A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: intervention for control and elimination

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
filariasis 4 infectiousdiseases
ivermectin 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
opisthorchiasis 2 infectiousdiseases
schistosomiasis 18 infectiousdiseases
taeniasis 7 infectiousdiseases
clonorchiasis 1 infectiousdiseases
infectious disease 1 infectiousdiseases
malaria 5 infectiousdiseases
nitazoxanide 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
onchocerciasis 26 infectiousdiseases
tuberculosis 1 infectiousdiseases
dracunculiasis 1 infectiousdiseases
mebendazole 3 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
niclosamide 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
praziquantel 3 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
cysticercosis 13 infectiousdiseases
doxycycline 3 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
loiasis 3 infectiousdiseases

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

Note: If this graph is empty, then there are no terms that meet the proximity constraint.

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
doxycycline 54476 Wolbachia endosymbionts in O. volvulus and W. bancrofti. However, at present the recommended antibiotic, doxycycline , seems unlikely to be suitable for large-scale mass chemotherapy due to the long course of daily treatment
doxycycline 54826 potentially pregnant women. Field trials have been conducted to test the feasibility of administering doxycycline via community distributors with good coverage and compliance in areas endemic for both onchocerciasis
doxycycline 54978 coverage and compliance in areas endemic for both onchocerciasis and loiasis [101]. A 6-week course of doxycycline has a marked macrofilaricidal effect. Given that L. loa is one of the filarial parasite species that
ivermectin 4645 mainstay. The drugs (anthelmintics) involved are in some cases donated by pharmaceutical companies (e.g., ivermectin [IVM] by Merck & Co. for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis [LF]; albendazole [ABZ] by GlaxoSmithKline
ivermectin 10983 numbers of populations at risk. The implementation of these programmes has been aided by drug donation ( ivermectin , albendazole, mebendazole), and drug affordability (diethylcarbamazine, praziquantel)Co-endemicity and
mebendazole 4825 [LF]; albendazole [ABZ] by GlaxoSmithKline for LF, and soil-transmitted helminthiases [STHs] in Africa; mebendazole [MBZ] for STHs, by Johnson & Johnson), and in other cases are affordable as generic preparations (e.g.,
mebendazole 7457 Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (IVM); ABZ, albendazole; DEC, diethylcarbamazine; MBZ, mebendazole ; PZQ, praziquantel.In the last decade, epidemiological studies in areas under control have demonstrated
mebendazole 11008 risk. The implementation of these programmes has been aided by drug donation (ivermectin, albendazole, mebendazole ), and drug affordability (diethylcarbamazine, praziquantel)Co-endemicity and polyparasitism are common
niclosamide 16831 taeniasis/cysticercosis is undertaken on an individual basis following case detection, and more recently by MDA with niclosamide or PZQ. In addition, oxfendazole treatment of pigs, as intermediate hosts, complements human taeniasis
nitazoxanide 51348 such as tribendimidine (which shares a mechanism of action with levamisole and pyrantel) [94], and nitazoxanide , do not appear to have superior efficacy against nematodes, compared with those commonly used and shown
praziquantel 4941 [MBZ] for STHs, by Johnson & Johnson), and in other cases are affordable as generic preparations (e.g., praziquantel [PZQ] for schistosomiasis; diethylcarbamazine [DEC] for LF). In general, the anthelmintic drugs adopted
praziquantel 7475 Treatment with Ivermectin (IVM); ABZ, albendazole; DEC, diethylcarbamazine; MBZ, mebendazole; PZQ, praziquantel .In the last decade, epidemiological studies in areas under control have demonstrated successes in addressing
praziquantel 11066 by drug donation (ivermectin, albendazole, mebendazole), and drug affordability (diethylcarbamazine, praziquantel )Co-endemicity and polyparasitism are common and there are advantages in integrating intervention efforts
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
clonorchiasis 34207 Heterophyes heterophyes, and Metagonimus yokogawai, there are MDA programs, using PZQ, in East Asia for clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis [64]. Triclabendazole is the drug of choice for fascioliasis [65]. Recognition that
cysticercosis 1628 control onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, and cysticercosis . The Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme
cysticercosis 8263 trematodiases, and among the cestode infections, we address some issues related to taeniasis and (neuro) cysticercosis (caused by Taenia solium).However, mass chemotherapy as a control strategy has challenges, including
cysticercosis 16335 time-limited.Anthelmintic treatment of symptomatic individuals with hookworm, schistosomiasis, or neuro cysticercosis can have marked effects in reducing morbidity. Therefore, interventions for the control of STHs and
cysticercosis 16724 However, MDA with triclabendazole has recently commenced for fasciolasis. The control of taeniasis/ cysticercosis is undertaken on an individual basis following case detection, and more recently by MDA with niclosamide
cysticercosis 35325 infections and greater efforts to prevent infection.Taeniasis and CysticercosisThe control of taeniasis/ cysticercosis is undertaken either by detection and treatment or MDA programmes. In addition, mass treatment of pigs
cysticercosis 35541 as reservoir hosts of T. solium is being undertaken [69], [70]. Treatment of individuals with neuro cysticercosis using a course of ABZ, over several days, kills parasites residing in the brain, but there is a risk
cysticercosis 35819 and trigger seizures [71] if not undertaken under appropriate medical supervision. Many people, in cysticercosis -endemic regions, are given MDA with ABZ or PZQ for other helminth infections, and there is a theoretical
cysticercosis 36027 theoretical risk that these anthelmintics could precipitate seizures in individuals with occult neuro cysticercosis . Prevention and control of Taenia infections should include enhanced sanitation and health education
cysticercosis 36293 These measures by themselves, however, are unlikely to be sufficient for control of taeniasis/(neuro) cysticercosis , and thus interventions including human chemotherapy, porcine chemotherapy, or porcine immunisation
cysticercosis 36861 areas of Peru and in Cameroon [69], [70]. The World Health Organization (WHO) has included taeniasis/ cysticercosis in its Global Plan to combat Neglected Tropical Diseases 2008–2009, using new initiatives addressing
cysticercosis 45931 effectiveness of the drug treatment. Examples of this include the co-administration of ABZ with PZQ for neuro cysticercosis , or ABZ with DEC (or IVM) for LF. In the latter example, the DEC (or IVM) exhibits microfilaricidal
cysticercosis 55852 with the generation of a number of helminth genomes [103]. The successful TSOL18 porcine vaccine for cysticercosis [104] shows that it is indeed possible to create a highly effective vaccine against a multicellular
cysticercosis 56338 efficacy and safety of the TSOL18 vaccine in animal models and the very serious morbidity caused by neuro cysticercosis in humans, it would be desirable to assess the potential for using TSOL18 for prevention of Taenia infections
dracunculiasis 13244 (LF, onchocerciasis through vector control/elimination in Africa, onchocerciasis in Latin America, dracunculiasis ). However, most of the helminth diseases cause chronic and often sub-clinical morbidity. Therefore,
filariasis 1563 particularly the poor, major intervention programmes have been launched to control onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis , soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, and cysticercosis. The Disease Reference Group on
filariasis 4710 by pharmaceutical companies (e.g., ivermectin [IVM] by Merck & Co. for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis [LF]; albendazole [ABZ] by GlaxoSmithKline for LF, and soil-transmitted helminthiases [STHs] in Africa;
filariasis 6018 parasite where possible)IVM CDTI in meso- and hyperendemic areas1995–2009–2015–2025Lymphatic filariasis Wuchereria bancrofti; Brugia malayi; B. timori1205.8GPELFElimination of parasite5 or more years of annual
filariasis 28186 surveillance for adverse events is warranted, although most will be mild.In contrast to the programmes for filariasis , the focus of MDA programmes for STHs is to achieve long-term reduction in infection prevalence and
infectious disease 41412 environmental conditions, housing, and health education.Moreover, as control programmes targeting a number of infectious disease s become integrated, co-formulation of pharmaceuticals could be advantageous. This will necessitate controlled
loiasis 23384 long-term overall reduction of the NTD burden for impoverished communities.The use of IVM in areas where loiasis (caused by another filarial parasite, Loa loa) is co-endemic can be contra-indicated due to rare, yet
loiasis 23898 because MDA programmes using IVM (onchocerciasis and LF) are not being conducted in regions with heavy loiasis (see [40] for discussion).Another notable gap is the lack of safety data and an appropriate formulation
loiasis 54944 community distributors with good coverage and compliance in areas endemic for both onchocerciasis and loiasis [101]. A 6-week course of doxycycline has a marked macrofilaricidal effect. Given that L. loa is one
malaria 32409 resistance become a problem. However, because the artemisinins are currently critically important for malaria chemotherapy (in light of resistance to most other antimalarials), artemisinins are not being used for
malaria 32472 are currently critically important for malaria chemotherapy (in light of resistance to most other anti malaria ls), artemisinins are not being used for anti-schistosome MDA. Nevertheless, experimental studies on
malaria 32730 combination with PZQ, could be undertaken should concerns about selecting for artemisinin resistance in malaria diminish. Artemisinins (or an arteminisin-PZQ combination) could be developed as an arm of improved
malaria 47358 resistance is recognised as a major hindrance to the control of many of the important infections, including malaria , tuberculosis, and HIV. Drug combinations, rather than monotherapy, are accepted as the best approach
malaria 47592 diseases, with for example, the use of artemisinin-based drug combination now recommended by the WHO for malaria . The use of combinations to delay the development of anthelmintic resistance should be a research priority
onchocerciasis 1537 populations, and particularly the poor, major intervention programmes have been launched to control onchocerciasis , lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, and cysticercosis. The Disease
onchocerciasis 4681 involved are in some cases donated by pharmaceutical companies (e.g., ivermectin [IVM] by Merck & Co. for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis [LF]; albendazole [ABZ] by GlaxoSmithKline for LF, and soil-transmitted helminthiases
onchocerciasis 10731 Control Interventions against HelminthiasesMajor intervention programmes have been launched against onchocerciasis , LF, STHs, and schistosomiasis, which are mostly dependent on MDA of anthelmintics and require annual
onchocerciasis 13006 been that of morbidity control and elimination of the public health burden (STHs, schistosomiasis, and onchocerciasis in Africa for the most part), others aim at interruption of transmission and eventual elimination of
onchocerciasis 13150 others aim at interruption of transmission and eventual elimination of the parasite reservoir (LF, onchocerciasis through vector control/elimination in Africa, onchocerciasis in Latin America, dracunculiasis). However,
onchocerciasis 13211 elimination of the parasite reservoir (LF, onchocerciasis through vector control/elimination in Africa, onchocerciasis in Latin America, dracunculiasis). However, most of the helminth diseases cause chronic and often sub-clinical
onchocerciasis 17127 ToolsVector ControlControl of the vectors (including snail hosts) has been partially successful for onchocerciasis , particularly in West Africa [9], schistosomiasis in China [10], and more locally in some LF foci (e.g.,
onchocerciasis 19532 Africa and in hypoendemic areas in Latin America are receiving annual or semi-annual treatment for onchocerciasis with IVM, while hundreds of millions of people across the world are receiving annual treatment for LF.
onchocerciasis 19654 IVM, while hundreds of millions of people across the world are receiving annual treatment for LF. For onchocerciasis , the only drug available for safe mass treatment is IVM. For LF, mass chemotherapy uses DEC plus ABZ
onchocerciasis 20054 also suppresses adult worm reproduction (production of new microfilariae [mf]) for several months in onchocerciasis [27] and LF [28]. DEC is also highly microfilaricidal, suppresses adult worm reproduction for several
onchocerciasis 20481 benefits in those treated. Vector abatement can also reduce transmission and support the control of onchocerciasis [30], [31] and LF [32], [33].In Africa, drug distribution is delivered by a system named Community Directed
onchocerciasis 20657 delivered by a system named Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI). For the control of onchocerciasis and LF, intervention is largely dependent on MDA where communities at risk are treated in order to reduce
onchocerciasis 23829 knowledge is important not only to avoid the incidence of SAEs but also because MDA programmes using IVM ( onchocerciasis and LF) are not being conducted in regions with heavy loiasis (see [40] for discussion).Another notable
onchocerciasis 25175 ability of individual hosts and their parasites to respond to treatment.Mass treatment programmes for onchocerciasis and LF are dramatically reducing transmission and thus morbidity. In some foci of the Americas, Mali,
onchocerciasis 25379 Americas, Mali, Senegal, and Nigeria (Kaduna), encouraging evidence indicates that that elimination of onchocerciasis may be possible using MDA with IVM in settings when high levels of therapeutic and geographic coverage
onchocerciasis 37883 single drug treatments can be integrated to target as many as four of the helminth NTDs, including onchocerciasis , LF, STHs, and schistosomiasis, by simultaneously administering for example, PZQ, ABZ, and IVM to communities
onchocerciasis 38182 ecological requirements by the parasites and/or their vectors (e.g., fast flowing [lotic] water bodies for onchocerciasis as opposed to slow [lentic] water bodies for schistosomiasis) may translate into a lesser degree of
onchocerciasis 39698 programmes. As there may be significant disparities between the age (or occupational) groups targeted for onchocerciasis , LF, STHs, and schistosomiasis, studies are necessary to identify optimal and common age groups for
onchocerciasis 43804 used for LF control may be sub-optimal (the 150 µg of IVM per kg of body weight that is standard for onchocerciasis may not be the best for LF [45]). Optimisation of dose rates for these drugs will require additional
onchocerciasis 52843 for new anthelmintic molecules.Moxidectin is under development for use in humans for the treatment of onchocerciasis [97]. Studies in model filarial infections and Phase 2 studies in individuals with O. volvulus indicate
onchocerciasis 53248 this were confirmed in human clinical studies, treatment with moxidectin could be advantageous for onchocerciasis control compared with IVM. The development of IVM resistance in O. volvulus[98] could, however, possibly
onchocerciasis 53680 populations in which there may be IVM-resistant parasites. If the apparent advantages of moxidectin for onchocerciasis control are confirmed, consideration should be given for its use against LF. In veterinary use, long-acting
onchocerciasis 54253 Michigan State and McGill University, have begun to evaluate flubendazole as a macrofilaricide for LF and onchocerciasis [100].Another potential new drug development strategy is the possible use of antibiotics to target the
onchocerciasis 54925 doxycycline via community distributors with good coverage and compliance in areas endemic for both onchocerciasis and loiasis [101]. A 6-week course of doxycycline has a marked macrofilaricidal effect. Given that L.
onchocerciasis 56706 continue. There have been some promising leads for the development of vaccines against human hookworm, onchocerciasis , schistosomiasis, and fascioliasis [107]–[113]. Particular attention is being paid to helminth proteases
onchocerciasis 67013 that despite, in many cases, 20 or 30 years of MDA, it has proven difficult to achieve elimination of onchocerciasis , STHs, schistosomiasis, and in some situations, LF. As discussed above, part of the problem is that
opisthorchiasis 6726 (humans, reservoir hosts, snails) for S. japonicumJRMC: 1992–1999; SCI: 2000–no date setClonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Op. felineus560.5–0.9NationalControl of morbidityPZQ annually/biennially2011–no
opisthorchiasis 34225 heterophyes, and Metagonimus yokogawai, there are MDA programs, using PZQ, in East Asia for clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis [64]. Triclabendazole is the drug of choice for fascioliasis [65]. Recognition that liver fluke infection,
schistosomiasis 1607 have been launched to control onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis , and cysticercosis. The Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by
schistosomiasis 4964 & Johnson), and in other cases are affordable as generic preparations (e.g., praziquantel [PZQ] for schistosomiasis ; diethylcarbamazine [DEC] for LF). In general, the anthelmintic drugs adopted by the control programmes
schistosomiasis 10761 HelminthiasesMajor intervention programmes have been launched against onchocerciasis, LF, STHs, and schistosomiasis , which are mostly dependent on MDA of anthelmintics and require annual or biannual treatment of large
schistosomiasis 12985 programmes (Table 1) has been that of morbidity control and elimination of the public health burden (STHs, schistosomiasis , and onchocerciasis in Africa for the most part), others aim at interruption of transmission and eventual
schistosomiasis 14210 for instance, the basis for school-based health programmes aimed at deworming children of STHs and schistosomiasis . In this target population, treatment is administered to all individuals regardless of whether or not
schistosomiasis 16310 control programmes may be time-limited.Anthelmintic treatment of symptomatic individuals with hookworm, schistosomiasis , or neurocysticercosis can have marked effects in reducing morbidity. Therefore, interventions for the
schistosomiasis 17176 (including snail hosts) has been partially successful for onchocerciasis, particularly in West Africa [9], schistosomiasis in China [10], and more locally in some LF foci (e.g., in Zanzibar [11], and India [12]) and can be
schistosomiasis 22012 drugs (proportion of the population who are offered free drugs who actually ingest the medication) for schistosomiasis and STHs varied considerably (0%–100%) from one district to another and often also within districts
schistosomiasis 31601 only to those treated but also to those untreated members of the communities [21]. Spatial mapping of schistosomiasis has been significantly advanced in both West and East Africa [51], [52]. Operations research has highlighted
schistosomiasis 32855 Artemisinins (or an arteminisin-PZQ combination) could be developed as an arm of improved chemotherapy for schistosomiasis .Although rodents can harbour S. mansoni, S. haematobium does not have non-human reservoirs, which facilitates
schistosomiasis 37913 integrated to target as many as four of the helminth NTDs, including onchocerciasis, LF, STHs, and schistosomiasis , by simultaneously administering for example, PZQ, ABZ, and IVM to communities where these helminth
schistosomiasis 38242 (e.g., fast flowing [lotic] water bodies for onchocerciasis as opposed to slow [lentic] water bodies for schistosomiasis ) may translate into a lesser degree of overlap at the community level. Experience indicates that the
schistosomiasis 39728 significant disparities between the age (or occupational) groups targeted for onchocerciasis, LF, STHs, and schistosomiasis , studies are necessary to identify optimal and common age groups for integrated control, where feasible.
schistosomiasis 40321 coworkers [77] have pointed out that over US$350 million, until 2013, has been committed by donors for schistosomiasis control, relying almost exclusively on PZQ. However, chemotherapy by itself is not sufficiently effective,
schistosomiasis 44842 the existing few drugs and the increased possibility of drug resistance development.In the case of schistosomiasis , use of the levo-racemer allows a lower dose rate to be used, compared to the standard PZQ, which is
schistosomiasis 45456 instance, two different anthelmintics might be given in order to integrate control programmes, e.g., schistosomiasis control with that of STH in school children, with PZQ and ABZ. The safety of combining ABZ + PZQ has
schistosomiasis 56722 have been some promising leads for the development of vaccines against human hookworm, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis , and fascioliasis [107]–[113]. Particular attention is being paid to helminth proteases and animal
schistosomiasis 67035 cases, 20 or 30 years of MDA, it has proven difficult to achieve elimination of onchocerciasis, STHs, schistosomiasis , and in some situations, LF. As discussed above, part of the problem is that the tools that we have
taeniasis 3352 ultimate elimination of helminth parasites, treatments for the above mentioned helminthiases, and for taeniasis and food-borne trematodiases, will need to be integrated with monitoring, education, sanitation, access
taeniasis 8242 and the food-borne trematodiases, and among the cestode infections, we address some issues related to taeniasis and (neuro)cysticercosis (caused by Taenia solium).However, mass chemotherapy as a control strategy
taeniasis 16714 large-scale MDA. However, MDA with triclabendazole has recently commenced for fasciolasis. The control of taeniasis /cysticercosis is undertaken on an individual basis following case detection, and more recently by MDA
taeniasis 16936 niclosamide or PZQ. In addition, oxfendazole treatment of pigs, as intermediate hosts, complements human taeniasis treatment and can decrease the time to elimination [7], [8].Current Intervention ToolsVector ControlControl
taeniasis 35315 these infections and greater efforts to prevent infection.Taeniasis and CysticercosisThe control of taeniasis /cysticercosis is undertaken either by detection and treatment or MDA programmes. In addition, mass treatment
taeniasis 36276 hygiene practices). These measures by themselves, however, are unlikely to be sufficient for control of taeniasis /(neuro)cysticercosis, and thus interventions including human chemotherapy, porcine chemotherapy, or
taeniasis 36851 endemic areas of Peru and in Cameroon [69], [70]. The World Health Organization (WHO) has included taeniasis /cysticercosis in its Global Plan to combat Neglected Tropical Diseases 2008–2009, using new initiatives
tuberculosis 47367 recognised as a major hindrance to the control of many of the important infections, including malaria, tuberculosis , and HIV. Drug combinations, rather than monotherapy, are accepted as the best approach to treat all

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