Thinking beyond Opisthorchis viverrini for risk of cholangiocarcinoma in the lower Mekong region: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
viral hepatitis 1 infectiousdiseases
hepatitis B 2 infectiousdiseases
hepatitis C 2 infectiousdiseases
praziquantel 12 infectiousdiseasesdrugs

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
praziquantel 2114 family history of cancer, consumption of raw cyprinoid fish, consumption of high nitrate foods, and praziquantel treatment are associated with significantly increased risk. These risk factors may have complex relationships
praziquantel 27076 developing CCA over patients who were negative for both viruses [[38]].TreatmentThe anthelmintic drug praziquantel is commonly used to treat O. viverrini infection, and, since it is a highly effective treatment, it
praziquantel 27347 campaigns to reduce prevalence of infection [[6], [39]]. The relationship between O. viverrini infection, praziquantel treatment, and CCA has been investigated since animal model studies first suggested a potential increased
praziquantel 27518 model studies first suggested a potential increased risk of CCA due repeated O. viverrini infection and praziquantel treatment, possibly related to oxidative stress following praziquantel treatment [[40]–[42]]. In human
praziquantel 27589 repeated O. viverrini infection and praziquantel treatment, possibly related to oxidative stress following praziquantel treatment [[40]–[42]]. In human epidemiological studies, the association between repeated praziquantel
praziquantel 27694 praziquantel treatment [[40]–[42]]. In human epidemiological studies, the association between repeated praziquantel administration and CCA has also been noted [[3], [6], [43]], and past treatment with praziquantel has
praziquantel 27792 repeated praziquantel administration and CCA has also been noted [[3], [6], [43]], and past treatment with praziquantel has also been associated with increased likelihood of subsequent O. viverrini infection [[39]]. However,
praziquantel 27955 of subsequent O. viverrini infection [[39]]. However, the exact nature of the relationship between praziquantel treatment and pathogenesis of CCA is not clear, and a previous systematic review found no significant
praziquantel 28090 pathogenesis of CCA is not clear, and a previous systematic review found no significant association between praziquantel and CCA [[44]]. In this review, three included epidemiological studies found that praziquantel was not
praziquantel 28185 between praziquantel and CCA [[44]]. In this review, three included epidemiological studies found that praziquantel was not associated with risk of developing CCA [[2], [25], [26]], while one study found that it was
praziquantel 33538 5.63–21.92, P < 0.0001). Meta-analysis of data from three studies [[2], [23], [25]] found that use of praziquantel was also significantly associated with increased risk of developing CCA (OR = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.2–3.1,
praziquantel 42736 parasite genetics, long-term endemicity of the parasite, misuse of the medication, or other effects of praziquantel , which have yet to be described in the research for CCA.Given the relatively ineffective long-term nature
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
hepatitis B 26643 hepatocellular cancers and was investigated as a risk for CCA by two studies. Both found that positive hepatitis B antigen titers alone were not a significant risk [[22], [38]], but one found that anti-hepatitis C virus
hepatitis B 26888 significantly increased risk for developing CCA [[38]]. Furthermore, patients who were positive for hepatitis B antigen and/or hepatitis C antibodies had significantly increased odds of developing CCA over patients
hepatitis C 26742 hepatitis B antigen titers alone were not a significant risk [[22], [38]], but one found that anti- hepatitis C virus titers were associated with significantly increased risk for developing CCA [[38]]. Furthermore,
hepatitis C 26915 risk for developing CCA [[38]]. Furthermore, patients who were positive for hepatitis B antigen and/or hepatitis C antibodies had significantly increased odds of developing CCA over patients who were negative for both
viral hepatitis 26503 elevation in plasma IL-6 had over 100 times the odds of developing CCA [[37]].Other infectionsChronic viral hepatitis is a common cause of hepatocellular cancers and was investigated as a risk for CCA by two studies. Both

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