The Trajectory from Mood to Obesity.

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obesity 311 of ReviewTo describe and explain the relationships between mood disturbances and the development of obesity .Recent FindingsThat depression, anxiety, PTSD, or severe stresses can promote obesity as a side-effect
obesity 397 development of obesity.Recent FindingsThat depression, anxiety, PTSD, or severe stresses can promote obesity as a side-effect of the drugs used to treat them, or through “carbohydrate craving” to enhance brain
obesity 768 can independently cause patients to overconsume foods rich in both carbohydrates and fats.SummaryThe obesity caused by drugs or mood disorders associated with “carbohydrate craving” leading to excess calorie
obesity 967 excess calorie intake can be suppressed by dietary measures.IntroductionHalting the continuing rise in obesity among adult Americans, may depend, in part, on being able to identify behavioral disorders associated
obesity 1146 behavioral disorders associated with overeating and weight gain and intervening before this leads to obesity [[]]. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that clinical depression in adolescence or early adulthood
obesity 1306 clinical depression in adolescence or early adulthood frequently precedes the development of adult obesity [[]]. Moreover, other depression-related mood disturbances, for example severe premenstrual syndrome
obesity 2563 patients to self-medicate with large quantities of “comfort foods” [[]].However, the propensity to obesity among individuals with depression is also sometimes observed in patients who live in apparently-supportive
obesity 2778 environments and who have not been treated with psychotropic drugs that are recognized as promoting obesity [[]]. For example, the overeating and weight gain among populations with LLPDD, a neurohormonal disturbance,
obesity 3289 Disorders as Predictors of Future Weight GainCompelling evidence that depression can be a risk factor for obesity is provided by the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study [[]]. This longitudinal
obesity 3778 relationship between the presence of depression at the baseline examination and the development of obesity at the 5, 10, 15, and 20-year examination dates. They found that among white participants, those who
obesity 4372 such social factors as education or financial status.Depression in adolescents is also a predictor of obesity [[]]. As part of a larger study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, 9000 teenagers
obesity 4538 Study of Adolescent Health, 9000 teenagers in grades 7 through 12 were assessed for depression and obesity at baseline and at follow-up 1 year later [[]]. Depressed mood at baseline significantly predicted
obesity 4646 at baseline and at follow-up 1 year later [[]]. Depressed mood at baseline significantly predicted obesity 1 year later among those who were of normal weight at baseline. Interestingly, baseline obesity did
obesity 4743 predicted obesity 1 year later among those who were of normal weight at baseline. Interestingly, baseline obesity did not predict subsequent depression,A more recent review of the association between depression and
obesity 4852 did not predict subsequent depression,A more recent review of the association between depression and obesity further confirmed these findings [[]]. A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies examined both the risk
obesity 5040 examined both the risk of becoming overweight or obese following depression, and conversely, whether obesity increased the risk of developing clinical depression. Bidirectional associations were found: obesity
obesity 5141 obesity increased the risk of developing clinical depression. Bidirectional associations were found: obesity increased the risk of depression by 55% and depression increased the risk of becoming obese by 58%.Anxiety,
obesity 5341 by 58%.Anxiety, PTSD, and ObesityAnxiety, with or without depression, may also be a risk factor for obesity and, as several studies have noted [[], [], []], it and obesity often go hand in hand. A 2010 literature
obesity 5405 depression, may also be a risk factor for obesity and, as several studies have noted [[], [], []], it and obesity often go hand in hand. A 2010 literature review [[]] revealed a positive association between anxiety
obesity 5528 in hand. A 2010 literature review [[]] revealed a positive association between anxiety disorders and obesity ; however, data from longitudinal studies were lacking. Even though there is evidence that anxiety can
obesity 5779 apparently are no compelling studies showing whether the anxiety syndrome precedes the development of obesity or, more likely, that the two phenomena are concurrent. According to a comprehensive review of eating
obesity 6032 [[]•], anxiety and such other dysphoric mood states as anger, sadness, and stress are often coupled to obesity . An extreme example of this association is seen in binge eating disorder, in which excessive quantities
obesity 6510 disorder. [[]].The emotional stress associated with PTSD can also be a risk factor for the development of obesity . Kubzansky and her colleagues [[]] examined weight gain and BMI among a subset of female respondents
obesity 6721 enrolled in the Nurses’ Health Study II who also met the criteria for PTSD symptoms. Overweight and obesity had previously been recognized as associated with this disorder; however, there was uncertainty as to
obesity 7290 from those who developed the PTSD syndrome after severe trauma. At every measurement interval, BMI and obesity exhibited significantly greater increases among women who experienced both trauma and PTSD than among
obesity 13017 observed among women with PMS [[], []], patients with SAD [[]], and carbohydrate cravers with or without obesity [[]]. Moreover, this overeating of carbohydrates does not necessarily lead to obesity. The cyclic dysphoria
obesity 13103 with or without obesity [[]]. Moreover, this overeating of carbohydrates does not necessarily lead to obesity . The cyclic dysphoria occurring in PMS and patients with SAD are of predictable duration and are relieved
obesity 13931 consuming large amounts of sugar [[]] remained normal in weight.However, weight gain and subsequent obesity will result if the foods chosen to self-medicate during a dysphoric state happen to be rich in fats
obesity 14924 consume additional calorie rich snacks an hour or so later.To break the trajectory from depression to obesity , attention must be paid to whether excessive consumption of carbohydrate-rich foods is being used to
obesity 15894 gain.ConclusionDepression in adolescence and early adulthood frequently precedes the development of adult obesity . Other common mood disturbances, for example PTSD or anxiety, can similarly promote obesity, concurrently
obesity 15986 of adult obesity. Other common mood disturbances, for example PTSD or anxiety, can similarly promote obesity , concurrently or appearing years later. The mechanism leading from depression to obesity may involve
obesity 16075 similarly promote obesity, concurrently or appearing years later. The mechanism leading from depression to obesity may involve psychotropic drugs that affect appetite or motor activity as a side effect or the consumption

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