A review on the progress of sex-separation techniques for sterile insect technique applications against Anopheles arabiensis

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ivermectin 17 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
lindane 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
malaria 10 infectiousdiseases
malathion 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs

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ivermectin 9948 Unfortunately, experiments with these also resulted in high male mortality [[54]]. Subsequently, spinosad and ivermectin , which do not rely on tarsal contact for their mode of toxicity, were tested [[54]]. Both spinosad and
ivermectin 10062 which do not rely on tarsal contact for their mode of toxicity, were tested [[54]]. Both spinosad and ivermectin eliminated all females from a mixed sex population of An. arabiensis within 4 days without causing significant
ivermectin 10468 optimize and adapt this strategy as a sex separation method in a South African An. arabiensis strain using ivermectin only. During these experiments, difficulties arose relating to blood-feeding success. The South African
ivermectin 10720 maintained on blood from anaesthetized guinea pigs and thus did not readily feed on blood spiked with ivermectin using artificial membrane feeders. An investigation of artificial membrane feeding systems and the adaptability
ivermectin 11963 acclimatize the colony to membrane feeding. This paved the way to do baseline studies to explore the use of ivermectin as a blood toxicant to eliminate An. arabiensis females for male-only releases.Subsequent experiments
ivermectin 12108 An. arabiensis females for male-only releases.Subsequent experiments on the use of blood spiked with ivermectin to eliminate females in the South African strain showed that this approach could eliminate females,
ivermectin 12631 and that of Yamada et al. [[54]] could be due to several reasons, one of them being the difference in ivermectin formulation. The South African study used ivermectin MK-933 (Sigma, CAS No. 70288-86-7) while Yamada
ivermectin 12684 several reasons, one of them being the difference in ivermectin formulation. The South African study used ivermectin MK-933 (Sigma, CAS No. 70288-86-7) while Yamada et al. [[54]] used 1% ivermectin (Virbamec, Virbac Oesterreich
ivermectin 12765 African study used ivermectin MK-933 (Sigma, CAS No. 70288-86-7) while Yamada et al. [[54]] used 1% ivermectin (Virbamec, Virbac Oesterreich GmbH, Vienna, Austria), a formulation that is similar to the one used
ivermectin 13448 it is phenotypically insecticide susceptible, could inadvertently have reduced its susceptibility to ivermectin , making female elimination by the spiked blood less effective. Further investigations would be required
ivermectin 13638 investigations would be required to test these hypotheses.Another concern observed during the South African ivermectin optimization trial was a high level of male mortality (21%) when spiked blood meals were presented serially
ivermectin 14311 capacity of males. The potential loss of male mating capacity as a result of potential exposure to ivermectin was investigated. This was achieved by mating the males that survived post 100% female elimination with
ivermectin 14703 difference found in comparison to virgin males and females that had not been previously exposed to ivermectin , suggesting that ivermectin treatment did not negatively impact male fitness (unpublished data).Although
ivermectin 14731 comparison to virgin males and females that had not been previously exposed to ivermectin, suggesting that ivermectin treatment did not negatively impact male fitness (unpublished data).Although these results show that
ivermectin 14843 treatment did not negatively impact male fitness (unpublished data).Although these results show that ivermectin can be used as a blood toxicant for sex separation, factors such as the inability to reliably guarantee
ivermectin 33355 sex separation strategy using pupal sexual dimorphism is not applicable to An. arabiensis. The use of ivermectin to eliminate females shows great potential, but currently cannot be relied upon as a sole sex-separation
ivermectin 33618 investigation on formulations and effectiveness if added to an artificial blood-meal. The practicality of using ivermectin in mass-rearing will also need to be tested. Alternatively, research can be focused on exploiting female
lindane 24322 (GABA) receptor, should be able to be used as substitutes to dieldrin [[99]]. Several insecticides ( lindane , picrotoxin, isoxoxale) which target the GABA receptor were tested. Treating third and fourth instar
lindane 24447 isoxoxale) which target the GABA receptor were tested. Treating third and fourth instar GMK larvae with lindane and picrotoxin eliminated 90% of the females showing that any insecticide that solely targets the GABA
malathion 8797 females. This approach was used in an SIT programme in El Salvador against An. albimanus by adding malathion to a citrated bovine blood meal. The result was a 95% elimination of females and 25% male mortality
malathion 9667 of male mortality. The reason for high male mortality was assumed to be tarsal contact of males with malathion from blood excreted by females during feeding [[53]]. This led to investigations of other toxicants
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
malaria 492 12/2018Publication date (collection): /2018AbstractThe feasibility of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a malaria vector control strategy against Anopheles arabiensis has been under investigation over the past decade.
malaria 978 release of sterile males. This is necessary because female mosquitoes can transmit pathogens such as malaria and, therefore, their release must be prevented. Sex separation also increases the efficiency of an
malaria 1373 approaches. Most of these are however species-specific and are not indicated for the major African malaria vectors such as An. arabiensis. As there is currently no reliable sex-separation method for An. arabiensis,
malaria 2468 approximately 216 million cases and 445,000 deaths worldwide in 2016 alone [[1]]. An estimated 80% of malaria -related deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in pregnant women and children below the age
malaria 2651 and children below the age of five years. By affecting health at the personal and community levels, malaria also has a direct impact on national economies, education and social development [[1], [2]].Various
malaria 3000 spraying (IRS) of formulated insecticides have contributed significantly towards suppression of the global malaria burden [[3]–[5]]. However, the burgeoning incidence of insecticide resistance in target vector populations
malaria 3184 resistance in target vector populations is threatening control efforts [[6]–[8]], as is the diversity of malaria vector species assemblages which often include outdoor-resting and feeding components that are less
malaria 4413 research, answering key questions on mosquitoes and the SIT, has been conducted [[11]]. For the African malaria vector An. arabiensis several research activities are underway in Reunion Island, Sudan and South Africa.
malaria 5100 undertaken [[31]–[33]]. A study on the technical and social perspectives of using the SIT to control malaria has been conducted [[34]], including the recent knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) survey performed
malaria 5688 several reasons. The most important reason is that released females have the potential to transmit malaria or other disease pathogens [[38]], thus putting the human population at risk. Also, the co-release of

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