Health hazards to wild birds and risk factors associated with anthropogenic food provisioning.

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infectious disease 8 infectiousdiseases
salmonellosis 12 infectiousdiseases

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infectious disease 8868 through observation alone. We focus on three of the best-characterized and most frequently diagnosed infectious disease s, with contrasting modes of transmission, caused by a protozoal, a viral and a bacterial pathogen, each
infectious disease 10861 of the ground below bird feeders. Since its emergence, finch trichomonosis has been the most common infectious disease diagnosed for finch species (family Fringillidae), accounting for 87% (372/426) of finch infectious
infectious disease 10969 infectious disease diagnosed for finch species (family Fringillidae), accounting for 87% (372/426) of finch infectious disease diagnoses over the period 2010–2016 inclusive (i.e. since the previous large-scale study on this disease
infectious disease 14621 (i.e. an average reduction of approx. 280 000 individuals per annum). This represents the largest scale infectious disease impact on a European wild bird on record and has led to the inclusion of the British race of Greenfinch,
infectious disease 21058 where finch trichomonosis is believed to be the major driver of population decline, factors other than infectious disease , such as winter weather, breeding season productivity or the frequency of tree masting, might be contributing
infectious disease 30879 birds at control sites. Similar studies in additional countries, with different wild bird species and infectious disease s, would be worthwhile and also could include pathogen screening and/or serosurveillance would be worthwhile.A
infectious disease 37045 principle that accepts that supplementary feeding is likely to contribute to the transmission of certain infectious disease s [[16]].Disease prevention(a)Guidance for disease prevention can be tailored to address potential risk
infectious disease 39147 disease-related mortality [[84]]. Comparison of these findings with additional studies, focused on alternative infectious disease s with varying case fatality rates, would be useful to further appraise the evidence for beneficial effects
salmonellosis 1523 25-year period, focusing on protozoal (finch trichomonosis), viral (Paridae pox) and bacterial (passerine salmonellosis ) diseases with contrasting modes of transmission. We also examine the occurrence of mycotoxin contamination
salmonellosis 21902 populations to inform predictions for future effects of this disease on great tit populations.Passerine salmonellosis 4.Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (definitive phage types (DT)160, 40 and 56 variant) causes
salmonellosis 22016 salmonellosis4.Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (definitive phage types (DT)160, 40 and 56 variant) causes salmonellosis in passerine birds and has been reported from various countries since at least the 1950s [[46]–[50]].
salmonellosis 22416 Salmonella bacteria are capable of persisting for many months within the environment. Incidents of passerine salmonellosis are typically reported in the vicinity of supplementary feeding stations [[46]–[50]]. Gregarious and
salmonellosis 22701 commonly affected by the disease, particularly the greenfinch and house sparrow in GB [[48]]. Passerine salmonellosis incidents have pronounced winter seasonality in GB, typically peaking in January. The wild bird species
salmonellosis 22990 Salmonella biotypes, which are considered to be host-adapted [[51]].Pattern of occurrence of passerine salmonellosis (a)While the disease is considered to be endemic, with widespread occurrence, in GB, longitudinal studies
salmonellosis 23480 the patterns of occurrence of finch trichomonosis and Paridae pox, the number of confirmed passerine salmonellosis incidents has declined markedly over the past decade [[52]] (electronic supplementary material, figure
salmonellosis 23918 biotype and the populations are now vulnerable to emergence of a new variant; or, second, that passerine salmonellosis has density-dependent transmission, and the dramatic reduction in greenfinch numbers in garden habitats,
salmonellosis 24331 have been anecdotal reports of temporary, localized reductions in bird numbers following passerine salmonellosis outbreaks [[53]]. There is, however, no evidence to indicate that passerine mortality caused by salmonellosis
salmonellosis 24441 salmonellosis outbreaks [[53]]. There is, however, no evidence to indicate that passerine mortality caused by salmonellosis occurs at a scale sufficient to cause widespread wild bird population declines in GB.Mycotoxin exposure5.Exposure
salmonellosis 41881 advocated where there is suspicion or confirmation of potentially zoonotic disease, such as passerine salmonellosis , to reduce the risk of public exposure through continuation of the activity.Conclusion8.This review
salmonellosis 42527 (e.g. finch trichomonosis and Paridae pox), the marked reduction of an endemic disease (e.g. passerine salmonellosis ) reinforces that changes in occurrence can be bidirectional and that there may be interplay between

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