Current Status of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

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infectious disease 1 infectiousdiseases
pneumonia 22 infectiousdiseases
diarrhea 1 infectiousdiseases

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diarrhea 6114 hospital admission (P < 0.001).[[11]] Conversely, those patients in the group with CAP only, fever, diarrhea , headache, arthromyalgias, multilobar infiltrates, pleural effusion, empyema, and bacteremia were more
infectious disease 1969 to affect prognosis.INTRODUCTIONWorldwide, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common group of infectious disease s that result in substantial health and economic burden.[[1]] CAP affects about 2–13/1000 community-dwelling
pneumonia 401 Shandong 266011, ChinaPublication date (ppub): 5/2018AbstractObjective:Worldwide, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infection that occurs in older adults, who may have pulmonary comorbidities, including
pneumonia 1031 publications up to January 2018 derived from the PubMed database, using the keywords “community-acquired pneumonia ” and “chronic obstructive pulmonary disease”.Study Selection:Papers in English were reviewed,
pneumonia 1387 worse prognosis, but data regarding the increased mortality remains unclear. Although Streptococcus pneumonia e is still regarded as the most common bacteria isolated from patients with CAP and COPD, Pseudomonas
pneumonia 1932 treatment, but generally does not appear to affect prognosis.INTRODUCTIONWorldwide, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common group of infectious diseases that result in substantial health and economic burden.[[1]]
pneumonia 7464 CAP, and CAP with COPD, with a cutoff ratio of 0.346 (sensitivity, 65% and specificity, 79%).[[29]]The pneumonia severity index (PSI)[[30]] and the CURB-65 score[[31]] are often used to assess patients with CAP. Crisafulli
pneumonia 9538 published study showed that angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors could reduce the risk of pneumonia and decrease pneumonia-associated mortality.[[38]] Similarly, a study from the UK recently reported
pneumonia 9561 that angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors could reduce the risk of pneumonia and decrease pneumonia -associated mortality.[[38]] Similarly, a study from the UK recently reported that the use of ACE inhibitors
pneumonia 10240 load.[[41]] Therefore, the use of inhaled corticosteroids is reported to be associated with increased risk of pneumonia .[[32]] Cascini et al.[[42]] have shown that patients treated with inhaled corticosteroids, no matter
pneumonia 11218 possible that treatment with inhaled corticosteroids modulates the inflammatory response in patients with pneumonia , but the reasons for these effects on patients' survival remain unknown, and require further study.Vaccination
pneumonia 13555 PNEUMONIA ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASEAmong patients with CAP, Streptococcus pneumonia e has been shown to be the most common infectious bacterial cause, but CAP can also be caused by atypical
pneumonia 13810 Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa.[[55][56][57]] A recent study showed that S. pneumonia was the most common causative agent in the patients with CAP when compared with the patients with CAP
pneumonia 14142 0.001).[[58]] The frequencies of pathogens are usually the same between age groups. However, for S. pneumonia , the incidence of CAP has been shown to be 20.9–28% in patients <65 years of age and 19.9–85% in
pneumonia 14448 ≥65 years, and this association requires recognition by physicians.[[59]]Exacerbation of COPD by pneumonia in patients on high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (>1000 μg beclomethasone per day) had an increased
pneumonia 14755 dose of inhaled corticosteroids (50% vs. 18.2%, P = 0.02).[[60]] Among patients with CAP and COPD, S. pneumonia e remains the most common cause, but H. influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and P. aeruginosa are also
pneumonia 15112 oral corticosteroid therapy.[[60]] Due to chronic bacterial colonization, the etiological diagnosis of pneumonia can be challenging for sputum culture diagnosis, as in 4–15% of patients with COPD, P. aeruginosa
pneumonia 15267 diagnosis, as in 4–15% of patients with COPD, P. aeruginosa was isolated from sputum in patients without pneumonia .[[62]] Therefore, the isolated rates of P. aeruginosa in sputum may be overstated.CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS
pneumonia 15516 OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE AND COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIAHuerta et al.[[28]] reported that S. pneumonia was more prevalent in patients with combined CAP and COPD compared with patients with AECOPD (43% vs.
pneumonia 15874 two groups for the incidence of infection with P. aeruginosa. In patients with AECOPD and concomitant pneumonia , bacterial pathogens have been reported to be more commonly isolated etiological agents when compared
pneumonia 16597 in Asia.[[63]] The findings of another prospective study showed that in patients with AECOPD, viral pneumonia was more common and was these patients had an increased rate of coinfection with bacteria, especially
pneumonia 16727 was these patients had an increased rate of coinfection with bacteria, especially with pneumococcal pneumonia .[[16]]ATYPICAL INFECTIOUS AGENTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA ASSOCIATED
pneumonia 20601 with COPD are more commonly older, male, and more likely to suffer from respiratory failure, severe pneumonia , comorbidities, and the effects of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. Vaccination may be protective
pneumonia 20847 more likely to develop CAP. Regarding the most common bacterial pathogens in CAP, infection with S. pneumonia is the most common, followed by P. aeruginosa. COPD is a common and important predisposing comorbidity

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