Infection of anopheline mosquitoes with Wolbachia: Implications for malaria control

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malaria 89 Title: PLoS PathogensInfection of anopheline mosquitoes with Wolbachia: Implications for malaria controlFabio M. GomesCarolina Barillas-MuryMosquito Immunity and Vector Competence Section, Laboratory
malaria 609 11/2018Malaria eradication and vector control in AfricaAfrica carries a disproportionate share of the malaria burden. For example, more than 90% of the 446,000 malaria-related deaths reported in 2015 occurred in
malaria 667 AfricaAfrica carries a disproportionate share of the malaria burden. For example, more than 90% of the 446,000 malaria -related deaths reported in 2015 occurred in sub-Saharan Africa [[1]]. Anopheles gambiae, A. coluzzii,
malaria 858 gambiae, A. coluzzii, A. arabiensis, and A. funestus are some of the most important African vectors of malaria [[2],[3]]. Other species, such as A. melas and A. merus are also efficient vectors but have a limited
malaria 1198 residual spraying, are efficient against a wide range of mosquitoes and are the current cornerstones of malaria control programs. However, the growing number of reports of insecticide resistance is driving the development
malaria 5574 were identified in a microbiome survey of the reproductive organs of A. gambiae and A. coluzzii in malaria -endemic areas of Burkina Faso in West Africa (Fig 1A) [[27],[28]]. Wolbachia-specific PCR amplification
malaria 7278 observations suggest that there is a threshold level of Wolbachia infection in mosquitoes above which malaria transmission would no longer be effective.A significant reduction in Plasmodium prevalence was observed
malaria 7958 similar negative correlation (Fig 1B) [[30]].Challenges for the development of Wolbachia as a tool for malaria controlThe identification of native Wolbachia infections in A. gambiae that reduce malaria transmission
malaria 8049 tool for malaria controlThe identification of native Wolbachia infections in A. gambiae that reduce malaria transmission is a remarkable finding. The fact that several species of Anopheles, including all the
malaria 8163 transmission is a remarkable finding. The fact that several species of Anopheles, including all the major malaria vectors in Africa, have been shown to harbor a variety of Wolbachia strains opens the possibility that
malaria 8425 disease transmission. However, several challenges remain before Wolbachia can be proposed as a tool for malaria control. Implementation of Wolbachia-based strategies would rely on CI for Wolbachia to spread rapidly
malaria 9463 protection against Plasmodium, which will be essential for Wolbachia to be developed as a tool against malaria .The mechanisms limiting Wolbachia levels are not well understood. One hypothesis is that Wolbachia might
malaria 11724 higher bacteria levels.Future perspectiveLaboratory transinfection of Wolbachia to African vectors of malaria has been limited to somatic tissues, and Wolbachia failed to be vertically transmitted. We now know
malaria 12624 strains to infect anophelines or to increase the levels of native Wolbachia infections and disrupt malaria transmission

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