Taenia solium cysticercosis in West Africa: status update

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cysticercosis 57 infectiousdiseases
taeniasis 2 infectiousdiseases

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cysticercosis 29 Title: ParasiteTaenia solium cysticercosis in West Africa: status updateLa cysticercose à Taenia solium en Afrique de l’Ouest : état des lieuxJihen
cysticercosis 1333 regional and local journals. From a total of 501 articles initially retrieved concerning T. solium cysticercosis in West African countries, only 120 articles were relevant for this review and therefore finally retained.
cysticercosis 1536 finally retained. For pigs, only eight out of sixteen countries of the region have reported porcine cysticercosis . Post-mortem examination of carcasses at slaughterhouses, meat inspection at butcheries or tongue inspection
cysticercosis 1847 distribution. For humans, only five out of sixteen countries reported epidemiological data on neuro cysticercosis . Most data referred to neurocysticercosis prevalence among epileptic patients or isolated clinical cases.
cysticercosis 1889 of sixteen countries reported epidemiological data on neurocysticercosis. Most data referred to neuro cysticercosis prevalence among epileptic patients or isolated clinical cases. Furthermore, existing data are often
cysticercosis 2028 epileptic patients or isolated clinical cases. Furthermore, existing data are often old. Overall, T. solium cysticercosis remains largely neglected in West Africa, and its prevalence appears not to be affected by any religion
cysticercosis 2758 taeniasis through the consumption of raw or undercooked pork containing tapeworm larvae. In animal cysticercosis , tapeworm eggs are ingested with water and food. In human cysticercosis, an additional mode of transmission
cysticercosis 2830 tapeworm larvae. In animal cysticercosis, tapeworm eggs are ingested with water and food. In human cysticercosis , an additional mode of transmission of the disease is autoinfection through hand-to-mouth contact with
cysticercosis 3268 evolve into cysticerci [[109]]. When larvae are located in the brain, the infection is called neuro cysticercosis (NCC), a frequent cause of epilepsy or epileptic seizures [[99]]. Autoinfection is frequent in humans.
cysticercosis 3428 epileptic seizures [[99]]. Autoinfection is frequent in humans. In West Africa, while a high prevalence of cysticercosis in pigs and humans has occasionally been reported, there is a lack of a consistent and systematic approach
cysticercosis 5998 [[34], [88]]. This may therefore explain, at least in part, the difference in data availability on cysticercosis between south and north.Climate can also shape parasite transmission [[50]]. The arid zone includes
cysticercosis 6812 to influence the transmission of the disease and could therefore explain the irregular prevalence of cysticercosis throughout the region. This review tries to shape the pattern of the disease in this area in relation
cysticercosis 7028 with this heterogeneity. In the meantime, it highlights the scarcity of data available on T. solium cysticercosis and supports the need for more studies.MethodsThis review covered all the 16 West African countries.
cysticercosis 7155 the need for more studies.MethodsThis review covered all the 16 West African countries. The data on cysticercosis in West Africa were collected from: (1) peer-reviewed articles on T. solium cysticercosis in Africa,
cysticercosis 7245 The data on cysticercosis in West Africa were collected from: (1) peer-reviewed articles on T. solium cysticercosis in Africa, (2) grey literature consisting of written materials such as theses and dissertations obtained
cysticercosis 7659 following search strategy was applied: (1) in PubMed, using the Boolean operator AND, the terms “ cysticercosis ”, “Taenia solium” and “West Africa’’ (and each individual country name); (2) in Google Scholar
cysticercosis 7822 (and each individual country name); (2) in Google Scholar (http://scholar.google.com), the terms “ cysticercosis Taenia solium” were screened in the full core texts and not only in titles and keywords. Thereafter,
cysticercosis 8077 in respect of the various countries of the region and key words and expressions such as “porcine cysticercosis ”, “human cysticercosis”, “neurocysticercosis’’, “Taenia solium”, “T. solium”, and
cysticercosis 8104 countries of the region and key words and expressions such as “porcine cysticercosis”, “human cysticercosis ”, “neurocysticercosis’’, “Taenia solium”, “T. solium”, and “cysticercosis” were
cysticercosis 8130 and key words and expressions such as “porcine cysticercosis”, “human cysticercosis”, “neuro cysticercosis ’’, “Taenia solium”, “T. solium”, and “cysticercosis” were searched in order to retrieve
cysticercosis 8196 “human cysticercosis”, “neurocysticercosis’’, “Taenia solium”, “T. solium”, and “ cysticercosis ” were searched in order to retrieve scientific publications on cysticercosis relating to each country.
cysticercosis 8275 “T. solium”, and “cysticercosis” were searched in order to retrieve scientific publications on cysticercosis relating to each country. Additionally, some other internet websites, such as The Journal of Infection
cysticercosis 9468 articles, which cover only 11 out of the 16 countries of the region, concern the following topics: porcine cysticercosis (39), human cysticercosis (36), and neurocysticercosis (34). From these 120 articles, the following
cysticercosis 9494 of the 16 countries of the region, concern the following topics: porcine cysticercosis (39), human cysticercosis (36), and neurocysticercosis (34). From these 120 articles, the following data were finally extracted
cysticercosis 9523 region, concern the following topics: porcine cysticercosis (39), human cysticercosis (36), and neuro cysticercosis (34). From these 120 articles, the following data were finally extracted and reported: country, year,
cysticercosis 9927 1.Summary of publications available (case reports and epidemiological studies).Country name Porcine cysticercosis Human cysticercosisNeurocysticercosis No. of references (total: 120)Benin[[60], [5], [7]][[123], [2],
cysticercosis 9946 publications available (case reports and epidemiological studies).Country name Porcine cysticercosisHuman cysticercosis Neurocysticercosis No. of references (total: 120)Benin[[60], [5], [7]][[123], [2], [64], [92], [56],
cysticercosis 9964 (case reports and epidemiological studies).Country name Porcine cysticercosisHuman cysticercosisNeuro cysticercosis No. of references (total: 120)Benin[[60], [5], [7]][[123], [2], [64], [92], [56], [11], [55], [12],
cysticercosis 13213 or post mortem inspection;(n) Number of subjects or animals examined.Epidemiological data on porcine cysticercosis Only 8 out of 16 countries of the region have reported porcine cysticercosis, namely Benin, Burkina Faso,
cysticercosis 13289 examined.Epidemiological data on porcine cysticercosisOnly 8 out of 16 countries of the region have reported porcine cysticercosis , namely Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Nigeria, and Senegal
cysticercosis 13732 characterized by low sensitivity [[17], [32]], which can lead to underestimation of the prevalence of cysticercosis . However, despite this low sensitivity, recent data obtained in slaughterhouses from post-mortem examinations
cysticercosis 14912 until 2011, when, based on the Ag-ELISA diagnostic technique, seroprevalence reached 39.6% [[53]].Human cysticercosis Seizures are the most frequent clinical manifestation of neurocysticercosis [[106]]. Data on neurocysticercosis
cysticercosis 14987 reached 39.6% [[53]].Human cysticercosisSeizures are the most frequent clinical manifestation of neuro cysticercosis [[106]]. Data on neurocysticercosis are scarce and available only in terms of prevalence among epileptic
cysticercosis 15023 cysticercosisSeizures are the most frequent clinical manifestation of neurocysticercosis [[106]]. Data on neuro cysticercosis are scarce and available only in terms of prevalence among epileptic patients and from the following
cysticercosis 15412 systematic studies.Aside from data concerning people with epilepsy, the first systematic studies on human cysticercosis were provided in 1989 and 1996 by Togo (2.4%) and Benin (3.5%), respectively. The most complete set
cysticercosis 15668 covers the years 2000–2016. According to the most recent data, the highest prevalence rates of human cysticercosis were found in Nigeria, with a 14.3% rate calculated on 300 persons (2015), in Senegal with an 11.9%
cysticercosis 17292 phases: (1) “door-to-door” questionnaires, aimed at identifying the population at high risk for neuro cysticercosis ; (2) neurological examination of selected groups, aimed at confirming epileptic seizures or epilepsy
cysticercosis 17601 against Epilepsy [[31]]; and (3) serology (ELISA and EITB) and brain CT scans, to identify cysts and cysticercosis lesions.DiscussionPorcine cysticercosisIn developing countries, livestock rearing is one of the main
cysticercosis 17641 (ELISA and EITB) and brain CT scans, to identify cysts and cysticercosis lesions.DiscussionPorcine cysticercosis In developing countries, livestock rearing is one of the main economic activities on which the poorest
cysticercosis 17841 which the poorest populations depend for food and income. Data on the prevalence of porcine T. solium cysticercosis are extremely scarce in West Africa and available only from a few countries. This review highlights
cysticercosis 17965 extremely scarce in West Africa and available only from a few countries. This review highlights that pork cysticercosis is largely present in most of the countries of the region. However, the burden of the animal disease
cysticercosis 18832 sources of contamination.Burkina Faso is estimated to have, by far, the highest prevalence of porcine cysticercosis (between 32.5% and 39.6% in 2011). Although modern pig-breeding was introduced to Burkina Faso at the
cysticercosis 19084 80% of the pigs are still slaughtered by farmers at home and sold without prior meat inspection for cysticercosis [[49]], which constitutes a major risk for public health. Nigeria has the largest pig population in
cysticercosis 20554 products [[46]]. In Ghana and neighboring countries (particularly Burkina Faso and Togo), the lack of cysticercosis data in the first decade of this century could be explained – at least in part – by the outbreaks
cysticercosis 21114 are slaughtered at home, without meat inspection. Clearly, the greatest challenge in controlling pork cysticercosis is the lack of regular reporting and data due to insufficient human resources to control slaughterhouses
cysticercosis 21502 needed to elaborate national strategies and launch information campaigns for rural populations.Human cysticercosis According to the World Health Organization (WHO), T. solium causes 30% of epilepsy cases in many endemic
cysticercosis 21730 Africa, Asia and Latin America, where people and roaming pigs live in close proximity [[120]]. Human cysticercosis is usually found in areas where porcine cysticercosis is widespread [[54], [72]].The number of publications
cysticercosis 21784 roaming pigs live in close proximity [[120]]. Human cysticercosis is usually found in areas where porcine cysticercosis is widespread [[54], [72]].The number of publications retrieved through this systematic search was relatively
cysticercosis 22104 of expensive neuro-imaging devices. In humans, imaging is essential to confirm the diagnosis of neuro cysticercosis , based on the revised diagnostic criteria proposed by Del Brutto et al. [[38]]. For NCC, this scarcity
cysticercosis 22620 reports are frequent. Some countries (e.g. Cape Verde, Guinea and Liberia) have no official data on cysticercosis . In developing countries, case reports of neurocysticercosis used to be the only source indicating local
cysticercosis 22681 and Liberia) have no official data on cysticercosis. In developing countries, case reports of neuro cysticercosis used to be the only source indicating local presence of the disease. They are sometimes reported from
cysticercosis 22979 from the region [[27], [57], [102]].In Togo (1989) and Nigeria (2015), where the prevalence of human cysticercosis was 21.6% and 14.3%, respectively [[42], [45]], epidemiological studies have highlighted a strong association
cysticercosis 23134 [45]], epidemiological studies have highlighted a strong association between epileptic seizures and cysticercosis . This is clearly the same situation as in Central Africa (e.g. a 2013 Cameroonian study) and in East
cysticercosis 23481 countries of ECOWAS to fill these gaps.ConclusionConcerning the scarcity of available data, T. solium cysticercosis remains to date a largely underestimated, if not unrecognized disease in West Africa. Importantly, in
cysticercosis 23718 where pig production is widespread (e.g. Côte d’Ivoire or Togo), the most recent reports concerning cysticercosis date back to the early 1990s.The major challenge for cysticercosis recognition is the lack of biological
cysticercosis 23785 the most recent reports concerning cysticercosis date back to the early 1990s.The major challenge for cysticercosis recognition is the lack of biological diagnosis capacities and facilities in local health institutions.
cysticercosis 24183 [[123]], are circumstances that contribute substantially to spread of the disease.When future studies on cysticercosis in West Africa are carried out, three series of factors will need to be taken into consideration as
taeniasis 2659 hosts: pigs and humans are intermediate hosts, whereas only humans are definitive hosts. Humans develop taeniasis through the consumption of raw or undercooked pork containing tapeworm larvae. In animal cysticercosis,
taeniasis 9144 studies carried out to assess laboratory test performance (unidentified samples); (2) studies focusing on taeniasis only and/or on T. saginata infection; (3) studies performed outside of the study area; and (4) reviews

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