Ecology and transmission of Buruli ulcer disease: a systematic review

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
tularemia 4 infectiousdiseases
Chagas disease 1 infectiousdiseases
tuberculosis 6 infectiousdiseases
infectious disease 1 infectiousdiseases
leprosy 1 infectiousdiseases
plague 3 infectiousdiseases
trachoma 5 infectiousdiseases
Buruli ulcer disease 9 infectiousdiseases
Rift Valley fever 3 infectiousdiseases

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Buruli ulcer disease 1922 as a result of environmental disturbance such as deforestation, dam construction, and agriculture. Buruli ulcer disease is often referred to as the “mysterious disease” because the mode of transmission remains unclear,
Buruli ulcer disease 6056 respectively).10.1371/journal.pntd.0000911.g003Figure 3A global map representing countries that have reported cases of Buruli ulcer disease as of 2009 (WHO).Buruli ulcer disease is often referred to as the “mysterious disease” because the
Buruli ulcer disease 6094 global map representing countries that have reported cases of Buruli ulcer disease as of 2009 (WHO). Buruli ulcer disease is often referred to as the “mysterious disease” because the mode of transmission remains unclear,
Buruli ulcer disease 7237 Technical Advisory Committee for Buruli Ulcer in Geneva, Switzerland; 4) Review of the following websites: Buruli ulcer disease maintained by WHO in Geneva, Switzerland (http://www.who.int/buruli/en), The Buruli Ulcer Disease Ecology
Buruli ulcer disease 21083 specific activities are associated with transmission remains unresolved.Risk factors associated with Buruli ulcer disease Recently, Jacobson and Padgett [89] systematically reviewed the risk factors associated with M. ulcerans
Buruli ulcer disease 58963 with this guideline is the prolonged period of time between exposure and development of symptoms in Buruli ulcer disease . However, if bites from true bugs always preceded disease, patients are likely to remember these due
Buruli ulcer disease 63986 current available data points to a multiple transmission model for Buruli ulcer, indicating that the Buruli ulcer disease system lacks specificity with regard to vector insects, with the possible exception of southeastern
Buruli ulcer disease 66920 ancillary roles in transmission for M. ulcerans as well.ConclusionsRecommended research directions on Buruli ulcer disease As stated in the beginning of this review, Buruli ulcer disease has been referred to as the “mysterious
Buruli ulcer disease 66983 well.ConclusionsRecommended research directions on Buruli ulcer diseaseAs stated in the beginning of this review, Buruli ulcer disease has been referred to as the “mysterious disease” because the exact mode(s) of transmission, in the
Chagas disease 34023 defensive reaction of these bugs [109], [111]. It should be noted, however, that the causative agent of Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi) in humans is transmitted by a terrestrial hemipteran (Reduviidae), but it is through
Rift Valley fever 48189 animals, or by bites of infected ticks, deer flies, or mosquitoes [129], [130]. The causative agent of Rift Valley fever , a Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae, is transmitted amongst infected vertebrate reservoirs (mainly
Rift Valley fever 48993 contact with contaminated fingers and wash towels [133], [134]. In two of the above examples (plague and Rift Valley fever ), the pathogen has a close biological relationship with, and dependency upon, insect vectors; neither
Rift Valley fever 61907 diseases with insect vector associations have alternative transmission modes, such as tularemia, plague, Rift Valley fever , and trachoma. Thus, it is plausible that there are multiple modes of transmission in Buruli ulcer,
infectious disease 15771 environmental conditions facilitated growth and proliferation, much like an algal bloom. Because most infectious disease s have a strong correlation between infective dose and incubation period for disease, Hayman [9] speculated
leprosy 26060 after flooding events [9], [16], [33], [34], [95].Environmental Reservoirs and TransmissionAfricaUnlike leprosy and tuberculosis, which are characterized by person-to-person transmission, it is hypothesized that
plague 47552 possibility of parallel modes of transmission other than vectors. For example, the causative agent of plague , Yersinia pestis, has a flea vector and during sporadic outbreaks is transmitted by flea bites; but
plague 48982 person-to-person contact with contaminated fingers and wash towels [133], [134]. In two of the above examples ( plague and Rift Valley fever), the pathogen has a close biological relationship with, and dependency upon,
plague 61899 several diseases with insect vector associations have alternative transmission modes, such as tularemia, plague , Rift Valley fever, and trachoma. Thus, it is plausible that there are multiple modes of transmission
trachoma 48544 aerosolization, as well as by mosquito bites [131]. Another useful illustration is that of Chlamydia trachoma tis, the causative agent of trachoma, where the transmission to human eyes has been definitively associated
trachoma 48580 mosquito bites [131]. Another useful illustration is that of Chlamydia trachomatis, the causative agent of trachoma , where the transmission to human eyes has been definitively associated with contact by Musca sorbens
trachoma 49208 neither pathogen could persist in nature without infecting their respective vectors. For tularemia and trachoma , vectors are not essential to pathogen persistence in nature, even though fly control in the latter
trachoma 49433 to reduce incidence of disease in humans [135]. However, it is unlikely in the case of tularemia and trachoma that even highly effective fly control could eliminate human infection in endemic areas owing to other
trachoma 61930 associations have alternative transmission modes, such as tularemia, plague, Rift Valley fever, and trachoma . Thus, it is plausible that there are multiple modes of transmission in Buruli ulcer, with certain modes
tuberculosis 1253 recently been reported in some countries as the second most frequent mycobacterial disease in humans after tuberculosis . Cases have been reported from at least 32 countries in Africa (mainly west), Australia, Southeast Asia,
tuberculosis 3013 recently been reported in some countries as the second most frequent mycobacterial disease in humans after tuberculosis (TB). Cases have been reported from at least 32 countries in Africa (mainly west), Australia, Southeast
tuberculosis 4295 recently been reported in some countries as the second most frequent mycobacterial disease in humans after tuberculosis (TB) [12]–[14]. Large lesions often result in scarring, contractual deformities, amputations, and
tuberculosis 8510 host tropism and pathogenesis analogous to other mycobacterial groupings, such as the M. avium and M. tuberculosis complexes.Genomic analysis suggests that M. ulcerans evolved from an M. marinum-like ancestor [21],
tuberculosis 9750 biosynthesis have been lost and the repertoire of PE, PPE genes are considerably reduced compared with M. tuberculosis or M. marinum. Taken together, these results suggest that M. ulcerans is undergoing adaptation to a
tuberculosis 26072 events [9], [16], [33], [34], [95].Environmental Reservoirs and TransmissionAfricaUnlike leprosy and tuberculosis , which are characterized by person-to-person transmission, it is hypothesized that M. ulcerans is acquired
tularemia 47934 predominant mode of transmission in epidemics [128]. Similarly, human infection with the causative agent of tularemia , Franciscella tularensis, may occur through direct contact with contaminated water, by aerosols, by
tularemia 49194 insect vectors; neither pathogen could persist in nature without infecting their respective vectors. For tularemia and trachoma, vectors are not essential to pathogen persistence in nature, even though fly control in
tularemia 49419 case was shown to reduce incidence of disease in humans [135]. However, it is unlikely in the case of tularemia and trachoma that even highly effective fly control could eliminate human infection in endemic areas
tularemia 61888 seen, several diseases with insect vector associations have alternative transmission modes, such as tularemia , plague, Rift Valley fever, and trachoma. Thus, it is plausible that there are multiple modes of transmission

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