Genetic Diversity of Plasmodium vivax Causing Epidemic Malaria in the Republic of Korea

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chloroquine 3 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
infectious disease 1 infectiousdiseases
malaria 41 infectiousdiseases
primaquine 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
chloroquine 17108 explain the high diversity. The South Korean Army introduced a strategy of mass chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine during the malaria transmission season and primaquine after the transmission season to reduce the number
chloroquine 17317 number of vivax malaria cases in both the military and civilian populations. Chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine (300 mg/wk) and primaquine (30 mg/wk) began with approximately 16,000 soldiers in 1997 and was expanded
chloroquine 17552 200,000 military personnel in zones at high risk for vivax malaria [[60]]. In a process of monitoring for chloroquine -resistant P. vivax using single nucleotide polymorphisms in Pvmdr1 and microsatellite genotypes, P.
primaquine 17163 introduced a strategy of mass chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine during the malaria transmission season and primaquine after the transmission season to reduce the number of vivax malaria cases in both the military and civilian
primaquine 17345 cases in both the military and civilian populations. Chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine (300 mg/wk) and primaquine (30 mg/wk) began with approximately 16,000 soldiers in 1997 and was expanded to more than 200,000 military
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
infectious disease 2080 malaria in 1993, and has been categorized as one of 32 malaria-eliminating countries [[1]]. Malaria is an infectious disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite which is transmitted via the bite of infected female anopheline mosquitoes.
malaria 1341 hurdle to sustained control and elimination. The Republic of Korea has experienced re-emergence of vivax malaria in 1993 but is one of the 32 malaria-eliminating countries to-date. Despite achieving successful nationwide
malaria 1378 elimination. The Republic of Korea has experienced re-emergence of vivax malaria in 1993 but is one of the 32 malaria -eliminating countries to-date. Despite achieving successful nationwide control and elimination of vivax
malaria 1490 malaria-eliminating countries to-date. Despite achieving successful nationwide control and elimination of vivax malaria , the evolutionary characteristics of vivax malaria isolates in the Republic of Korea have not been fully
malaria 1541 successful nationwide control and elimination of vivax malaria, the evolutionary characteristics of vivax malaria isolates in the Republic of Korea have not been fully understood. In this review, we present an overview
malaria 1923 Korea.INTRODUCTIONThe Republic of Korea has recently made significant progress in eliminating the burden of vivax malaria since the re-emergence of infectious vivax malaria in 1993, and has been categorized as one of 32 malaria-eliminating
malaria 1974 significant progress in eliminating the burden of vivax malaria since the re-emergence of infectious vivax malaria in 1993, and has been categorized as one of 32 malaria-eliminating countries [[1]]. Malaria is an infectious
malaria 2029 malaria since the re-emergence of infectious vivax malaria in 1993, and has been categorized as one of 32 malaria -eliminating countries [[1]]. Malaria is an infectious disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite which
malaria 2276 infected female anopheline mosquitoes. Of the 4 Plasmodium species comprising P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malaria e, and P. ovale which routinely cause malaria in humans, P. vivax, a relatively neglected human malaria
malaria 2321 Plasmodium species comprising P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale which routinely cause malaria in humans, P. vivax, a relatively neglected human malaria parasite, is the most widely distributed species
malaria 2379 malariae, and P. ovale which routinely cause malaria in humans, P. vivax, a relatively neglected human malaria parasite, is the most widely distributed species in humans across the world causing an estimated 80–90
malaria 2553 the world causing an estimated 80–90 million cases each year [[2]]. Among the protozoa that cause malaria , P. falciparum is the greatest menace because of its high rate of mortality, mostly among children under
malaria 2699 because of its high rate of mortality, mostly among children under the age of 5 in Africa. However, malaria caused by P. vivax is less lethal but has accounted for an enormous share of global malaria burden in
malaria 2791 However, malaria caused by P. vivax is less lethal but has accounted for an enormous share of global malaria burden in recent years along with P. falciparum, greatly affecting the quality of life of several human
malaria 3374 continuous in vitro culture system for blood stages is an additional challenge [[5]]. In general, vivax malaria was thought to be benign and self-limiting, was not considered a priority in comparison with the significant
malaria 3748 geographically widespread distribution of P. vivax and recent evidence of severe and complicated vivax malaria across several endemic regions of the world suggest that this disease may have been overlooked as benign
malaria 3924 disease may have been overlooked as benign [[8]].In the Republic of Korea, P. vivax is the most prevalent malaria species [[9]]. Vivax malaria has been endemic in the Republic of Korea for more than 2 decades after
malaria 3953 benign [[8]].In the Republic of Korea, P. vivax is the most prevalent malaria species [[9]]. Vivax malaria has been endemic in the Republic of Korea for more than 2 decades after re-emergence. Since its re-emergence
malaria 5057 the host’s immune response [[14]]. At the time of re-emergence, no heterogeneity was observed in malaria incidence or in the distribution of P. vivax cases across the Republic of Korea. In July 1993, a Korean
malaria 5260 a Korean Army soldier stationed near the DMZ in northern Gyeonggi Province was diagnosed with vivax malaria [[15]]. After this first re-emergence case, there was an exponential increase in vivax malaria cases
malaria 5355 vivax malaria [[15]]. After this first re-emergence case, there was an exponential increase in vivax malaria cases with epidemic outbreaks from 1995 to 2000. Since then, vivax malaria has been recognized as a
malaria 5430 exponential increase in vivax malaria cases with epidemic outbreaks from 1995 to 2000. Since then, vivax malaria has been recognized as a significant public health problem [[16]–[18]]. In this short review article,
malaria 5995 into drifts in parasite transmission and parasite population history, information that is pivotal to malaria control and elimination programs and assessing the impact of such interventions [[19]].GENETIC DIVERSITY
malaria 6316 levels of polymorphism in Plasmodium parasites indicate the sophisticated immune evasion strategies of malaria parasites [[20]], understanding parasite population diversity is important for the strategic development
malaria 7687 genetic variation patterns of the parasite may help in analyzing trends and assessing the extent of malaria endemicity in the Republic of Korea [[30]]. This knowledge of the extent of correlation between the
malaria 8044 facilitate the identification of new drug resistance genes, and eventually provide information essential for malaria control and elimination [[31]]. The well-characterized polymorphic regions in genes such as gam1 coding
malaria 9211 PvMSP-3α is highly polymorphic and has been confirmed to be a molecular marker in several geographic malaria parasite populations [[32]]. From early re-emergence to 2000, PvDBP, PvMSP-1, and PvMSP-3α genotypes
malaria 11861 new PvCSP subtype was found based on polymorphism of repeat regions. These authors also found that malaria parasites in the Republic of Korea were becoming progressively more genetically diverse. Interestingly,
malaria 17131 diversity. The South Korean Army introduced a strategy of mass chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine during the malaria transmission season and primaquine after the transmission season to reduce the number of vivax malaria
malaria 17234 malaria transmission season and primaquine after the transmission season to reduce the number of vivax malaria cases in both the military and civilian populations. Chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine (300 mg/wk) and
malaria 17505 soldiers in 1997 and was expanded to more than 200,000 military personnel in zones at high risk for vivax malaria [[60]]. In a process of monitoring for chloroquine-resistant P. vivax using single nucleotide polymorphisms
malaria 19295 These facts might be consistent with the low polyclonal infections and the small numbers of imported malaria cases in the Republic of Korea (<20 cases per year except 52 in 2000) [[9]].CONCLUSIONBased on the above-mentioned
malaria 19514 above-mentioned studies on genetic diversity and incidence, the evidence obtained supports a link between vivax malaria in South and North Korea [[67]]. Annual WHO Malaria Reports show that North Korea had a restricted capacity
malaria 19643 Korea [[67]]. Annual WHO Malaria Reports show that North Korea had a restricted capacity to eliminate malaria until 1998 and experienced its highest reported incidence of malaria in 2001, peaking at 296,540 microscopically
malaria 19712 restricted capacity to eliminate malaria until 1998 and experienced its highest reported incidence of malaria in 2001, peaking at 296,540 microscopically confirmed and indigenous cases (43.4 cases per 1,000 population)
malaria 19847 microscopically confirmed and indigenous cases (43.4 cases per 1,000 population) [[68]]. The vivax malaria cases in North Korea coincided with peak incidence in South Korea (3,932 in 1998, 3,621 in 1999, 4,142
malaria 20966 similar to such genetic diversity in the Republic of Korea. Sri Lanka has remarkably reduced its vivax malaria incidence case by 99.99% with high levels of heterozygosity of P. vivax and large effective population
malaria 21355 approximately 70% isolates in that study had polyclonal infections. The authors suggested that the imported malaria could by the most likely source of vivax malaria transmission. Overall, the significant diversity of
malaria 21404 infections. The authors suggested that the imported malaria could by the most likely source of vivax malaria transmission. Overall, the significant diversity of the P. vivax population observed hampers the development
malaria 21584 population observed hampers the development of an effective vaccine against South Korean isolates of vivax malaria . In comparison to the very low endemic, pre-elimination settings of Sabah, Malaysia [[70]] and Southern
malaria 21831 evidence of population bottlenecking in the Republic of Korea.Therefore, further continuous monitoring of malaria parasites using various molecular markers including polymorphic DNA markers in the P. vivax genome is
malaria 21989 including polymorphic DNA markers in the P. vivax genome is needed for the control and elimination of vivax malaria in the Republic of Korea. Such monitoring can also assess the population structure and dynamics of the

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