Drosophila melanogaster as a Model for Diabetes Type 2 Progression.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
glucose intolerance 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperglycemia 7 endocrinologydiseases
hyperinsulinemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
hypoglycemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 1 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 9 endocrinologydiseases
Insulin 13 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetes mellitus 2 endocrinologydiseases

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Insulin 5994 glucose control is a common, evolutionarily conserved mechanism in the animal kingdom (Figure 1).1.1. The Insulin PathwayInsulin is an anabolic hormone in glucose homeostasis in experimentally pancreatomized dogs [[7]]
Insulin 6009 common, evolutionarily conserved mechanism in the animal kingdom (Figure 1).1.1. The Insulin Pathway Insulin is an anabolic hormone in glucose homeostasis in experimentally pancreatomized dogs [[7]] discovered
Insulin 6993 mollusks able to bind insulin receptor molecules and induce hypoglycemia in fish prey [[11], [12]]. Insulin is a small polypeptide constituted by two chains linked by disulphide bonds, synthesized from the same
Insulin 8393 [[23], [24]].An insulin monomer is around 50 amino acid residues in length, but dimers form in solution. Insulin is synthesized as a single polypeptide called preproinsulin, which is processed in the endoplasmic reticulum
Insulin 8830 circulation by glucose stimulation and binds to plasma membrane receptors with tyrosine kinase activity. Insulin is a potent anabolic hormone in vertebrates [[25]]. It also exerts a variety of actions in flies including
Insulin 11102 postulate that since ILPs are both insulin and IGFs in flies, no separation in complexes is necessary. Insulin or insulin-like peptides bind to the insulin receptor (IR), a heterotetrameric protein that consists
Insulin 11324 extracellular α-subunits and two transmembrane β-subunits connected by disulfide bridges [[37]–[40]]. Insulin binding oligomerizes the receptors, allowing for cross-phosphorylation of the receptor molecules in
Insulin 20767 pathological stress stimuli frequently associated with increased oxidative stress.1.2. Oxidative Stress and Insulin SignalingOxidative stress is considered a key factor in the development and progression of diabetes
Insulin 23025 Experimental Animal Models: VertebratesType 1 diabetes is characterized by progressive β-cell destruction. Insulin resistance in target tissues characterizes type 2 diabetes. The majority of obese individuals do not
Insulin 28650 besides diet-induced models of obesity [[30]]. These models also lead to diabetic states.3. Invertebrate Insulin SignalingBesides vertebrate diabetes models, two main invertebrate models have been used in experiments.
Insulin 35391 resources, and how might a diabetic state alter their metabolism.3.2.2. Drosophila melanogaster and Insulin SignalingIn D. melanogaster, the growth of the organism is regulated by insulin signaling and the interaction
Insulin 42204 limiting factor in these experimental approaches.3.2.4. Diabetes in Flies by Virtue of Mutations in the Insulin PathwayFlies homozygous mutant for genes in the insulin pathway are born diabetic. There are advantages
Insulin 44739 higher amounts of circulating sugars in the hemolymph [[31], [45], [71], [145], [147], [203]–[205]]. Insulin /TOR pathway function is critical in the regulation of growth, autophagy, cell and organism survival,
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 46421 FliesWhat can be studied in these fly diabetes models in a longitudinal study? Nearly every aspect of diabetes mellitus mentioned so far: from initial phenotypes, to its evolution and consequences at old age, up to death.
diabetes mellitus 49242 characteristics, make the fly a premier system for insulin pathway and metabolic studies.Although many aspects of diabetes mellitus have been studied in the different fly models specially, there is still a dearth of longitudinal studies.
glucose intolerance 27568 gene and develops obesity without diabetes, although rats develop progressive insulin resistance and glucose intolerance [[123]]. The Wistar fatty (WF) rat is a congenic strain of the Wistar Kyoto rat that also has a fa/fa
hyperglycemia 3057 cases, which are the minority, and the higher risk of diabetes type 2 for babies where mothers had hyperglycemia or diabetes [[2], [5]].Diabetes mellitus is divided into basically two types: type 1 and type 2, a division
hyperglycemia 4089 combination of insulin resistance and insulin secretion defects, resulting in relative insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia [[6]]. Diabetic type 2 patients normally represent patients that have had a long progression, initially
hyperglycemia 23477 population is diabetic in 2017 [[111]], suggesting that β-pancreatic cells failure is required to cause hyperglycemia [[112]]. Due to its overall evolutionary conservation, animal models are used to identify mechanisms,
hyperglycemia 27953 recognized model of type 2 diabetes. Rats show impaired glucose tolerance, observed from 8 weeks of age, hyperglycemia , and peripheral insulin resistance [[126], [127]]. The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is a model of nonobese
hyperglycemia 28131 Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is a model of nonobese type 2 diabetes. This is a Wistar substrain that develops mild hyperglycemia , insulin resistance, and hiperinsulinemia [[128]–[131]]. The ZDF-Leprfa/Crl rat was originated in
hyperglycemia 31129 downstream from the ILPs [[27], [45]], dietary manipulations leading to obesity, metabolic imbalance, and hyperglycemia [[145]–[148]], or studies in other Drosophila species with different lifestyles/diets [[149], [150]].
hyperglycemia 38871 stage the overfed phenotype by means of hyperinsulinemia. This increase in insulin signaling, plus hyperglycemia , though, leads to an increase in free fatty acids by inappropriate lipolysis and the generation of insulin
hyperinsulinemia 38812 initially increases levels of different ILPs, rescuing at a first stage the overfed phenotype by means of hyperinsulinemia . This increase in insulin signaling, plus hyperglycemia, though, leads to an increase in free fatty
hypoglycemia 6954 identified in the venom of certain Conus mollusks able to bind insulin receptor molecules and induce hypoglycemia in fish prey [[11], [12]].Insulin is a small polypeptide constituted by two chains linked by disulphide
metabolic syndrome 4222 type 2 patients normally represent patients that have had a long progression, initially suffering from metabolic syndrome , and/or being overweight, and/or being obese for several years. Environmental factors, like diet and
obesity 23175 type 2 diabetes. The majority of obese individuals do not become diabetic, although over weight or obesity are clear risk factors for diabetes. In the United States, 87.5% of adults over 18 years old were overweight
obesity 27090 receptor function for the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin. This mutation leads to the developing of obesity , insulin resistance, and diabetes [[118]]. Other mutants with altered metabolism such as the agouti
obesity 27231 [[118]]. Other mutants with altered metabolism such as the agouti (Ay) mouse, a polygenic model of obesity -induced diabetes, and the ApoE −/− (apoliporotein E deficient) mouse, an atherosclerosis model,
obesity 27485 (ZF) rat ports a homozygous missense mutation (fatty, fa) in the leptin receptor gene and develops obesity without diabetes, although rats develop progressive insulin resistance and glucose intolerance [[123]].
obesity 27769 that also has a fa/fa homozygous missense mutation in the leptin receptor gene. This strain develops obesity [[124], [125]]. The Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat is a recognized model of type 2 diabetes.
obesity 28404 other models [[132]–[134]].In addition, there are also a variety of different polygenic models of obesity that include the KK-AY mice [[135]], New Zealand obese (NZO) mice [[136]], the TALLYHO/Jng mice [[137]],
obesity 28576 mice [[136]], the TALLYHO/Jng mice [[137]], and the OLETF rats [[127]], besides diet-induced models of obesity [[30]]. These models also lead to diabetic states.3. Invertebrate Insulin SignalingBesides vertebrate
obesity 31095 insulin pathway components downstream from the ILPs [[27], [45]], dietary manipulations leading to obesity , metabolic imbalance, and hyperglycemia [[145]–[148]], or studies in other Drosophila species with
obesity 40590 nutritional and lifespan consequences is methionine availability in the diet [[197]]. Also, parental obesity leads to transgenerational effects [[198]].Clearly, diet manipulation can be used to generate and evolve

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