A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: the problem of helminthiases

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Annotation Summary

Term Occurence Count Dictionary
schistosomiasis 19 infectiousdiseases
taeniasis 3 infectiousdiseases
urinary schistosomiasis 1 infectiousdiseases
filariasis 6 infectiousdiseases
infectious disease 2 infectiousdiseases
ivermectin 3 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
praziquantel 3 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
trachoma 1 infectiousdiseases
viral hepatitis 1 infectiousdiseases
tuberculosis 1 infectiousdiseases
AIDS 6 infectiousdiseases
cysticercosis 8 infectiousdiseases
malaria 11 infectiousdiseases
onchocerciasis 15 infectiousdiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
ivermectin 14381 all) of the blackfly vectors are less efficient than their African counterparts, and treatment with ivermectin has been more frequent (biannually instead of yearly, and in some localities up to four times per year)
ivermectin 29310 as the Mectizan Donation Program of Merck & Co. for onchocerciasis and LF control/elimination with ivermectin , in coordination with albendazole donation by GlaxoSmithKline for LF and STHs [52]). Additionally, patents
ivermectin 59250 safe, effective, and affordable drugs in other areas. For example, although the macrocyclic lactone ivermectin has proven effective in the interruption of onchocerciasis transmission in specific epidemiologic settings,
praziquantel 29498 [52]). Additionally, patents have expired for some compounds, making generic preparations (such as praziquantel for schistosomiasis, or diethylcarbamazine for LF) highly affordable. The anthelmintic drugs thus available
praziquantel 33178 [56]–[58]. In the case of cestode infections, and despite the proven benefit of chemotherapy with praziquantel and possibly albendazole for patients with parenchymal NCC [59], [60], there is a need for improved
praziquantel 59541 macrofilariae) exists. Likewise, schistosome control depends critically on the sustained clinical efficacy of praziquantel ; the chemotherapy deployed to control many helminth infections in a MDA setting is unsatisfactory, due
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
AIDS 1745 socioeconomic development. Furthermore, helminth infection accentuates the morbidity of malaria and HIV/ AIDS , and impairs vaccine efficacy. Polyparasitism is the norm in these populations, and infections tend
AIDS 6657 equality and empower women; MDG4: Reduce child mortality; MDG5: Improve maternal health; MDG6: Combat HIV/ AIDS , malaria and other diseases; MDG7: Ensure environmental sustainability; and MDG8: Develop a global partnership
AIDS 10862 burden of the common helminth diseases rivals that of the main high-mortality conditions such as HIV/ AIDS or malaria; 85% of the NTD burden for the poorest 500 million people living in SSA results from helminth
AIDS 34341 to health, namely, MDG4, reduce child mortality; MDG5, improve maternal health; and MDG6, combat HIV/ AIDS , malaria and other diseases. This is particularly worrying for many African countries. This slow progress
AIDS 34836 fraction of this to the neglected helminth diseases. In fact, though MDG6 specifically mentions HIV/ AIDS and malaria as critical targets for sustainable poverty reduction by the year 2015, it merely alludes
AIDS 35440 received nearly the same attention as three of the highest mortality-causing infectious diseases, HIV/ AIDS , malaria, and tuberculosis [62]. This is likely because they are not perceived as major causes of premature
cysticercosis 3087 filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, food-borne trematodiases, and taeniasis/ cysticercosis .IntroductionSince the publication by Norman Stoll in 1947 of “This Wormy World” [1], where the intolerable
cysticercosis 9344 FilariasisLF, lymphatic filariasisMDGs, Millennium Development GoalsMSAT, mass screen and treatNCC, neuro cysticercosis NTDs, neglected tropical diseasesOCP, Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West AfricaM&E, monitoring
cysticercosis 12682 Fasciola hepaticaEast Asia56d0.5–0.9d7dLarge-scale control initiatives lackingCestode infections: cysticercosis Taenia soliumSSA, Asia, LA0.4 (LA only)NDNDLarge-scale control initiatives are lackingModified from references
cysticercosis 24177 from and tourism to endemic regions. T. solium infection, which causes intestinal taeniasis and tissue cysticercosis , represent two different life stages and clinical entities in the human host. Intestinal taeniasis with
cysticercosis 24467 morbidity by itself, but represents the sole source of the more pathogenic tissue infection, designated cysticercosis , that affects both humans and pigs. Cysticercosis, the infection with the larval stage of the parasite
cysticercosis 24706 humans act as “intermediate hosts”), is a major cause of seizure disorders worldwide (human neuro cysticercosis or NCC), and also causes economic losses due to infected pork (porcine cysticercosis). The most consistent
cysticercosis 24791 worldwide (human neurocysticercosis or NCC), and also causes economic losses due to infected pork (porcine cysticercosis ). The most consistent indicator of the prevalence of neurocysticercosis is that of seizure disorders.
cysticercosis 24863 due to infected pork (porcine cysticercosis). The most consistent indicator of the prevalence of neuro cysticercosis is that of seizure disorders. In several endemic areas of Latin America, the attributed fraction for
filariasis 2986 these infections. The helminth infections that will be discussed include: onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis , soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, food-borne trematodiases, and taeniasis/cysticercosis.IntroductionSince
filariasis 5616 1997, resolution WHA50.29 was passed, which urged the WHO and member states to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF). This led to the formation of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF), which
filariasis 9263 Neglected Tropical Disease ControlGPELF, Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic FilariasisLF, lymphatic filariasis MDGs, Millennium Development GoalsMSAT, mass screen and treatNCC, neurocysticercosisNTDs, neglected tropical
filariasis 10405 hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale), followed by schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF). In Table 1 the estimated number of people infected (although estimates are given separately, there
filariasis 11947 (Thousands)Programmes InvolvedOnchocerciasisOnchocerca volvulusSSA371.5a0.05 (in the OCP area)bOCP, APOC, OEPALymphatic filariasis Wuchereria bancrofti; Brugia malayiIndia, SEA, SSA1205.80.4GPELFAscariasisAscaris lumbricoidesAsia, Africa,
filariasis 26692 distribution of co-infections with helminth infections, 2009.The helminth infections include: lymphatic filariasis (LF), onchocerciasis (Oncho), schistosomiasis (SCH), and soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH). The different
infectious disease 35415 enormous, the NTDs have not received nearly the same attention as three of the highest mortality-causing infectious disease s, HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis [62]. This is likely because they are not perceived as major causes
infectious disease 40477 scientists who can drive research aimed at developing more effective tools and strategies to fight infectious disease s of poverty [4]. Global financing mechanisms for NTDs should take into consideration that disease control
malaria 1729 inadequate socioeconomic development. Furthermore, helminth infection accentuates the morbidity of malaria and HIV/AIDS, and impairs vaccine efficacy. Polyparasitism is the norm in these populations, and infections
malaria 4310 Moreover, the infections themselves may accentuate the effect of other significant pathogens such as malaria and HIV, and attenuate the response to a range of vaccines.In response to growing evidence demonstrating
malaria 6663 empower women; MDG4: Reduce child mortality; MDG5: Improve maternal health; MDG6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; MDG7: Ensure environmental sustainability; and MDG8: Develop a global partnership
malaria 10870 the common helminth diseases rivals that of the main high-mortality conditions such as HIV/AIDS or malaria ; 85% of the NTD burden for the poorest 500 million people living in SSA results from helminth infections.
malaria 21661 of schistosomiasis are specific and overlap with other causes, including other helminth infections, malaria , and viral hepatitis, which often are co-endemic with schistosomiasis.Food-Borne TrematodiasesFood-borne
malaria 27325 infections. In addition, multiple species infections may increase susceptibility to other infections, such as malaria or HIV [45], [46], particularly given the often detrimental immunomodulatory effect of helminth infections.
malaria 34347 health, namely, MDG4, reduce child mortality; MDG5, improve maternal health; and MDG6, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases. This is particularly worrying for many African countries. This slow progress is
malaria 34845 of this to the neglected helminth diseases. In fact, though MDG6 specifically mentions HIV/AIDS and malaria as critical targets for sustainable poverty reduction by the year 2015, it merely alludes to chronic
malaria 35446 nearly the same attention as three of the highest mortality-causing infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, malaria , and tuberculosis [62]. This is likely because they are not perceived as major causes of premature death.
malaria 60520 What areas of basic research are likely to yield improved control tools? Comparison of helminths with malaria may be instructive in this context: genomics has transformed malaria research over the past decade,
malaria 60589 tools? Comparison of helminths with malaria may be instructive in this context: genomics has transformed malaria research over the past decade, reinvigorating drug and vaccine development, and enabling the development
onchocerciasis 2960 epidemiology, and control of these infections. The helminth infections that will be discussed include: onchocerciasis , lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, food-borne trematodiases, and
onchocerciasis 13701 second cause of infectious blindness after trachoma, with 99% of the cases in SSA. In Latin America, onchocerciasis has been endemic in six countries (namely, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Brazil),
onchocerciasis 14536 of yearly, and in some localities up to four times per year) and has achieved a high coverage [8].In onchocerciasis , morbidity is manifested as ocular involvement including blindness, dermal involvement including skin
onchocerciasis 15185 of differences in parasite strains. The importance of OSD as a contributor to the disease burden of onchocerciasis has been recognised relatively recently [9]. In 1995, the year APOC was implemented (and 25 years after
onchocerciasis 15418 commencement of the OCP), the burden of disease was estimated to amount to 1.99 million DALYs lost because of onchocerciasis . In 2003, on the basis of updated mapping and treatment coverage data, and assumed decreases in attributable
onchocerciasis 15598 data, and assumed decreases in attributable morbidity due to skin and eye disease, the DALYs due to onchocerciasis were re-estimated to have reduced to 1.49 million [10].Lymphatic FilariasisLF is endemic in 83 countries
onchocerciasis 26461 time and space. In Figure 1, the geographical distribution of co-occurrence of helminth species (LF, onchocerciasis , schistosomiasis, and STHs) at country level is presented.10.1371/journal.pntd.0001582.g001Figure 1Geographical
onchocerciasis 26709 co-infections with helminth infections, 2009.The helminth infections include: lymphatic filariasis (LF), onchocerciasis (Oncho), schistosomiasis (SCH), and soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH). The different colors represent
onchocerciasis 27958 integrated approaches that can simultaneously target as many as four of the helminth NTDs, including onchocerciasis , LF, STHs, and schistosomiasis—a mission undertaken by the GNNTDC and the WHO [2], [48].Advances,
onchocerciasis 29263 by highly visible pharmaceutical companies (such as the Mectizan Donation Program of Merck & Co. for onchocerciasis and LF control/elimination with ivermectin, in coordination with albendazole donation by GlaxoSmithKline
onchocerciasis 35569 tuberculosis [62]. This is likely because they are not perceived as major causes of premature death. However, onchocerciasis can cause visual impairment, blindness, and excess mortality both of the blind and of heavily infected
onchocerciasis 45214 the OCP in West Africa that, after 30 years of concentrated efforts, prevented 600,000 new cases of onchocerciasis and protected a total of 18 million villagers from the threat of contracting river blindness [10]. Elimination
onchocerciasis 53530 mapping has been less exploited in Latin America (but see [87] for REA methods and [88] for GIS and onchocerciasis in the Amazonian focus [89]). Thus, research is required to determine the optimal strategy for rapidly
onchocerciasis 58793 these infections. The current efforts, based primarily on MDA, have been effective in some cases (e.g., onchocerciasis , LF), but this success has further eroded support for fundamental research. However, MDA is potentially
onchocerciasis 59305 For example, although the macrocyclic lactone ivermectin has proven effective in the interruption of onchocerciasis transmission in specific epidemiologic settings, no safe and effective macrofilaricide (against adult
schistosomiasis 3030 that will be discussed include: onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis , food-borne trematodiases, and taeniasis/cysticercosis.IntroductionSince the publication by Norman Stoll
schistosomiasis 6188 75% of all school-age children at risk of morbidity from soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) and schistosomiasis . This resolution led to the establishment of Partners for Parasite Control (PPC) by the WHO. More recently,
schistosomiasis 10375 lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale), followed by schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF). In Table 1 the estimated number of people infected (although estimates
schistosomiasis 20543 large number of cases of hydronephrosis, renal failure, and bladder cancer. Women with urinary/genital schistosomiasis are at an increased risk of acquiring HIV infection [27]. Over 80% of the schistosomiasis burden is
schistosomiasis 20633 urinary/genital schistosomiasis are at an increased risk of acquiring HIV infection [27]. Over 80% of the schistosomiasis burden is concentrated in SSA. In Latin America and the Caribbean, S. mansoni infection is prevalent
schistosomiasis 21075 estimates for 2000 and updated in 2004) are thought to considerably underestimate the true burden of schistosomiasis [28], [29]. As for almost all helminth infections, schistosome infection is not equivalent to schistosomiasis
schistosomiasis 21185 schistosomiasis [28], [29]. As for almost all helminth infections, schistosome infection is not equivalent to schistosomiasis disease. Likewise, there is a paucity of validated direct and indirect indicators of schistosome-related
schistosomiasis 21340 of validated direct and indirect indicators of schistosome-related morbidity [30]–[33]. In urinary schistosomiasis , macroscopic haematuria is an obvious early sign of morbidity. However, for S. mansoni and S. japonicum,
schistosomiasis 21564 assessment of morbidity is more difficult. Furthermore, few, if any, of the clinical manifestations of schistosomiasis are specific and overlap with other causes, including other helminth infections, malaria, and viral
schistosomiasis 21723 including other helminth infections, malaria, and viral hepatitis, which often are co-endemic with schistosomiasis .Food-Borne TrematodiasesFood-borne trematodiases, including liver flukes (Opisthorchis viverrini, Op.
schistosomiasis 26477 In Figure 1, the geographical distribution of co-occurrence of helminth species (LF, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis , and STHs) at country level is presented.10.1371/journal.pntd.0001582.g001Figure 1Geographical distribution
schistosomiasis 26733 infections, 2009.The helminth infections include: lymphatic filariasis (LF), onchocerciasis (Oncho), schistosomiasis (SCH), and soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH). The different colors represent the following co-infections:
schistosomiasis 27988 simultaneously target as many as four of the helminth NTDs, including onchocerciasis, LF, STHs, and schistosomiasis —a mission undertaken by the GNNTDC and the WHO [2], [48].Advances, Opportunities, and Challenges for
schistosomiasis 29515 Additionally, patents have expired for some compounds, making generic preparations (such as praziquantel for schistosomiasis , or diethylcarbamazine for LF) highly affordable. The anthelmintic drugs thus available to the control
schistosomiasis 32840 species of schistosome is therefore required. A pilot study for such an integrated control strategy for schistosomiasis has been undertaken in China using a multi-pronged approach, including health education, access to clean
schistosomiasis 35857 impaired function, reducing the ability of people to work and look after themselves and others; STHs and schistosomiasis can markedly reduce the growth and development of children, including cognitive ability throughout life,
schistosomiasis 47486 morbidity. This is the basis for school-based health programmes aimed at deworming children of STHs and schistosomiasis . In this target population, treatment is administered to all individuals regardless of their infection
schistosomiasis 55243 organise public health resources.For the infections that can be controlled by mass chemotherapy (STHs, schistosomiasis ), but not readily eliminated, early and intensified case detection and management can be pursued. However,
schistosomiasis 56001 specific circumstances, however, the feasibility of achieving this goal is being considered (e.g., schistosomiasis in some Caribbean countries and low transmission areas [92], and some isolated (island) foci in Africa
taeniasis 3077 lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, food-borne trematodiases, and taeniasis /cysticercosis.IntroductionSince the publication by Norman Stoll in 1947 of “This Wormy World” [1],
taeniasis 24156 due to immigration from and tourism to endemic regions. T. solium infection, which causes intestinal taeniasis and tissue cysticercosis, represent two different life stages and clinical entities in the human host.
taeniasis 24280 cysticercosis, represent two different life stages and clinical entities in the human host. Intestinal taeniasis with the adult tapeworm (when humans act as definitive hosts) causes low morbidity by itself, but represents
trachoma 13643 estimates [7], 37 million people in 34 countries and is the second cause of infectious blindness after trachoma , with 99% of the cases in SSA. In Latin America, onchocerciasis has been endemic in six countries (namely,
tuberculosis 35459 same attention as three of the highest mortality-causing infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis [62]. This is likely because they are not perceived as major causes of premature death. However, onchocerciasis
urinary schistosomiasis 21332 paucity of validated direct and indirect indicators of schistosome-related morbidity [30]–[33]. In urinary schistosomiasis , macroscopic haematuria is an obvious early sign of morbidity. However, for S. mansoni and S. japonicum,
viral hepatitis 21674 schistosomiasis are specific and overlap with other causes, including other helminth infections, malaria, and viral hepatitis , which often are co-endemic with schistosomiasis.Food-Borne TrematodiasesFood-borne trematodiases, including

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