Find the right sample: A study on the versatility of saliva and urine samples for the diagnosis of emerging viruses

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Annotation Summary

Term Occurence Count Dictionary
infectious disease 4 infectiousdiseases
yellow fever 2 infectiousdiseases
Rift Valley fever 1 infectiousdiseases
West Nile fever 1 infectiousdiseases
chikungunya 11 infectiousdiseases
dengue fever 1 infectiousdiseases
diarrhea 1 infectiousdiseases
hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome 1 infectiousdiseases

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Rift Valley fever 14661 hits; Marburg, 4; Junin, 3; VHFs in general 2; Lassa, 2; Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), 2; Rift Valley fever (RVF), 1; Guanarito, 1 and 1 for a novel Bunya virus.The first report dated from 1980 for RVF virus
West Nile fever 23670 patients with WN neuro-invasive disease, which had a higher vireamia for a shorter period than those with West Nile fever [[77]–[80]]. In the meantime, the advantage of using urine instead or additionally to serum is demonstrated
chikungunya 444 /2018AbstractBackgroundThe emergence of different viral infections during the last decades like dengue, West Nile, SARS, chikungunya , MERS-CoV, Ebola, Zika and Yellow Fever raised some questions on quickness and reliability of laboratory
chikungunya 2018 infections during the last decades like dengue, West Nile (WN), Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), chikungunya (CHIK), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Ebola (EBO), Zika (ZIK) and Yellow
chikungunya 6333 saliva and urine as test samples.Search profile used for this review in PubMed for CHIK as an example:" chikungunya virus"[MeSH Terms] OR ("chikungunya"[All Fields] AND "virus"[All Fields]) OR "chikungunya virus"[All
chikungunya 6369 profile used for this review in PubMed for CHIK as an example:"chikungunya virus"[MeSH Terms] OR (" chikungunya "[All Fields] AND "virus"[All Fields]) OR "chikungunya virus"[All Fields] AND ("saliva"[MeSH Terms] OR
chikungunya 6423 example:"chikungunya virus"[MeSH Terms] OR ("chikungunya"[All Fields] AND "virus"[All Fields]) OR " chikungunya virus"[All Fields] AND ("saliva"[MeSH Terms] OR "saliva"[All Fields])"chikungunya virus"[MeSH Terms]
chikungunya 6505 "virus"[All Fields]) OR "chikungunya virus"[All Fields] AND ("saliva"[MeSH Terms] OR "saliva"[All Fields])" chikungunya virus"[MeSH Terms] OR ("chikungunya"[All Fields] AND "virus"[All Fields]) OR "chikungunya virus"[All
chikungunya 6541 virus"[All Fields] AND ("saliva"[MeSH Terms] OR "saliva"[All Fields])"chikungunya virus"[MeSH Terms] OR (" chikungunya "[All Fields] AND "virus"[All Fields]) OR "chikungunya virus"[All Fields] AND ("urine"[Subheading] OR
chikungunya 6595 Fields])"chikungunya virus"[MeSH Terms] OR ("chikungunya"[All Fields] AND "virus"[All Fields]) OR " chikungunya virus"[All Fields] AND ("urine"[Subheading] OR "urine"[All Fields] OR "urine"[MeSH Terms])Another 42
chikungunya 8602 in 2005, an autochthone outbreak in Italy in 2007 and, spread in Caribbean islands in December 2013, chikungunya (CHIK) emerged in 2014 for the first time in Central America spreading into South America and North
chikungunya 9276 manifestations, which were found to contain viral RNA and infectious virus. Another study shows that RNA of chikungunya virus can be detected in the saliva at the first seven days of infection but with a lower efficacy than
chikungunya 48096 we analyzed over 700 scientific publications on diagnostic approaches for dengue, West Nile, SARS, chikungunya , MERS-CoV, Ebola, Zika and Yellow Fever regarding their relevance for using alternative samples like
dengue fever 11477 levels in serum and 97% specificity [[20]]. DEN NS1 antigen was detected in urine in around two third of dengue fever and DEN haemorrhagic fever (HF) using ELISA. Follow up the excretion of NS1 in urine is very important
diarrhea 28675 were used for analysis of the viral pathogenesis during the course of the disease [[109]–[112]]. The diarrhea and hepatic dysfunction was associated high viral load in NPA, while in urine is associated with abnormal
hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome 15824 used urine and urine sediment epithelium for the identification of acute Hanta virus patients showing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) [[37], [38]]. Urine becomes an important sample for serological studies since antibody excretion
infectious disease 21681 were considered as diagnostic samples evaluating a multiplex hybridization array for detecting various infectious disease s [[63]]. Interestingly, the Plasmodium falciparum was identified as a cause of death in a case of hemorrhagic
infectious disease 45510 outbreaks MERS-CoV, CHIK, Ebola and Zika are promising. However, systematic studies are rare and for some infectious disease outbreaks like the recent yellow fever in Angola, non-invasive samples for diagnostic are still uncommon
infectious disease 46924 situation the preparation of a scheme for evaluation of sampling for respiratory as well as for other infectious disease s including the further processing for laboratory diagnostic is highly recommended. This more structured
infectious disease 47104 is highly recommended. This more structured approach will help to improve the diagnostic of emerging infectious disease s significantly as new diagnostic methods and platforms are developed continuously and require effective
yellow fever 45555 promising. However, systematic studies are rare and for some infectious disease outbreaks like the recent yellow fever in Angola, non-invasive samples for diagnostic are still uncommon and require further investigation.
yellow fever 45692 samples for diagnostic are still uncommon and require further investigation. Just for diseases like yellow fever , non-invasive samples like urine or saliva might be a very practical alternative, since the first index

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