The Cholinergic Anti-Inflammatory Response and the Role of Macrophages in HIV-Induced Inflammation.

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AIDS 11 infectiousdiseases
Piedra 2 infectiousdiseases
epinephrine 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
infectious disease 1 infectiousdiseases
pneumonia 1 infectiousdiseases

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epinephrine 25915 the anti-inflammatory signal to the spleen (Figure 1A). Here, the splenic nerve terminals release nor epinephrine (NE), activating β2 adrenergic receptors in specialized T lymphocytes that express choline acetyltransferase
epinephrine 49640 celiac ganglion to release acetylcholine (ACh) that binds to α7-nAChRs in splenic neurons. Then, nor epinephrine is release into the spleen via splenic nerve to activate β2-adrenergic receptors ChAT+ T lymphocytes
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
AIDS 3712 chronic inflammatory processes that promote the appearance of non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS )-related complications [[2],[3]]. Macrophages play a crucial role in HIV-induced inflammation and infection.
AIDS 5721 continues to be an unresolved problem that urgently needs a solution to avoid the appearance of non- AIDS -related complications (i.e., osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, neurocognitive deterioration, renal
AIDS 15519 discovery of HIV, a total of 35 million individuals have died from the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS ) caused by it [[39]].After HIV has entered the body, a molecular recognition dynamic is initiated between
AIDS 16348 that the mucosal immune system and the intestinal immune system are pivotal to the pathogenesis of AIDS because most of the critical events of transmission, viral amplification, and CD4+ T cell depletion
AIDS 19122 persistent inflammation [[3],[60],[61],[63],[64],[65],[66],[67]] that promotes the appearance of non- AIDS -related complications such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, neurocognitive deterioration, renal
AIDS 19582 the macrophages’ secreted cytokines and chemokines during the immune response. Moreover, these non- AIDS -related complications occur despite antiretroviral therapy [[68],[69],[70],[71]]. As mentioned, HIV-infected
AIDS 19728 antiretroviral therapy [[68],[69],[70],[71]]. As mentioned, HIV-infected individuals develop several non- AIDS life-threatening complications derived from the infection itself that are considered comorbidity factors,
AIDS 29777 Eventually, it becomes a chronic inflammatory process that triggers a number of life-threatening non- AIDS -related comorbidities. A myriad of inflammatory markers has been identified in infected individuals
AIDS 30476 TGF-β1 are present [[108]]. T cell activation is also used as a biomarker predicting progression toward AIDS . Thus, CD8+ T cells expressing CD38 and human leukocyte antigen-antigen D related (HLA-DR) and the proportion
AIDS 32389 cure exists at present. Hence, in the search for other ways to halt inflammation and prevent the non- AIDS conditions that result from it, the scientific community began to pay particular attention to a neuroimmune
AIDS 48295 inflammation, and α7-nAChR is now emerging as a formidable target that can prevent the development of non- AIDS -related disorders. In fact, stimulation of the vagus nerve, the major neural tract that releases acetylcholine
Piedra 371 00926, Puerto Rico; manuel.delgadovelez@upr.edu2Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedra s Campus, San Juan 00931, Puerto Rico3Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras
Piedra 472 Piedras Campus, San Juan 00931, Puerto Rico3Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedra s Campus, San Juan 00931, Puerto RicoPublication date (epub): 5/2018Publication date (collection): 5/2018AbstractMacrophages
infectious disease 3491 uncontrolled inflammation and chronic inflammation are life-threatening and are characteristic of chronic infectious disease s such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Indeed, people infected with HIV suffer from
pneumonia 51178 severe sepsis.Human whole blood activated by LPS.Hyperoxic macrophages from a ventilator-associated pneumonia mouse model.LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage-like cells.[[132],[154],[155],[156],[157],[158],[159]]AR-R17779Agonist↓

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