Measuring the burden of neglected tropical diseases: the global burden of disease framework

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
pneumonia 1 infectiousdiseases
trachoma 2 infectiousdiseases
tuberculosis 4 infectiousdiseases
Chagas disease 4 infectiousdiseases
dysentery 1 infectiousdiseases
filariasis 7 infectiousdiseases
measles 2 infectiousdiseases
onchocerciasis 6 infectiousdiseases
yellow fever 1 infectiousdiseases
necatoriasis 1 infectiousdiseases
rabies 1 infectiousdiseases
schistosomiasis 6 infectiousdiseases
diarrhea 2 infectiousdiseases
dracunculiasis 1 infectiousdiseases
infectious disease 3 infectiousdiseases
leprosy 4 infectiousdiseases
malaria 12 infectiousdiseases
AIDS 8 infectiousdiseases
echinococcosis 1 infectiousdiseases
Japanese encephalitis 4 infectiousdiseases
chloroquine 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
cysticercosis 1 infectiousdiseases
leptospirosis 1 infectiousdiseases
trypanosomiasis 3 infectiousdiseases

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

Note: If this graph is empty, then there are no terms that meet the proximity constraint.

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
chloroquine 56436 understanding trends. Is malaria mortality in children in Africa increasing in the context of rising chloroquine drug resistance or not? Has there been a resurgence of onchocerciasis in parts of Africa? Has there
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
AIDS 16734 collected in developing countries, improved population surveillance for some major diseases such as HIV/ AIDS , and wider availability of data from “verbal autopsy” methods, particularly in Africa, India, and
AIDS 17248 contributed to the estimation of mortality due to 21 specific communicable causes of death, including HIV/ AIDS , malaria, tuberculosis, childhood immunizable diseases, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, and Chagas
AIDS 28066 the leading 10 causes of death were infectious diseases, including lower respiratory infections, HIV/ AIDS , diarrheal diseases, tuberculosis, and malaria.10.1371/journal.pntd.0000114.t002Table 2The 20 Leading
AIDS 28553 conditions976.5%2Cerebrovascular disease5.519.7%2Lower respiratory infections916.1%3Lower respiratory infections3.886.8%3HIV/ AIDS 845.7%4HIV/AIDS2.784.9%4Unipolar depressive disorders674.5%5Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease2.754.8%5Diarrheal
AIDS 28568 disease5.519.7%2Lower respiratory infections916.1%3Lower respiratory infections3.886.8%3HIV/AIDS845.7%4HIV/ AIDS 2.784.9%4Unipolar depressive disorders674.5%5Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease2.754.8%5Diarrheal
AIDS 29535 cancer0.621.1%19Protein-energy malnutrition171.1%20Measles0.611.1%20Falls161.1%Source: World Health Organization [29]HIV/ AIDS has become the third leading cause of burden of disease globally, and the leading cause in sub-Saharan
AIDS 47963 in many middle-income developing countries and some low-income countries, the explosion of the HIV/ AIDS epidemic during the 1990s in sub-Saharan Africa, and the dramatic worsening of adult health and mortality
AIDS 48459 and Africa. To the unfinished agendas of the neglected tropical diseases, malaria, tuberculosis, HIV/ AIDS , and child and maternal mortality have been added new agendas of noncommunicable disease prevention
Chagas disease 2238 overview of the comparative risk assessment for 26 global risk factors. Taken together, trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease , schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, intestinal nematode infections,
Chagas disease 17347 HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, childhood immunizable diseases, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, and Chagas disease . Almost one-third of these datasets related to sub-Saharan Africa.Estimating YLDs requires systematic
Chagas disease 19346 blindness0.350Trypanosomiasis—EpisodesInfection with protozoa of the genus Trypanosoma, excluding Trypanosoma cruzi0.1910.172–0.211 Chagas disease Infection with T. cruziInfectionEpisode of infection with T. cruzi0.000Cardiomyopathy without congestive
Chagas disease 32511 infection-26,62431069001,006350.03Hookworm—high-intensity infection-59,999351922973170.02Japanese encephalitis—episodes442414406303709296.94 Chagas disease —infection21710,13714185481667132.22Dengue hemorrhagic fever7375196096616330.09Onchocerciasis00484484228.72Blindness38349Itching561,346Low
Japanese encephalitis 2356 schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, intestinal nematode infections, Japanese encephalitis , dengue, and leprosy accounted for an estimated 177,000 deaths worldwide in 2002, mostly in sub-Saharan
Japanese encephalitis 21885 potentially followed by circulatory failure, neurological manifestations, and shock0.2100.195–0.211 Japanese encephalitis (JE)Mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by JE virusEpisodesEpisode of JE infection0.6160.613–0.616Cognitive
Japanese encephalitis 24926 new systematic reviews and estimates were not completed for all causes, and some, such as dengue and Japanese encephalitis , continued to rely on the original GBD assessments of the mid-1990s. Additionally, YLD estimates for
Japanese encephalitis 32458 infection-58,14731211,6961,817360.03Schistosomiasis—infection5,733248,248151711,5311,702110.27Trypanosomiasis—episodes46200481,429961,525302.11Trichuriasis—high-intensity infection-26,62431069001,006350.03Hookworm—high-intensity infection-59,999351922973170.02 Japanese encephalitis —episodes442414406303709296.94Chagas disease—infection21710,13714185481667132.22Dengue hemorrhagic
cysticercosis 59051 diseases not currently included in the GBD. The current draft cause list for the GBD 2005 also includes cysticercosis , echinococcosis, dracunculiasis, yellow fever, rabies, and leptospirosis.Review of the disease sequelae
diarrhea 26795 years, and 85% of these were in the low-income countries. Only five preventable conditions—pneumonia, diarrhea l diseases, malaria, measles, and causes arising in the perinatal period (primarily prematurity, birth
diarrhea 28072 leading 10 causes of death were infectious diseases, including lower respiratory infections, HIV/AIDS, diarrhea l diseases, tuberculosis, and malaria.10.1371/journal.pntd.0000114.t002Table 2The 20 Leading Causes of
dracunculiasis 59082 the GBD. The current draft cause list for the GBD 2005 also includes cysticercosis, echinococcosis, dracunculiasis , yellow fever, rabies, and leptospirosis.Review of the disease sequelae quantified for each disease
dysentery 23273 in cognitive ability in school-age children, which occurs only while infection persists0.006Massive dysentery syndromeRectal prolapse and/or tenesmus and/or bloody mucoid stools due to carpeting of intestinal mucosa
echinococcosis 59066 currently included in the GBD. The current draft cause list for the GBD 2005 also includes cysticercosis, echinococcosis , dracunculiasis, yellow fever, rabies, and leptospirosis.Review of the disease sequelae quantified for
filariasis 2296 factors. Taken together, trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis , onchocerciasis, intestinal nematode infections, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and leprosy accounted
filariasis 4215 problems. This helps appropriately represent the impact of conditions such as onchocerciasis, trachoma, filariasis , intestinal helminthes, schizophrenia, depression, and paralysis, which cause great suffering and loss
filariasis 20306 reticuloendothelial system0.243CutaneousPresence of skin lesions (which may ulcerate)0.023Lymphatic filariasis Infection with filariae (Wucheria bancrofti and Brugia malayi)Hydrocele > 15 cmCircumscribed collection
filariasis 31253 listed in Table 3, excluding malaria, accounted for 18% of YLDs in the African region, with lymphatic filariasis contributing most from this group. In comparison, malaria accounted for 4.5% of YLDs in Africa. Table
filariasis 31917 (000s)YLLs per DeathYLDs per CaseMalaria—acute episodes408,2504,4061,27241,5074,97946,486330.01Lymphatic filariasis 0105,7685,777233.69Hydrocele>15 cm1,56438,137Bancroftian lymphedema79818,953Brugian lymphedema1503,434Trachoma032,3262,329185.32Blindness4372,936Low
filariasis 33545 uncertainty in disability weights was particularly important for schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis , dengue, and the intestinal nematode infections [28]. Although the estimates in Table 3 have large uncertainty
filariasis 56728 treatment coverage? How much progress is being made in the elimination of diseases such as lymphatic filariasis and human African trypanosomiasis? Which populations are missing out on access to effective treatments
infectious disease 18238 deaths, cancers and some other chronic disease long-term sequelae are not redistributed to the initiating infectious disease in the primary GBD cause tabulations (such re-attributions need to be done using the counterfactual
infectious disease 28001 pulmonary disease, and lung cancer). In developing countries, five of the leading 10 causes of death were infectious disease s, including lower respiratory infections, HIV/AIDS, diarrheal diseases, tuberculosis, and malaria.10.1371/journal.pntd.0000114.t002Table
infectious disease 34734 countries of South Asia and Africa. Countries that are still struggling with “old” and “new” infectious disease epidemics must now also deal with the emerging epidemics of noncommunicable disease such as heart disease,
leprosy 2391 lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, intestinal nematode infections, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and leprosy accounted for an estimated 177,000 deaths worldwide in 2002, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, and about
leprosy 21425 volvulus0.260LeprosyChronic disease resulting from infection with Mycobacterium lepraeCasesPerson showing clinical signs of leprosy , with or without bacteriological confirmation of the diagnosis, and requiring chemotherapy0.000Disabling
leprosy 21538 or without bacteriological confirmation of the diagnosis, and requiring chemotherapy0.000Disabling leprosy Grade 1 and 2 of WHO grades of disability for leprosy0.152DengueMosquito-borne disease caused by viruses
leprosy 21591 diagnosis, and requiring chemotherapy0.000Disabling leprosyGrade 1 and 2 of WHO grades of disability for leprosy 0.152DengueMosquito-borne disease caused by viruses of the family FlaviviridaeDengue hemorrhagic feverSevere
leptospirosis 59124 the GBD 2005 also includes cysticercosis, echinococcosis, dracunculiasis, yellow fever, rabies, and leptospirosis .Review of the disease sequelae quantified for each disease to ensure that all important disabling outcomes
malaria 17254 to the estimation of mortality due to 21 specific communicable causes of death, including HIV/AIDS, malaria , tuberculosis, childhood immunizable diseases, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, and Chagas disease.
malaria 17851 sequelae was selected to be evaluated in depth. Table 1 lists the disabling sequelae associated with malaria and specific neglected tropical diseases for which YLD estimates were prepared in the GBD 2000. Clearly,
malaria 26815 were in the low-income countries. Only five preventable conditions—pneumonia, diarrheal diseases, malaria , measles, and causes arising in the perinatal period (primarily prematurity, birth asphyxia and trauma,
malaria 28110 infectious diseases, including lower respiratory infections, HIV/AIDS, diarrheal diseases, tuberculosis, and malaria .10.1371/journal.pntd.0000114.t002Table 2The 20 Leading Causes of Deaths and Burden of Disease for the
malaria 29663 leading cause of burden of disease globally, and the leading cause in sub-Saharan Africa, followed by malaria (Table 2). Communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional conditions accounted for 73% of the burden
malaria 31180 (measured in DALYs) and 2.7% of global YLDs. The neglected tropical diseases listed in Table 3, excluding malaria , accounted for 18% of YLDs in the African region, with lymphatic filariasis contributing most from this
malaria 31314 in the African region, with lymphatic filariasis contributing most from this group. In comparison, malaria accounted for 4.5% of YLDs in Africa. Table 3 also summarizes GBD estimates of global incidence and
malaria 31437 4.5% of YLDs in Africa. Table 3 also summarizes GBD estimates of global incidence and prevalence for malaria and 13 tropical diseases, many of which might be considered “neglected.” Also shown are estimates
malaria 32891 and semi-quantitative assessment of uncertainty ranges for GBD estimates. The uncertainty range for malaria mortality and YLLs was estimated at around 30%, and uncertainty ranges for neglected tropical diseases
malaria 48432 possible exception of South Asia and Africa. To the unfinished agendas of the neglected tropical diseases, malaria , tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and child and maternal mortality have been added new agendas of noncommunicable
malaria 56360 make real progress in improving health. Critical policy questions depend upon understanding trends. Is malaria mortality in children in Africa increasing in the context of rising chloroquine drug resistance or not?
malaria 57430 tropical and neglected diseases. Data availability may have worsened for some diseases. The GBD 2000 malaria estimates and estimates for some of the key causes of child death were forced to draw on studies of
measles 7524 ranked fourth globally, ahead of ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, tuberculosis, and measles . Road traffic injuries also ranked in the top 10 causes of DALYs worldwide. The results of the original
measles 26824 the low-income countries. Only five preventable conditions—pneumonia, diarrheal diseases, malaria, measles , and causes arising in the perinatal period (primarily prematurity, birth asphyxia and trauma, and severe
necatoriasis 23625 and coordination equivalent to a 5-10 point deficit in IQ.0.024Hookworm diseaseAncylostomiasis and necatoriasis High-intensity infectionInfection resulting in at least 80–160 worms per stool load0.000AnemiaAnemia
onchocerciasis 2308 Taken together, trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis , intestinal nematode infections, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and leprosy accounted for an estimated
onchocerciasis 4189 assessment of health problems. This helps appropriately represent the impact of conditions such as onchocerciasis , trachoma, filariasis, intestinal helminthes, schizophrenia, depression, and paralysis, which cause
onchocerciasis 12069 incident case of the disease, or for one or more disabling sequelae of the disease. For example, YLDs for onchocerciasis are calculated by adding the YLDs for the sequelae of low vision, blindness, and itchy dermatitis. The
onchocerciasis 52198 population health loss should incorporate losses in health functioning: a population with high levels of onchocerciasis -caused blindness has less health than one with low levels, even if the current prevalence of onchocerciasis
onchocerciasis 52306 onchocerciasis-caused blindness has less health than one with low levels, even if the current prevalence of onchocerciasis infection is zero in both. The disability weights used in the GBD have also been incorrectly criticized
onchocerciasis 56503 increasing in the context of rising chloroquine drug resistance or not? Has there been a resurgence of onchocerciasis in parts of Africa? Has there been a decline in HIV mortality in populations with significant antiretroviral
pneumonia 26784 of five years, and 85% of these were in the low-income countries. Only five preventable conditions— pneumonia , diarrheal diseases, malaria, measles, and causes arising in the perinatal period (primarily prematurity,
rabies 59112 cause list for the GBD 2005 also includes cysticercosis, echinococcosis, dracunculiasis, yellow fever, rabies , and leptospirosis.Review of the disease sequelae quantified for each disease to ensure that all important
schistosomiasis 2254 comparative risk assessment for 26 global risk factors. Taken together, trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, schistosomiasis , leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, intestinal nematode infections, Japanese encephalitis,
schistosomiasis 17309 communicable causes of death, including HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, childhood immunizable diseases, schistosomiasis , trypanosomiasis, and Chagas disease. Almost one-third of these datasets related to sub-Saharan Africa.Estimating
schistosomiasis 19935 colon due to T. cruzi0.240Schistosomiasis—InfectionInfection and associated direct mortality from schistosomiasis ; does not include estimates of mortality from bladder cancer, cirrhosis, or colon cancer that may be
schistosomiasis 20063 include estimates of mortality from bladder cancer, cirrhosis, or colon cancer that may be related to schistosomiasis 0.0060.005–0.006LeishmaniasisInfection with flagellate protozoa of the genus LeishmaniaVisceralGeneralized
schistosomiasis 33503 et al. (Table 5.6) concluded that uncertainty in disability weights was particularly important for schistosomiasis , leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, dengue, and the intestinal nematode infections [28]. Although
schistosomiasis 58236 effects of each environmental or socioeconomic risk factor on the prevalence of tropical diseases such as schistosomiasis and hookworm depends on coexistence of other risks and on geographical factors [57]. Yet comparative
trachoma 4205 health problems. This helps appropriately represent the impact of conditions such as onchocerciasis, trachoma , filariasis, intestinal helminthes, schizophrenia, depression, and paralysis, which cause great suffering
trachoma 22262 resulting from encephalitis due to JE virus0.3800.339–0.460TrachomaCases of follicular or inflammatory trachoma BlindnessCorrected visual acuity in the better eye of less than 3/600.600Low visionCorrected visual acuity
trypanosomiasis 2221 and also an overview of the comparative risk assessment for 26 global risk factors. Taken together, trypanosomiasis , Chagas disease, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, intestinal nematode
trypanosomiasis 17326 death, including HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, childhood immunizable diseases, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis , and Chagas disease. Almost one-third of these datasets related to sub-Saharan Africa.Estimating YLDs
trypanosomiasis 56757 progress is being made in the elimination of diseases such as lymphatic filariasis and human African trypanosomiasis ? Which populations are missing out on access to effective treatments for helminthic infections? Does
tuberculosis 7506 DALY. Depression ranked fourth globally, ahead of ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, tuberculosis , and measles. Road traffic injuries also ranked in the top 10 causes of DALYs worldwide. The results
tuberculosis 17263 estimation of mortality due to 21 specific communicable causes of death, including HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis , childhood immunizable diseases, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, and Chagas disease. Almost one-third
tuberculosis 28092 death were infectious diseases, including lower respiratory infections, HIV/AIDS, diarrheal diseases, tuberculosis , and malaria.10.1371/journal.pntd.0000114.t002Table 2The 20 Leading Causes of Deaths and Burden of Disease
tuberculosis 48441 exception of South Asia and Africa. To the unfinished agendas of the neglected tropical diseases, malaria, tuberculosis , HIV/AIDS, and child and maternal mortality have been added new agendas of noncommunicable disease prevention
yellow fever 59098 current draft cause list for the GBD 2005 also includes cysticercosis, echinococcosis, dracunculiasis, yellow fever , rabies, and leptospirosis.Review of the disease sequelae quantified for each disease to ensure that

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