Hepatitis C: From inflammatory pathogenesis to anti-inflammatory/hepatoprotective therapy

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
viral hepatitis 2 infectiousdiseases
hepatitis B 3 infectiousdiseases
hepatitis C 13 infectiousdiseases
ribavirin 3 infectiousdiseasesdrugs

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
ribavirin 5674 treatment duration and reduces adverse effects, when compared with the traditional interferon (IFN) plus ribavirin treatment[[6]]. However, HCV is just the initiator for pathophysiological processes, while persistent
ribavirin 11699 on a small number of patients infected with limited HCV subtypes, most were based on IFN or IFN plus ribavirin therapy regimens, and the results did not preclude an epiphenomenon associated with the effects of IFN[[23],[27]].
ribavirin 32704 significant antiviral effects in CHC patients who failed to treatment with the standard pegylated IFN/ ribavirin therapy[[89],[90]].Other flavonoids, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, naringenin, quercetin, luteolin
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
hepatitis B 8103 liver disease and HCC have a higher TNF-α/IL-10 ratio[[18],[19]]. In patients co-infected with HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV), plasma IL-6 concentrations were positively correlated with illness duration and viral load,
hepatitis B 37281 tonkinensis and Sophora alopecuroides[[113]]. Clinically, oxymatrine has been used to treat chronic hepatitis B and leukopenia caused by tumour radiotherapy and chemotherapy in China[[113],[114]]. In recent years,
hepatitis B 39634 Clinically, bicyclol tablets are used in many countries to treat various non-viral hepatitis and chronic hepatitis B and C accompanied by mild and moderate serum aminotransferase abnormality. Preclinical pharmacological
hepatitis C 2597 anti-HCV activity in the treatment of advanced HCV infection.Core tip: Inflammatory responses triggered by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection lead to severe progressive liver diseases. Some inflammatory cytokines and chemokines
hepatitis C 2803 and chemokines may serve as biomarkers for the disease progression and therapeutic effect in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. The inflammatory pathogenesis in HCV-infected patients is complicated, including classic
hepatitis C 3847 tropism virus, HCV mainly replicates in the hepatocyte cytoplasm and frequently causes acute or chronic hepatitis C (CHC), which has an estimated prevalence of 71 million people and is responsible for approximately 399000
hepatitis C 8439 on the immune state[[20],[21]]. The above results suggest that the level of inflammatory factors in hepatitis C patients might be used as a reference for disease progression during HCV infection and antiviral therapy.Table
hepatitis C 8600 progression during HCV infection and antiviral therapy.Table 1Potential inflammatory biomarkers of hepatitis C BiomarkerClinical relevanceRef.TNF-αPromoting development of insulin resistance and diabetes during
hepatitis C 9678 IL-6/-8/-18: Interleukin-6/-8/-18; HCV: Hepatitis C virus; HCC: Hepatocellular carcinoma; CHC: Chronic hepatitis C ; ALT: Alanine aminotransferase; AST: Aspartate aminotransferase; IFN: Interferon; HBV: Hepatitis B virus.Chemokines
hepatitis C 12573 variety of strategies to aggravate the progression of liver diseases (Figure 1).Figure 1Mechanisms of hepatitis C virus-induced inflammation. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA triggers Toll-like receptor mediated nuclear
hepatitis C 16948 molecules and pathogen-associated activators[[41]]. Increased levels of plasma IL-1β and IL-18 in hepatitis C patients indicated an activation of the inflammasome during HCV infection[[43]].Activation of the inflammasome
hepatitis C 21153 and recruited immune cells (macrophages, mast cells, dendritic cells and natural killer cells) plus hepatitis C virus replication in the hepatic microenvironment mediates inflammatory cascade signalling and exacerbates
hepatitis C 30825 (Figure 3)[[77],[78],[80]].Figure 3Promising anti-inflammatory/hepatoprotective agents for chronic hepatitis C . HCV: Hepatitis C virus; IFN: Interferon; NS: Non-structural; HO-1: Heme oxygenase-1; TLR: Toll-like
hepatitis C 33015 activities[[77],[91],[92]]. Therefore, these agents are expected to be developed for the treatment of hepatitis C patients with advanced liver diseases.AndrographolideAmong the various secondary metabolites produced
hepatitis C 39175 glutathione (GSH)[[63]], N-acetyl cysteine (NAC)[[133]] and vitamin E[[130]], have been reported to treat hepatitis C with efficacy. In addition, bicyclol (4,4’-dimethoxy-5,6,5’,6’-bis(methylenedioxy)-2-hydroxymethyl-2’-methoxycarbonyl
hepatitis C 42312 excessive inflammation and liver microenvironment dyshomeostasis in chronic HCV-infected patients, care for hepatitis C should extend beyond merely achieving an SVR to encompass an anti-inflammatory/hepatoprotective strategy
viral hepatitis 31602 and is widely used for the treatment of insulin resistance, alcoholic/non-alcoholic liver disease and viral hepatitis because of its antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and immunomodulatory properties[[81]-[84]].
viral hepatitis 39606 with safety[[134],[135]]. Clinically, bicyclol tablets are used in many countries to treat various non- viral hepatitis and chronic hepatitis B and C accompanied by mild and moderate serum aminotransferase abnormality. Preclinical

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