Lectins as Promising Therapeutics for the Prevention and Treatment of HIV and Other Potential Coinfections.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
AIDS 12 infectiousdiseases
Japanese encephalitis 2 infectiousdiseases
herpes simplex 2 infectiousdiseases
oxacillin 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
gonorrhea 1 infectiousdiseases
trichomoniasis 1 infectiousdiseases
candidiasis 2 infectiousdiseases
toxoplasmosis 1 infectiousdiseases
chancroid 1 infectiousdiseases
genital herpes 2 infectiousdiseases
infectious disease 1 infectiousdiseases
syphilis 1 infectiousdiseases
trachoma 5 infectiousdiseases
tuberculosis 4 infectiousdiseases

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oxacillin 30573 surinamensis was shown to display bacteriostatic effects and reduce biofilm formation by nonresistant and oxacillin -resistant Staphylococcus spp. [[111]]. The plant lectins ConBr and CFL produced by Canavalia brasiliensis
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
AIDS 623 /2018Publication date (epub): 5/2018AbstractHuman immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/ AIDS ) remains a global health problem. Current therapeutics specifically target the viral pathogen at various
AIDS 994 pathogens simultaneously, both by therapeutic regimens and in prevention strategies, would help contain the AIDS pandemic. Lectins, a ubiquitous group of proteins that specifically bind glycosylated molecules, are
AIDS 1554 available findings suggesting that lectins should be further developed to simultaneously fight the AIDS pandemic and concomitant infections in HIV infected individuals.1. IntroductionHuman immunodeficiency
AIDS 2003 cultural or religious reasons [[1]]. Despite recent advances in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS ) therapy and the available prevention methods, HIV infection continues to spread worldwide with about
AIDS 2209 5,500 new infections every day [[2]]. In many developing countries, notably in sub-Saharan Africa, AIDS is considered a disaster because of its devastating socioeconomic effects [[3]].There have been tremendous
AIDS 3813 and increased number of sexual partners [[9]]. In addition, opportunistic infections also accelerate AIDS progression. All things considered, the high cost of antiviral drugs and the risk of opportunistic infections
AIDS 6064 the development of new antiviral drugs to include in a comprehensive package designed to contain the AIDS pandemic.Entry inhibitors would constitute important additions to the currently available weapons against
AIDS 24045 on many cell types, including bacteria, yeasts, and parasites. It is known that the incidence of HIV/ AIDS is exacerbated in individuals infected with other sexually transmitted pathogens. Both ulcerative (candidiasis,
AIDS 24553 patients, rendering them even more infectious [[91]]. Conversely, in an immune system heavily altered by AIDS , the etiologic agents of STDs have an easier path to cause illness. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume
AIDS 25834 [[93]], since current HIV prevention methods fall well short of needs. This would help tackle both AIDS and other STDs and likely improve the immune system of the affected patients.4.1. Bacterial Organisms
AIDS 32295 against Candida albicans and C. krusei, which are commonly found in immunocompromised individuals such as AIDS patients [[118]]. In addition, low dose of the plant lectin Con A has been shown to protect mice from
AIDS 36025 activity against multiple pathogenic prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that further complicate the HIV/ AIDS problem. Therefore, these molecules deserve in-depth assessment for their inclusion in current efforts
Japanese encephalitis 16115 integrin internalization as shown in vitro [[49]]. In addition, intraperitoneal GRFT was shown to prevent Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) entry, both in vitro and in vivo [[50]]. Mechanistically, GRFT was recently reported to
Japanese encephalitis 38588 (JFL)2.5 μg/ml[[63]]Typhonium divaricatum (L.) Decne3.054 μg/ml[[64]]Polygonatum odoratum (POL)2.5 μg/ml[[65]] Japanese encephalitis virusGriffithsin (GRFT)20 nM[[50]]CoronavirusHippeastrum hybrid agglutinin (HHA)3.2 μg/ml[[66]]Galanthus
candidiasis 24149 is exacerbated in individuals infected with other sexually transmitted pathogens. Both ulcerative ( candidiasis , chancroid, syphilis, genital herpes, and genital warts) and inflammatory (chlamydia, gonorrhea, and
candidiasis 31203 the human body, including the skin and mucosal membranes, but can overgrow and cause a disease named candidiasis in the oral cavity, the gastrointestinal tract, and the genitalia [[113]]. For instance, in immunocompromised
chancroid 24162 exacerbated in individuals infected with other sexually transmitted pathogens. Both ulcerative (candidiasis, chancroid , syphilis, genital herpes, and genital warts) and inflammatory (chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis)
genital herpes 18602 individuals is herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-2 is sexually transmitted and a leading cause of genital herpes . Some individuals with the virus never show symptoms, while most experience regular outbreaks of painful
genital herpes 24183 infected with other sexually transmitted pathogens. Both ulcerative (candidiasis, chancroid, syphilis, genital herpes , and genital warts) and inflammatory (chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis) sexually transmitted
gonorrhea 24247 (candidiasis, chancroid, syphilis, genital herpes, and genital warts) and inflammatory (chlamydia, gonorrhea , and trichomoniasis) sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been shown to increase susceptibility
herpes simplex 18512 Lectins with Anti-HSV ActivitiesAnother opportunistic viral pathogen in HIV infected individuals is herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-2 is sexually transmitted and a leading cause of genital herpes. Some individuals
herpes simplex 37727 uropathogenic Escherichia coli; C. albicans: Candida albicans; T. pallidum: Treponema pallidum; HSV: herpes simplex virus; HPV: human papillomavirus; Rx: treatment.Table 1Lectins with neutralization activities towards
infectious disease 5935 sub-Saharan Africa [[16]]. Moreover, the fact that ARVs are associated with risk of developing other infectious disease s demands the development of new antiviral drugs to include in a comprehensive package designed to contain
syphilis 24173 individuals infected with other sexually transmitted pathogens. Both ulcerative (candidiasis, chancroid, syphilis , genital herpes, and genital warts) and inflammatory (chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis) sexually
toxoplasmosis 34999 in humans.Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes the disease known as toxoplasmosis . According to the CDC, more than 30 million individuals in the USA are T. gondii carriers [[126]]. Even
trachoma 27611 latex of Euphorbia tirucalli, also displays antimicrobial activity towards E. coli [[100]].Chlamydia trachoma tis, a critical etiologic agent of ocular and genital infections in humans, likely uses carbohydrates
trachoma 27769 genital infections in humans, likely uses carbohydrates for attachment to host cells or entry. Three C. trachoma tis glycoproteins, including the major outer membrane protein (MOMP; 40-kDa), a 32-kDa outer surface
trachoma 28060 surface exposed glycoproteins, especially, the MOMP, are critical for attachment and infectivity of C. trachoma tis to HeLa cells, via their oligomannose-oligosaccharides [[101]]. It was reported that two plant lectins,
trachoma 37508 reinfection of an individual who already has an established infection with a heterologous HIV strain. C. trachoma tis: Chlamydia trachomatis; T. vaginalis: Trichomonas vaginalis; N. gonorrhoeae: Neisseria gonorrhoeae;
trachoma 37531 who already has an established infection with a heterologous HIV strain. C. trachomatis: Chlamydia trachoma tis; T. vaginalis: Trichomonas vaginalis; N. gonorrhoeae: Neisseria gonorrhoeae; UPEC: uropathogenic
trichomoniasis 24262 chancroid, syphilis, genital herpes, and genital warts) and inflammatory (chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis ) sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been shown to increase susceptibility to HIV infection [[89]–[91]].
tuberculosis 5781 crucial issue, lack of trained clinicians and increased prevalence of associated diseases, such as tuberculosis , have impacted the management of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa [[16]]. Moreover, the fact that ARVs are
tuberculosis 28887 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae [[106], [107]].Tuberculosis (TB) caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the top 10 causes of mortality worldwide according to the WHO [[108]]. In addition to killing
tuberculosis 29318 to first-line anti-TB drugs calls for the development of new ways to cope with this infection. In M. tuberculosis , envelope mannosylated lipoarabinomannans (ManLAMs) and Mtb surface glycoproteins (glycosylated 45-kDa
tuberculosis 29799 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) and other mannose-specific C-type lectins (C-TLs) [[109]]. Since M. tuberculosis organisms have large amounts of mannosylated cell-surface molecules, an attempt was made to assess whether

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