is recommended for LF-endemic areas
onchocerciasis 14789 including loss of vision and fatal encephalopathy can occur when DEC is given to persons with active onchocerciasis or loiasis [[37]]. DEC is therefore not used in areas of Africa where LF is co-endemic with O. volvulus
onchocerciasis 24304 for LF. These include the well-recognized risk of ocular damage with visual loss after treatment of onchocerciasis with DEC, and encephalopathy and death in persons with heavy loiasis infections [[52], [53]]. GI symptoms

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