Human Sparganosis in Korea

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AIDS 1 infectiousdiseases
abscess 2 infectiousdiseases
praziquantel 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
sparganosis 94 infectiousdiseases
tuberculosis 2 infectiousdiseases

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praziquantel 20879 more than 30 times for treatment of thyroid disease. She was treated with three consecutive doses of praziquantel (75 mg/kg/day), after which symptoms and pericardial effusion gradually disappeared. However, follow-up
praziquantel 33641 treating sparganosis are unavailable.[58] In this series, we observed that some patients were treated with praziquantel . A few patients seemed to respond to the drug because their symptoms subsided after medication. However,
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
AIDS 24987 associated with immunocompromised patients, such as those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome ( AIDS ), cancer, or allograft recipients have been sporadically detected worldwide. Proliferative sparganosis
abscess 20285 dyspnea, and/or empyema.[33] Sparganum infected in the intestinal wall caused obstruction, perforation, or abscess formation. An intraperitoneal mass causing abdominal pain has been reported.[34] Imaging scans of patients
abscess 21141 specific antibody level remained to be strongly positive.[36] A sparganosis causing retropharyngeal abscess has been recorded in the literature, while detailed history was unavailable.[3]Table 5Number of patients
sparganosis 698 larval cestodiasis caused by the plerocercoid of Spirometra spp. Since the first description of human sparganosis in 1924, several hundred cases have been reported in Korea. However, systematic approaches for literature
sparganosis 834 cases have been reported in Korea. However, systematic approaches for literature surveys of Korean sparganosis have seldom appeared.MethodsWe searched publicly available databases such as PubMed, Research Information
sparganosis 1068 and Korea Medical Citation Index with relevant Medical Subject Headings.ResultsAt least 438 Korean sparganosis cases have been described from 1924 to 2015. Preoperative diagnosis has been significantly increased
sparganosis 1331 serological and imaging diagnostics. Cases were largely detected from fifth decades in general, but cerebral sparganosis was detected in relatively young age groups (third and fourth decades). Sparganosis was prevalent in
sparganosis 1797 of visceral organs (7.6%), ocular regions (3.6%), and muscles (2.7%) were noticed. In women, breast sparganosis constituted a large proportion (34.2%). Sparganosis associated with immunocompromised patients has recently
sparganosis 2263 worm in vital organs often results in serious illness. Continuous awareness is warranted to monitor sparganosis occurrence and associated clinical consequences.GraphicalGraphical AbstractINTRODUCTIONSparganosis is
sparganosis 2577 spp. of which adults thrive in the small intestine of canine or feline host (https://www.cdc.gov/dpdx/ sparganosis /index.html). Humans mostly serve as an intermediate host and are infected with larval worms (plerocercoid:
sparganosis 4013 morphological and molecular study has demonstrated that Spirometra decipiens plerocercoid is involved in Korean sparganosis .[6]Sparganosis has not been uncommon in Korea. The following factors might be associated with the development
sparganosis 4568 surveys of apparently healthy persons in Korea have demonstrated seropositive rates of 1.7%–3.3% for sparganosis . Large proportions (40.4%–62.5%) of seropositive people were old men aged over sixth decades,[7][8]
sparganosis 4900 cross-reactions by some other underlying factors could not be ruled out.[9]In Korea, an authentic case of sparganosis in the lower leg was firstly found in 1917 which was described in 1924.[10] Several hundreds of cases
sparganosis 5104 of cases were thenceforward reported. However, systematic approaches of literature survey of human sparganosis in Korea have rarely appeared.[2][3][11] In the present study, we provide an overview and perspectives
sparganosis 5228 have rarely appeared.[2][3][11] In the present study, we provide an overview and perspectives of human sparganosis in Korea by mining the publicly available databases during the period of 1924 to 2015.METHODSLiterature
sparganosis 5614 https://www.riss.kr), and Korea Medical Citation Index (KoMCI; https://komci.org/). We used terms “ sparganosis ,” “Spirometra,” and “Korea” in conjunction with associated Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
sparganosis 6495 School of Medicine (approval No. GNU-03-008). Informed consent was not needed.RESULTSSurvey of Korean sparganosis cases in publicly available domainsWe were able to collect information on 438 human sparganosis cases
sparganosis 6591 Korean sparganosis cases in publicly available domainsWe were able to collect information on 438 human sparganosis cases from 159 articles published in 51 journals. We found 55 papers in PubMed and 104 papers in two
sparganosis 6987 found in all search conditions. Out of the 51 Journals, the largest number of articles dealt with human sparganosis had been found in the Korean Journal of Parasitology, which contained 156 case reports. A total of 48
sparganosis 7116 the Korean Journal of Parasitology, which contained 156 case reports. A total of 48 cases of human sparganosis were reported in the Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology. In addition, 35 and 12 cases were retrieved
sparganosis 7509 and other international journals (We only listed three major journals that published the most Korean sparganosis ).Epidemiological characteristicsWe analyzed the number of sparganosis cases reported in Korea during
sparganosis 7579 that published the most Korean sparganosis).Epidemiological characteristicsWe analyzed the number of sparganosis cases reported in Korea during the period of 1924 to 2015 (Fig. 1). A previous study reported a total
sparganosis 7844 cases from 1924 to 1973 and additional five cases in 1975.[3] At that time, preoperative diagnosis of sparganosis was almost impossible. Moreover, academic capacity to preserve medical literature between 1944 and 1953
sparganosis 8147 in Korea, which might have hampered appropriate evaluation of medical situations including those of sparganosis .[2][3]Fig. 1Decennial distribution patterns of human sparganosis reported in Korea during 1924–2015.
sparganosis 8212 medical situations including those of sparganosis.[2][3]Fig. 1Decennial distribution patterns of human sparganosis reported in Korea during 1924–2015. At least 438 sparganosis cases were reported in Korea. Cases reported
sparganosis 8275 1Decennial distribution patterns of human sparganosis reported in Korea during 1924–2015. At least 438 sparganosis cases were reported in Korea. Cases reported between 1924 and 1953 referred to cases recorded in Korean
sparganosis 8434 between 1924 and 1953 referred to cases recorded in Korean peninsula and those after 1954 represented sparganosis reported in the Republic of Korea. Duplicated publications were excluded by reviewing individual papers.aMost
sparganosis 8750 (1941–1945), post-war chaos (1945–1948) and the Korean War (1950–1953).[3]Since the late 1970s, human sparganosis continue to occur in Korea. Min[11] found additional 56 cases through literature survey between 1975
sparganosis 9100 by Cho et al.[3] and Min.[11] Thereafter, cases seemed to be decreased to some extent. Nevertheless, sparganosis cases have been continually reported during the last 15 years (94 cases between 2004 and 2015).A drastic
sparganosis 9229 continually reported during the last 15 years (94 cases between 2004 and 2015).A drastic increase of sparganosis cases from the early 1980s might be due to the development and popularization of diagnostic modalities
sparganosis 9568 (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/ultrasonography (US) have become widely applied for the diagnosis of sparganosis , through which pathognomonic signs for sparganosis are established (see also later sections).[12][13]
sparganosis 9619 have become widely applied for the diagnosis of sparganosis, through which pathognomonic signs for sparganosis are established (see also later sections).[12][13] Serological tests using crude extracts of the sparganum
sparganosis 9973 exhibited sensitivity and specificity over 95%.[9][14][15] By these means, preoperative diagnosis of sparganosis cases, especially those of the central nervous system (CNS) and subcutaneous tissues including breast,
sparganosis 10480 infection sources from childhood. Among cases with available demographic data (398 cases), the incidence of sparganosis was 2.5 times higher in men (284 cases) than that in women (114 patients).Fig. 2Age and sex distribution
sparganosis 10600 times higher in men (284 cases) than that in women (114 patients).Fig. 2Age and sex distribution of sparganosis cases in Korea. Among 438 cases, 284 patients were men and 114 patients were women. We could not trace
sparganosis 10924 and/or contraction with snakes/frogs infected with plerocercoid might be intimately involved in human sparganosis .[2][3] We analyzed such behavioral habits of patients. Ingestion of snake and/or frog was recognized
sparganosis 11336 patients denied exposure to any possible infection source (Table 1).Table 1Behavioral habits of Korean sparganosis casesaSourcesNo. of cases (%)Snakes and frogs63 (19.7)Snakes101 (31.6)Frogs39 (12.2)Unfiltered water54
sparganosis 11614 (100.0)Not-available118Total438aConsumption and drinking experiences of intermediate/transport hosts related to transmission of sparganosis .Many studies have observed infection status of the sparganum in frogs and snakes in Korea from the mid-1920s
sparganosis 12382 confirmed that snakes might be an important intermediate/paratenic host related to transmission of sparganosis to humans.Table 2Infection status of sparganum in terrestrial snakes collected from Gyeongsangnam-do,
sparganosis 12804 rufodorsata1512 (80.0)3961–12533.0Total8161 (75.3)2,4371–23737.7When we analyzed infection sites of sparganosis cases in the human body (438 cases), subcutaneous tissues were the most commonly affected sites (49.9%;
sparganosis 13136 recognized in 7.6% of patients (34 cases). Ocular cases were observed in 16 patients (3.6%). Muscular sparganosis was recorded in 12 patients (2.7%) (Fig. 3). A total number of affected sites exceeded 438 due to infections
sparganosis 13545 3Number and sex distribution of cases according to infection sites.CNS = central nervous system.aCNS sparganosis included spinal cord infection; bTotal number of cases exceeded 438 due to infections at multiple sites
sparganosis 13796 and muscular infections, 2 cases with subcutaneous and visceral infections, and 1 case of systemic sparganosis ).Subcutaneous sparganosisSparganosis of subcutaneous tissues was most commonly described in Korea, similar
sparganosis 13822 2 cases with subcutaneous and visceral infections, and 1 case of systemic sparganosis).Subcutaneous sparganosis Sparganosis of subcutaneous tissues was most commonly described in Korea, similar to that observed in
sparganosis 14085 localities of lesions in the body, number of cases and gender/age distributions among 218 subcutaneous sparganosis reported in Korea (total number was 223 due to multiple infections). We were able to trace medical records
sparganosis 14513 men. In women, breast was the most predilection site (34.2%). Clinical and imaging findings of breast sparganosis have previously been summarized.[22] Major symptoms of subcutaneous sparganosis included painless mass
sparganosis 14593 findings of breast sparganosis have previously been summarized.[22] Major symptoms of subcutaneous sparganosis included painless mass (91 cases) and painful mass (39 patients). Other symptoms included itching sensation
sparganosis 14805 sensation of the infected sites (23 cases) and hemorrhagic mass (5 patients). Some cases with scrotal sparganosis were associated with Fournier's gangrene (19.2%; 5/26 patients). Eleven patients did not complain of
sparganosis 15012 complain of any symptom. We could not trace clinical information for 44 patients. Cases with subcutaneous sparganosis were largely detected in the sixth decade (age distribution, 4–85 years). However, a 4-year-old boy
sparganosis 15528 scrotal mass had a history of drinking water from mineral springs.[23][24]Table 3Number of subcutaneous sparganosis patients in each body compartment along with sex and age distributionLocalitiesNo. of cases (%)MaleFemaleSex,
sparganosis 16124 (42)Spermatic cord1 (0.5)1006 (6.0)Total223 (100)13864214–81 (47.1)Plain radiographs of subcutaneous sparganosis often show linear or elongated calcifications. Nodular elongated soft tissue mass shadows might also
sparganosis 17462 (19.8%), and sixth (19.8%) decades constituted major populations (Fig. 4).Table 4Number of cerebral sparganosis cases in KoreaLocalitiesNo. of cases (mean ages)Sex, not-availableTotalMaleFemaleCNS100 (35.1)39 (37.2)9148Spinal
sparganosis 17754 (42.2)43 (40.6)10162CNS = central nervous system.Fig. 4Age and sex distribution of patients with cerebral sparganosis whose demographic information is available (n = 116).Neuroimaging findings have demonstrated pathognomonic
sparganosis 17894 information is available (n = 116).Neuroimaging findings have demonstrated pathognomonic features of cerebral sparganosis , including white matter hypodensity with adjacent ventricular dilatation, irregular or nodular enhancing
sparganosis 18438 possible wondering of the worm in the hemisphere. This finding is also highly specific for cerebral sparganosis .[31]Major symptoms of 148 CNS patients included seizure (20.9%), headache (12.8%), and hemiparesis (6.8%).
sparganosis 18965 course of the disease. Two patients (1.4%) underwent status epilepticus. Principal symptoms of spinal sparganosis included voiding difficulty (38.5%), back pain (38.5%), and paresis (23.1%). The patient who had concomitant
sparganosis 19551 with decompression of communicating hydrocephalus by ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation.[29]Visceral sparganosis Sparganosis of visceral organs were relatively infrequent in Korea (7.8%; 34/438 patients). Patients'
sparganosis 20122 infections were described. A ureteral stone associated with sparganum has been reported.[32] Pleural sparganosis could provoke chest pain, pleural effusion, dyspnea, and/or empyema.[33] Sparganum infected in the intestinal
sparganosis 21105 surveillance of the patient's anti-sparganum specific antibody level remained to be strongly positive.[36] A sparganosis causing retropharyngeal abscess has been recorded in the literature, while detailed history was unavailable.[3]Table
sparganosis 21278 literature, while detailed history was unavailable.[3]Table 5Number of patients and lesions of visceral sparganosis reported in KoreaLocalitiesNo. of cases (%)MaleFemaleSex, not-availableUrogenital system10 (29.4)910Lung10
sparganosis 21546 (5.9)200Liver1 (2.9)100Heart1 (2.9)010Peritoneal cavity1 (2.9)100Retropharynx1 (2.9)001Total34 (100)2554Ocular sparganosis In Southeast Asian countries including southern China, large numbers of ocular sparganosis have occurred
sparganosis 21636 (100)2554Ocular sparganosisIn Southeast Asian countries including southern China, large numbers of ocular sparganosis have occurred due mainly to application of traditional poultice to subside sores or edema of inflamed
sparganosis 21915 therapy have not been practiced in Korea,[3] which might be responsible for the low incidence of ocular sparganosis in this country. A total of 16 ocular cases (3.6%; 16/438 cases) has been reported (Table 6). Patients'
sparganosis 22263 (25%). Their main clinical symptoms were painless mass with/without itching. One case of intraorbital sparganosis was described in an 11-year-old girl who complained of exophthalmos and itching sensation for a year.
sparganosis 23020 wall surrounded by bony structure remains unknown.Table 6Number of patients and localities of ocular sparganosis LocationsNo. of cases (%)MaleFemaleSex, not-availableSubconjunctiva11 (68.8)722Eyelid4 (25.0)211Intraorbit1
sparganosis 23172 not-availableSubconjunctiva11 (68.8)722Eyelid4 (25.0)211Intraorbit1 (6.3)010Total16 (100)943Muscular sparganosis Skeletal muscular tissues are relatively reluctant to allow penetration and migration of the sparganum
sparganosis 23743 unavailable. Four cases had multiple infections in both subcutaneous tissues and muscles. Those muscular sparganosis cases revealed US findings of poorly defined intramuscular mass with heterogeneous echotextures in
sparganosis 23913 intramuscular mass with heterogeneous echotextures in affected sites,[27] resembling those seen in subcutaneous sparganosis .[26] Most patients had a painless lump on the affected site (8 cases). The worm was discovered in the
sparganosis 24118 discovered in the chest wall muscles in two cases and in the neck and trunk muscle in one case each.Systemic sparganosis An extremely uncommon case of systemic infections with multiple worms was described in Korea. A woman
sparganosis 24875 relieve leg pain 40 years ago.[38]Sparganosis of immunocompromised patientsSparganosis or proliferative sparganosis associated with immunocompromised patients, such as those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS),
sparganosis 25083 syndrome (AIDS), cancer, or allograft recipients have been sporadically detected worldwide. Proliferative sparganosis in immunocompromised patients often result in serious outcomes.[39][40][41] We found that at least five
sparganosis 25199 immunocompromised patients often result in serious outcomes.[39][40][41] We found that at least five sparganosis cases in Korea were associated with immunosuppressed conditions. All these cases were reported in recent
sparganosis 25530 of the right breast suddenly developed a mass on the ipsilateral breast. US findings compatible to sparganosis were observed. A live sparganum was removed via excisional biopsy.[42] The next case was noticed in
sparganosis 26134 layer. However, histopathological specimen obtained from biopsy revealed a characteristic feature of sparganosis .[43] Two patients who received chemotherapy for treatment of metastatic rectal cancer or B cell lymphoma
sparganosis 26411 subcutaneous masses of the chest and abdomen. Biopsied specimen exhibited histological features of sparganosis . Both patients agreed that they ingested cooked snakes several times.[44][45]Two sparganosis cases were
sparganosis 26504 features of sparganosis. Both patients agreed that they ingested cooked snakes several times.[44][45]Two sparganosis cases were misdiagnosed as tumor metastasis. A patient was treated for metastatic gastric cancer. After
sparganosis 27267 annual incidence seemed to be decreased in the last 20 years. However, whether the prevalence of the sparganosis has actually decreased remains unclear because most clinicians in Korea now regard sparganosis as no
sparganosis 27362 the sparganosis has actually decreased remains unclear because most clinicians in Korea now regard sparganosis as no longer reportable disease unless unusual complications/sequelae have been combined. In this respect,
sparganosis 27517 unusual complications/sequelae have been combined. In this respect, the authors identified more than 15 sparganosis cases affecting various organs/tissues, including thyroid gland from samples referred from several hospitals
sparganosis 28056 are aware that these types of convention are illegal with a risk of parasitic infections including sparganosis . Many people who like hiking, trekking and climbing sometimes drink unfiltered water. Those cultural
sparganosis 28249 water. Those cultural habits and social behaviors might be the major limiting factors for terminating sparganosis transmission in this country.In this study, we analyzed sparganosis cases reported in Korea by mining
sparganosis 28317 limiting factors for terminating sparganosis transmission in this country.In this study, we analyzed sparganosis cases reported in Korea by mining publicly available databases. During the period between 1924 and 2015,
sparganosis 29032 epidemiological situations were similar to those observed in other countries.[4][19][20][21] However, Korean sparganosis shows some differences in terms of clinical and epidemiological aspects.Since the 1980s, most patients
sparganosis 29255 preoperatively diagnosed by imaging modalities combined with serological tests. Many cases of cerebral sparganosis have been detected in a relatively young age group (Fig. 4). Detection of a large number of cerebral
sparganosis 29368 have been detected in a relatively young age group (Fig. 4). Detection of a large number of cerebral sparganosis patients in relatively young age groups between third and fourth decades (43.1%) suggested that they
sparganosis 29666 characteristics of the brain parenchyma might be related to early and deleterious symptoms/signs of cerebral sparganosis . Sparganum might migrate more vigorously within the brain parenchyma compared to other body compartments
sparganosis 30534 hemisphere. It might not have a specifically favored site, but it depends on the size of the lobe.Ocular sparganosis is relatively infrequent in Korea. Large proportions of woman patients are infected with the sparganum
sparganosis 30729 with the sparganum on the breast. Interestingly, we recognized one extremely rare case of systemic sparganosis who had index lesion on the breast. Most cases of sparganosis were caused by a single worm. Sometimes
sparganosis 30791 recognized one extremely rare case of systemic sparganosis who had index lesion on the breast. Most cases of sparganosis were caused by a single worm. Sometimes two or more worms were found simultaneously in different localities
sparganosis 31363 reported in Korea. It is not certain whether immune status of patients truly affects exacerbation of sparganosis lesions and symptoms/signs. However, under immunocompromised conditions, mechanical activity of the
sparganosis 31786 might additionally contribute to the deterioration of lesions.[48][49] Although authentic case of fatal sparganosis related to immune suppression has not been reported in this country, those unfavorable conditions should
sparganosis 31963 country, those unfavorable conditions should be kept in mind.We could not identify genuine proliferative sparganosis cases in Korea, although one case of multiple subcutaneous sparganosis was highly suspected to be infected
sparganosis 32034 identify genuine proliferative sparganosis cases in Korea, although one case of multiple subcutaneous sparganosis was highly suspected to be infected with proliferative sparganum.[50] However, proliferative sparganosis
sparganosis 32139 sparganosis was highly suspected to be infected with proliferative sparganum.[50] However, proliferative sparganosis has been described in several other countries.[51][52][53][54] Proliferative sparganum (Sparganum proliferum)
sparganosis 32526 into numerous segments, each of which has capacity to further develop. Some cases of proliferative sparganosis are associated with immunosuppressed conditions.[39][40][41] Occurrence of proliferative sparganosis
sparganosis 32627 sparganosis are associated with immunosuppressed conditions.[39][40][41] Occurrence of proliferative sparganosis should be carefully monitored in Korea.Recent molecular phylogenetic analysis employing mitochondrial
sparganosis 33543 revisited for their species identification in the near future.Currently, drugs effective for treating sparganosis are unavailable.[58] In this series, we observed that some patients were treated with praziquantel.
tuberculosis 4392 of aquaculture or forestry activity. Some people used to consume flesh of frog and/or snake to treat tuberculosis , arthralgia, and neuralgia.[3] Previous seroepidemiological surveys of apparently healthy persons in
tuberculosis 27854 believe that snakes/frogs have special benefits for muscular tonicity and treatment of arthralgia, tuberculosis , and other chronic wasting diseases. They continue to consume snakes/frogs, although they are aware

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