Acute Phase Protein Levels as An Auxiliary Tool in Diagnosing Viral Diseases in Ruminants-A Review

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infectious disease 2 infectiousdiseases
pneumonia 4 infectiousdiseases
diarrhea 8 infectiousdiseases

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diarrhea 20076 non-infected animals’ sera. Changes in Hp concentration were analogous to those of SAA.Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) belongs to the Pestivirus genus, Flaviviridae family. Viruses from this group contain single-stranded
diarrhea 20466 infection with BVDV, animals gain weight and their milk production decreases. Moreover, BVDV causes diarrhea and immunosuppression. Transmission of BVDV occurs via contact with infected animals and through the
diarrhea 26408 animals, multisystemic clinical symptoms, such as hairy fleece, slow growth, digestive system dysfunction ( diarrhea , hemorrhage in the stomach and in the small and large intestine], and reproductive system dysfunction
diarrhea 27677 symptoms of infection are high fever and lack of appetite. Moreover, in infected animals, pneumonia, diarrhea , and rhinitis can be observed. Prevention of this disease is essential because of the high mortality
diarrhea 35348 Cpalbumins[[37],[38]]BRSVBovine respiratory diseaseParamyxoviridaecattleHp, SAANT[[39]]BVDVBovine viral diarrhea FlaviviridaecattleHp, SAA, FbNT[[40],[41],[42],[43]]FMDVFoot and mouth diseasePicornaviridaecattleHp,
diarrhea 35761 ruminants virus, BTV—bluetongue virus, BRSV—bovine respiratory syncytial virus, BVDV—bovine viral diarrhea virus, FMDV—foot and mouth disease virus, NT—no tested.viruses-10-00502-t002_Table 2Table 2The concentrations
diarrhea 36581 diseaseHealthy<17 µg/mL<18 µg/mLNTNTNT[[39]]Infected60–80 µg/mL8–10 mg/mLNTNTNTBVDVBovine viral diarrhea Healthy25.6 mg/L0.13 g/LNT6.45 g/LNT[[43]]Infected77.7–375 mg/L0.89–1.87 g/LNT6.5–10 g/LNTFMDVFoot
diarrhea 37145 ruminants virus, BTV—bluetongue virus, BRSV—bovine respiratory syncytial virus, BVDV—bovine viral diarrhea virus, FMDV—foot and mouth disease virus, a—no information on units, ND—no differences, NT—no
infectious disease 2309 result, high-yield animals are often prone to infections. Viruses are a common cause of farm animal infectious disease s, which generate considerable economic losses worldwide. Thus, prevention and early diagnosis of viral
infectious disease 17706 considered as APP in small ruminants.Monitoring APP levels can contribute insights into the etiology of infectious disease s and can facilitate finding the best models for conducting research on those diseases [[9]]. Moreover,
pneumonia 11593 elucidated; there is one report showing changes in the concentration of CRP in this species, but only during pneumonia [[25]].Another positive APP is alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), which is synthesized mainly by hepatocytes,
pneumonia 14760 also to lipoteichoic acid, a component of the wall of Gram-positive bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus. Whether LBP exerts a positive or negative effect on the immune response depends
pneumonia 15194 cellular activity. Interestingly, LBP can also act as an opsonin against Salmonella spp. and Klebsiella pneumonia e, facilitating their phagocytosis. [[7],[8],[30]]. LBP belongs to the moderate group of APPs in cattle
pneumonia 27666 clinical symptoms of infection are high fever and lack of appetite. Moreover, in infected animals, pneumonia , diarrhea, and rhinitis can be observed. Prevention of this disease is essential because of the high

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