HIV/AIDS-related hyponatremia: an old but still serious problem.

Existing Reviews

Please note, new claims can take a short while to show up.

No claims yet.

Annotation Summary

Term Occurence Count Dictionary
hepatitis B 1 infectiousdiseases
AIDS-related complex 2 infectiousdiseases
diarrhea 9 infectiousdiseases
toxoplasmosis 3 infectiousdiseases
tuberculosis 3 infectiousdiseases
abscess 1 infectiousdiseases
hepatitis C 1 infectiousdiseases
oral candidiasis 1 infectiousdiseases
pneumonia 4 infectiousdiseases
candidiasis 1 infectiousdiseases
meningitis 7 infectiousdiseases
pulmonary tuberculosis 1 infectiousdiseases
AIDS 38 infectiousdiseases
poliomyelitis 2 infectiousdiseases

There are not enough annotations found in this document to create the proximity graph.

Review

Having read the paper, please pick a pair of statements from the paper to indicate that a drug and disease are related.

Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
AIDS 24 Title: Renal FailureHIV/ AIDS -related hyponatremia: an old but still serious problemAlternative Title: Z. Shu et al.Zhanjun ShuZimeng
AIDS 575 with hyponatremia. In addition, hyponatremia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS ) and AIDS-related complex (ARC) was first reported in 1993. The evidence suggests that severe hyponatremia
AIDS 585 hyponatremia. In addition, hyponatremia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS -related complex (ARC) was first reported in 1993. The evidence suggests that severe hyponatremia is
AIDS 778 hyponatremia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/ AIDS patients; however, the incidence of hyponatremic syndrome in HIV/AIDS patients remains very high in
AIDS 848 immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients; however, the incidence of hyponatremic syndrome in HIV/ AIDS patients remains very high in clinical practice, as almost 40% of HIV/AIDS inpatients in Xinjiang, a
AIDS 923 hyponatremic syndrome in HIV/AIDS patients remains very high in clinical practice, as almost 40% of HIV/ AIDS inpatients in Xinjiang, a developing region of China, are hyponatremic. A method for identifying the
AIDS 1093 hyponatremic. A method for identifying the pathogenesis and therapeutic treatments for hyponatremia in HIV/ AIDS patients is needed. This review focuses on the clinical and pathophysiological aspects of hyponatremia
AIDS 1306 highlights the causes, presentation and treatment recommendations for hyponatremic patients with HIV/ AIDS .Hyponatremia in HIV/AIDS1.Hyponatremia is defined as serum sodium levels less than 135 mEq/L. Symptoms
AIDS 1331 presentation and treatment recommendations for hyponatremic patients with HIV/AIDS.Hyponatremia in HIV/ AIDS 1.Hyponatremia is defined as serum sodium levels less than 135 mEq/L. Symptoms of hyponatremia depend
AIDS 2972 etiology and clinical association of hyponatremia in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS ) and AIDS-related complex (ARC) was first reported in 1993 [[1]]. Hyponatremia in human immunodeficiency
AIDS 2982 clinical association of hyponatremia in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS -related complex (ARC) was first reported in 1993 [[1]]. Hyponatremia in human immunodeficiency disease
AIDS 3108 was first reported in 1993 [[1]]. Hyponatremia in human immunodeficiency disease (HIV) disease and AIDS occurs in 20–80% of hospitalized patients [[1]], especially in Xinjiang, a developing region in China,
AIDS 3242 hospitalized patients [[1]], especially in Xinjiang, a developing region in China, where nearly 40% of HIV/ AIDS inpatients are hyponatremic. Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in clinical practice,
AIDS 3466 evidence indicates that severe hyponatremia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in HIV/ AIDS patients. In a universal model, patients with mild hyponatremia have a 2.0-fold higher risk of death
AIDS 3842 reasons, identifying and summarizing the pathogenesis and therapeutic therapies for hyponatremic HIV/ AIDS patients are essential and the purpose of the article is to analyze the reasons in the HIV/AIDS patients
AIDS 3938 HIV/AIDS patients are essential and the purpose of the article is to analyze the reasons in the HIV/ AIDS patients with hyponatremia and suggest the treatment recommendations.The main causes of hyponatremia
AIDS 4051 with hyponatremia and suggest the treatment recommendations.The main causes of hyponatremia in HIV/ AIDS patients2.The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies HIV infection into four stages: Stage 1 (HIV
AIDS 4381 count is 350–499; Stage 3 (advanced HIV disease), the CD4 + cell count is 200–349; and Stage 4 ( AIDS ), the CD4 + cell count is less than 200 or the percentage of CD4 + cells is less than 15% of
AIDS 4886 aspects of hyponatremia and highlights the causes, presentation and treatment of hyponatremia in HIV/ AIDS patients. There are several conditions in patients with HIV/AIDS that may predispose them to the development
AIDS 4951 and treatment of hyponatremia in HIV/AIDS patients. There are several conditions in patients with HIV/ AIDS that may predispose them to the development of hyponatremia: opportunistic infections, adrenal insufficiency
AIDS 5268 extensive reviews may be beyond the scope of the review.Figure 1.The main causes of hyponatremia in HIV/ AIDS patients.Hyponatremia due to opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS2.1.Hyponatremia may not be a frequent
AIDS 5334 main causes of hyponatremia in HIV/AIDS patients.Hyponatremia due to opportunistic infections in HIV/ AIDS 2.1.Hyponatremia may not be a frequent side effect of infections, especially in HIV/AIDS patients, and
AIDS 5422 infections in HIV/AIDS2.1.Hyponatremia may not be a frequent side effect of infections, especially in HIV/ AIDS patients, and may not cause specific symptoms, which means that it may be overlooked by clinicians.The
AIDS 5574 which means that it may be overlooked by clinicians.The most common opportunistic infections in HIV/ AIDS patients include bacterial pneumonia, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (including tuberculous meningitis [TBM]),
AIDS 11855 facilitate discrimination of the two diseases [[26]].Adrenal insufficiency and hypopituitarism in HIV/ AIDS patients2.2.Accompanied by opportunistic infections, HIV may disseminate through various organs and
AIDS 12211 suspicion [[27]]. Of the endocrine glands, the adrenal gland is the most frequently attacked in HIV/ AIDS patients [[28]].A morphologic assessment was carried out on the adrenal glands from autopsied HIV/AIDS
AIDS 12314 HIV/AIDS patients [[28]].A morphologic assessment was carried out on the adrenal glands from autopsied HIV/ AIDS patients; necrosis, fibrosis, hemorrhages and neoplasias were observed. Inflammatory infiltrates were
AIDS 12940 which is derived from the neural crista [[30]] and neural tissue.Rodrigues et al. suggested that HIV/ AIDS and opportunistic infections may contribute to alterations in the adrenal gland that lead to the multiple
AIDS 13086 contribute to alterations in the adrenal gland that lead to the multiple organ failure observed in terminal AIDS patients [[29]]. Almost all pathological mechanisms are affected by the adrenal gland, and alterations
AIDS 14256 [[34]], etc., which can significantly inhibit glucocorticoid signaling.Thyroid insufficiency and HIV/ AIDS 2.3.Among individuals infected with HIV, 1–2% experience overt thyroid disease, and 35% may have subtle
AIDS 14431 thyroid disease, and 35% may have subtle abnormalities in thyroid function test findings [[1]].In the HIV/ AIDS epidemic, viral and opportunistic infections, along with the systemic effects of HIV, have been implicated
AIDS 15427 hyponatremia [[38]].Hyponatremia due to diarrhea and vomiting2.4.Frequent diarrhea and vomiting induced by HIV/ AIDS -related opportunistic infections can lead to hypovolemia via extra-renal salt losses. Diarrhea, defined
AIDS 17547 open for discussion.Table 1.Treatment and the effectiveness of treatment of various diseases in HIV/ AIDS patients.DiseaseTreatmentEffectivenessSIADH and CSWS0.9% or 3% Sodium chloride, ≥0.5 mmol/l/h MineralocorticoidSafe
AIDS 18048 weeksDiarrhea and vomitingProbiotic bacteriaProvide specific benefits in HIV-1 infectionFor opportunistic HIV/ AIDS infections3.1.Aside from the treatment of the opportunistic infection, volume replacement achieved with
AIDS 20296 and hypertonic saline may be temporary measures.For adrenal insufficiency and hypopituitarism in HIV/ AIDS patients3.2.In our patients, mineralocorticoid supplementation seemed to be a safe and effective treatment
AIDS 21051 3–5 days, but some patients need a longer course of treatment.For thyroid insufficiency in HIV/ AIDS patients3.3.Levothyroxine should be used to treat hypothyroidism and to maintain TSH levels within normal
AIDS 22140 infants with congenital HIV-1 infections [[1]].Conclusions4.Hyponatremia is a common manifestation of HIV/ AIDS opportunistic infections. These infections result in increased ADH release and can lead to the development
AIDS 22552 glands and hypopituitarism. Hyponatremia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in HIV/ AIDS , and it remains challenging for physicians to identify effective diagnostic criteria and treatments
AIDS-related complex 585 hyponatremia. In addition, hyponatremia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC) was first reported in 1993. The evidence suggests that severe hyponatremia is associated with
AIDS-related complex 2982 clinical association of hyponatremia in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC) was first reported in 1993 [[1]]. Hyponatremia in human immunodeficiency disease (HIV) disease
abscess 6085 pulmonary tract and central nervous system (CNS) (such as tuberculous meningitis, encephalitis and abscess es) can induce the release of excess ADH, which is known as the SIADH and cerebral salt wasting syndrome
candidiasis 5846 Plasmodium falciparum [[1]]. Indira [[5]] reported that opportunistic infections should also include oral candidiasis , Cryptococcal meningitis, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis and cerebral toxoplasmosis.Infections
diarrhea 5109 hyponatremia: opportunistic infections, adrenal insufficiency and hypopituitarism, thyroid insufficiency, diarrhea and vomiting, etc. [[1],[3]] (Figure 1). More extensive reviews may be beyond the scope of the review.Figure
diarrhea 15356 cold insensitivity, fatigue, voice changes, constipation and hyponatremia [[38]].Hyponatremia due to diarrhea and vomiting2.4.Frequent diarrhea and vomiting induced by HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic infections
diarrhea 15390 changes, constipation and hyponatremia [[38]].Hyponatremia due to diarrhea and vomiting2.4.Frequent diarrhea and vomiting induced by HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic infections can lead to hypovolemia via extra-renal
diarrhea 15747 contents. This can occur when a nonabsorbable, osmotically active substance is ingested (“osmotic diarrhea ”) or when electrolyte absorption is impaired (“secretory diarrhea”). Most cases of acute and chronic
diarrhea 15817 substance is ingested (“osmotic diarrhea”) or when electrolyte absorption is impaired (“secretory diarrhea ”). Most cases of acute and chronic diarrhea are due to the latter mechanism. Secretory diarrhea can
diarrhea 15863 when electrolyte absorption is impaired (“secretory diarrhea”). Most cases of acute and chronic diarrhea are due to the latter mechanism. Secretory diarrhea can result from bacterial toxins, reduced absorptive
diarrhea 15915 (“secretory diarrhea”). Most cases of acute and chronic diarrhea are due to the latter mechanism. Secretory diarrhea can result from bacterial toxins, reduced absorptive surface area caused by disease or resection, luminal
diarrhea 16375 enteropathy during the acute phase of the infection through the advanced stages of the disease. It involves diarrhea , increased gastrointestinal inflammation, malabsorption of bile acids and vitamin B12, and increased
diarrhea 21766 use of levothyroxine and triiodothyronine (T3) or the use of desiccated thyroid hormones [[50]].For diarrhea and vomiting3.4.Current and emerging research supports the concept that probiotic bacteria can provide
hepatitis B 5711 pneumonia, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (including tuberculous meningitis [TBM]), Cryptococcus neoformans, hepatitis B , hepatitis C and Plasmodium falciparum [[1]]. Indira [[5]] reported that opportunistic infections should
hepatitis C 5724 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (including tuberculous meningitis [TBM]), Cryptococcus neoformans, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and Plasmodium falciparum [[1]]. Indira [[5]] reported that opportunistic infections should also include
meningitis 5667 in HIV/AIDS patients include bacterial pneumonia, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (including tuberculous meningitis [TBM]), Cryptococcus neoformans, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and Plasmodium falciparum [[1]]. Indira [[5]]
meningitis 5872 Indira [[5]] reported that opportunistic infections should also include oral candidiasis, Cryptococcal meningitis , Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis and cerebral toxoplasmosis.Infections of the
meningitis 6056 toxoplasmosis.Infections of the pulmonary tract and central nervous system (CNS) (such as tuberculous meningitis , encephalitis and abscesses) can induce the release of excess ADH, which is known as the SIADH and cerebral
meningitis 7078 in the release of ADH, there may be more than one reason for increased ADH levels in patients with meningitis .Hyponatremia due to SIADH is also a frequent complication of pulmonary infections [[6]]. However, the
meningitis 7830 disease (most often subarachnoid hemorrhage). However, a variety of infections of the CNS (tuberculous meningitis , poliomyelitis and toxoplasmosis) have also been linked to CSWS [[11],[12]].SIADH was first described
meningitis 8151 condition has been described in association with neurological disorders such as subarachnoid hemorrhage and meningitis , possibly due to hypothalamic injury caused by bleeding or an inflammatory process. SIADH involves the
meningitis 8779 any renal, adrenal or thyroid problems.A variety of infections of the CNS (encephalitis, tuberculous meningitis , poliomyelitis and toxoplasmosis) have also been linked with CSWS [[11],[12]]. Some studies show that
oral candidiasis 5841 Plasmodium falciparum [[1]]. Indira [[5]] reported that opportunistic infections should also include oral candidiasis , Cryptococcal meningitis, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis and cerebral toxoplasmosis.Infections
pneumonia 444 hospitals. Many medical illnesses, including congestive heart failure, liver failure, renal failure and pneumonia , may be associated with hyponatremia. In addition, hyponatremia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency
pneumonia 2176 [[1],[2]]. Many medical illnesses, such as congestive heart failure, liver failure, renal failure, and pneumonia , may be associated with hyponatremia.Hyponatremia is caused either by water retention or (less often)
pneumonia 5606 overlooked by clinicians.The most common opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients include bacterial pneumonia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis (including tuberculous meningitis [TBM]), Cryptococcus neoformans, hepatitis
pneumonia 5907 opportunistic infections should also include oral candidiasis, Cryptococcal meningitis, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia , pulmonary tuberculosis and cerebral toxoplasmosis.Infections of the pulmonary tract and central nervous
poliomyelitis 7842 often subarachnoid hemorrhage). However, a variety of infections of the CNS (tuberculous meningitis, poliomyelitis and toxoplasmosis) have also been linked to CSWS [[11],[12]].SIADH was first described in 1957 by Schwartz
poliomyelitis 8791 adrenal or thyroid problems.A variety of infections of the CNS (encephalitis, tuberculous meningitis, poliomyelitis and toxoplasmosis) have also been linked with CSWS [[11],[12]]. Some studies show that acute kidney
pulmonary tuberculosis 5918 infections should also include oral candidiasis, Cryptococcal meningitis, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis and cerebral toxoplasmosis.Infections of the pulmonary tract and central nervous system (CNS) (such
toxoplasmosis 5954 candidiasis, Cryptococcal meningitis, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis and cerebral toxoplasmosis .Infections of the pulmonary tract and central nervous system (CNS) (such as tuberculous meningitis,
toxoplasmosis 7860 hemorrhage). However, a variety of infections of the CNS (tuberculous meningitis, poliomyelitis and toxoplasmosis ) have also been linked to CSWS [[11],[12]].SIADH was first described in 1957 by Schwartz et al. [[13]]
toxoplasmosis 8809 problems.A variety of infections of the CNS (encephalitis, tuberculous meningitis, poliomyelitis and toxoplasmosis ) have also been linked with CSWS [[11],[12]]. Some studies show that acute kidney injury and hyponatremia
tuberculosis 5631 most common opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients include bacterial pneumonia, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (including tuberculous meningitis [TBM]), Cryptococcus neoformans, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and Plasmodium
tuberculosis 5928 also include oral candidiasis, Cryptococcal meningitis, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis and cerebral toxoplasmosis.Infections of the pulmonary tract and central nervous system (CNS) (such
tuberculosis 14911 infections associated with thyroid dysfunction include Coccidioides [[35]], Pneumocystis jirovecii [[36]], tuberculosis and Cryptococcus [[37]]. These infiltrative conditions can also lead to isolated thyroid abnormalities.Overt

You must be authorized to submit a review.