The Relationship between Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Offspring Kidney Structure and Function in Humans: A Systematic Review.

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folate deficiency 1 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 2 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 5 endocrinologydiseases

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folate deficiency 27065 not directly affect kidney development in experimental animals, given its effect on gene methylation, folate deficiency could impact nephrogenesis through epigenetic modulation [[46]]. Animal studies indicate that elevated
metabolic syndrome 3616 health conditions including cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome [[4]], as well as chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in later life.In a
metabolic syndrome 5798 ‘Western’ diet to pregnant rats [[11],[12]]. This was typically associated with development of metabolic syndrome and renal injury in adult offspring [[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18]]. Male Sprague–Dawley rat offspring
obesity 3587 offspring risk for various health conditions including cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, obesity , type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome [[4]], as well as chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage
obesity 5500 of renal disease focus on maternal undernutrition, it is apparent that maternal over-nutrition and obesity in pregnancy also increases the risk of suboptimal offspring health outcomes. Researchers have attempted
obesity 5646 of suboptimal offspring health outcomes. Researchers have attempted to model the effects of maternal obesity , mostly by feeding a high-fat, high-fructose ‘Western’ diet to pregnant rats [[11],[12]]. This was
obesity 8602 Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/, diabetes.mp. or Diabetes, Gestational/, Hyperglycemia, Obesity/ or obesity .mp., Weight Gain.mp. or Weight Gain/, Overweight and (3) kidney.mp. or Kidney/, nephron.mp. or Nephrons/,
obesity 13082 kidney structure or function (n = 28) and exposure/intervention not related to maternal nutrition or obesity or diabetes during pregnancy (n = 8). Of the remaining 19 articles, ten articles focused on maternal

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