Controlling soil-transmitted helminthiasis in pre-school-age children through preventive chemotherapy

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
malaria 11 infectiousdiseases
praziquantel 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
schistosomiasis 2 infectiousdiseases
tetanus 1 infectiousdiseases
trichuriasis 2 infectiousdiseases
AIDS 2 infectiousdiseases
cholera 1 infectiousdiseases
filariasis 7 infectiousdiseases
onchocerciasis 4 infectiousdiseases
tuberculosis 5 infectiousdiseases
ivermectin 7 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
measles 10 infectiousdiseases
mebendazole 19 infectiousdiseasesdrugs

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
ivermectin 16688 There are reports of some drug interactions when levamisole is co-administered with albendazole or ivermectin [41].PyrantelPyrantel has been extensively used in numerous helminth control programmes, particularly
ivermectin 20011 experienced an adverse reaction of a gravity sufficient to prevent normal daily activities [46].Albendazole+ ivermectin The use of this combination for the treatment of lymphatic filariasis is restricted to individuals ≥15
ivermectin 20612 filariasis reported that as of 2002 a small proportion (1.5%) of those administered with albendazole+ ivermectin (IVM) (all age groups) had experienced an adverse reaction of a gravity sufficient to prevent normal
ivermectin 43611 targeted for treatment, such as in the case of onchocerciasis control (community-directed treatment with ivermectin [CDTI]) and lymphatic filariasis elimination (mass drug administration [MDA], with either ivermectin+albendazole
ivermectin 43712 ivermectin [CDTI]) and lymphatic filariasis elimination (mass drug administration [MDA], with either ivermectin +albendazole or DEC+albendazole). According to the drug(s) being delivered, PSAC (defined slightly differently
ivermectin 44141 component of the drug combination. Whereas under the onchocerciasis programme, which only delivers ivermectin (ivermectin is not recommended for STH control due to its suboptimal effect against the STH parasites
ivermectin 44153 of the drug combination. Whereas under the onchocerciasis programme, which only delivers ivermectin ( ivermectin is not recommended for STH control due to its suboptimal effect against the STH parasites [9]), the
mebendazole 14168 administered one or more of the four anthelminthic drugs recommended for STH treatment: albendazole, mebendazole , levamisole, and pyrantel. In 2005, about 48 million PSAC were administered at least one dose of any
mebendazole 15183 gastrointestinal disturbances, transient abdominal pain, and diarrhoea have been reported following treatment with mebendazole [34]. Several studies that examined the use of benzimidazoles in children under 24 months reported no
mebendazole 15594 was no increase in the incidence of any side effects in children (aged 6–59 months) treated with mebendazole (500 mg) compared to the control group [36].LevamisoleNo literature was found specifically on the use
mebendazole 21018 adverse experiences have been reported in large-scale helminth control programmes [51].Albendazole/ mebendazole +vitamin AWHO recommends that any of the two benzimidazoles above can be safely co-administered with
mebendazole 22310 anthelminthic drugs and vaccinations, several large-scale interventions currently deliver albendazole or mebendazole with measles, polio, or BCG vaccines. The authors are at present not aware of an increased frequency
mebendazole 24700 where repeated doses are needed, especially in heavy infections.Both benzimidazoles (albendazole and mebendazole ) have similarly poor efficacy in curing T. trichiura infections (CR between 10% and 77%), but significantly
mebendazole 28718 compared with no treatment.[74]A, A. lumbricoides; ALB, albendazole; H, hookworm; LEV, levamisole; MBD, mebendazole ; T, T. trichiura.In Tanzania, PSAC had a demonstrable growth benefit when they received repeated treatment
mebendazole 29532 treatment on growth, iron status, anaemia, and development. At 12 months, the results found that periodic mebendazole had reduced mild wasting malnutrition by 62% and small arm circumference by 71% in children aged <30
mebendazole 30399 albendazole [68].In Kenya, treatment of sick, STH infected 2- to 4-year-olds with a single dose of mebendazole through the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) approach yielded statistically significant
mebendazole 30822 impact of deworming on growth:A study from Bangladesh in children 2–6 years old who were treated with mebendazole every 2 months did not show improvement in weight, height, or mid arm circumference when compared to
mebendazole 31430 the three drug regimens [73].In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire), deworming with mebendazole every 3 months did not improve the growth of malnourished children aged 0–72 months, whereas vitamin
mebendazole 31730 prevalence of STH infections was low (10% A. lumbricoides at baseline) and the manufacturer of the mebendazole was not mentioned [74].Iron statusA summary of published studies on the improvement in iron status in
mebendazole 32813 +ves was 65% of that of ascaris −ves.[78]A, A. lumbricoides; ALB, albendazole; H, hookworm; MBD, mebendazole ; T, T. trichiura.In Zanzibar, the administration of mebendazole to children <24 months every 3 months
mebendazole 32877 ALB, albendazole; H, hookworm; MBD, mebendazole; T, T. trichiura.In Zanzibar, the administration of mebendazole to children <24 months every 3 months was shown to reduce moderate anaemia (Hb<9 g/dl) by 59% after
mebendazole 33230 study area suggest a significant decrease of wasting malnutrition and of moderate-severe anaemia in the mebendazole treated group (Rebecca Stoltzfus, personal communication).In Nepal, a study in 2004 to evaluate the
mebendazole 35671 different socio-cultural settings.In Zanzibar, periodic treatment of STH-infected PSAC (n = 417) with mebendazole had a positive, although not statistically significant, effect on children's motor and language development;
mebendazole 35921 observed in children between 12 and 24 months of age [24].In a Caribbean setting, repeated treatment with mebendazole improved the mental development of trichuris-infected PSAC aged 27–72 months suffering from TDS [79].In
mebendazole 42108 channel to reach PSAC. Treatment of STH infection is included in the IMCI protocol: administration of mebendazole treatment is recommended for sick children older than 2 years with palmar pallor or with very low weight
mebendazole 52049 soil-transmitted helminth infections–preliminary estimates of the number of children treated with albendazole or mebendazole . Wkly Epidemiol Rec 16: 145–164.WHO (2007) WHO Global Databank on schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted
praziquantel 19364 anthelminthics with other products when co-administered to either SAC or PSAC, except for albendazole with praziquantel or DEC; and pyrantel with oxantel.Albendazole+diethylcarbamazinAlbendazole and diethylcarbamazin (DEC)
praziquantel 44880 to treat SAC and other eligible children who are not yet at school with other anthelminthics such as praziquantel [89].Conclusion: Need for Further Science-Based EvidencePeriodic treatment with anthelminthics has become
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
AIDS 2284 than 10 million children die every year from malaria, acute respiratory infections, diarrhoea, HIV/ AIDS , vaccine-preventable diseases (including measles and tetanus), and from malnutrition and neonatal complications
AIDS 13324 infection with—and adversely affect the clinical outcome of—concomitant malaria, tuberculosis, or HIV/ AIDS . Several possible explanatory mechanisms have been put forward, mainly based on an altered immunological
cholera 21830 poor efficacy of some vaccines, either currently used, for example those against tuberculosis (BCG) or cholera , or experimental, such as that against malaria [32],[52],[53]. Conversely, deworming treatment before
filariasis 19511 oxantel.Albendazole+diethylcarbamazinAlbendazole and diethylcarbamazin (DEC) for the treatment of lymphatic filariasis can be administered to children from their 2nd birthday onwards [9]. No increase in the number of adverse
filariasis 19805 [45]. As of 2002, the monitoring and evaluation system of the global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis has reported that 5.3% of those administered with albendazole+DEC (all age groups) had experienced an
filariasis 20080 daily activities [46].Albendazole+ivermectinThe use of this combination for the treatment of lymphatic filariasis is restricted to individuals ≥15 kg in weight or ≥90 cm in height [9]. It has been shown that in
filariasis 20511 and younger [47]. The monitoring and evaluation system of the global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis reported that as of 2002 a small proportion (1.5%) of those administered with albendazole+ivermectin
filariasis 43644 case of onchocerciasis control (community-directed treatment with ivermectin [CDTI]) and lymphatic filariasis elimination (mass drug administration [MDA], with either ivermectin+albendazole or DEC+albendazole).
filariasis 43946 the programme in question) are included among those eligible for treatment [9]. Under the lymphatic filariasis programme, a child, by default, is covered for STH infection through the albendazole component of the
filariasis 44488 established onchocerciasis delivery channel. The drawback of community-based interventions for both lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis is that they usually take place once a year, which may not be sufficient to effectively
malaria 2230 “high profile” diseases: it is estimated that more than 10 million children die every year from malaria , acute respiratory infections, diarrhoea, HIV/AIDS, vaccine-preventable diseases (including measles
malaria 8768 socioeconomic factors [12]. In Zanzibar, Tanzania, low haemoglobin concentrations were associated with malaria parasitaemia in children <30 months, and with hookworm intensity in children aged 30–71 months. Importantly,
malaria 13294 infections increase the risk of infection with—and adversely affect the clinical outcome of—concomitant malaria , tuberculosis, or HIV/AIDS. Several possible explanatory mechanisms have been put forward, mainly based
malaria 21877 used, for example those against tuberculosis (BCG) or cholera, or experimental, such as that against malaria [32],[52],[53]. Conversely, deworming treatment before antimalarial immunization restored the protective
malaria 21944 experimental, such as that against malaria [32],[52],[53]. Conversely, deworming treatment before anti malaria l immunization restored the protective immunity to malaria challenge in nematode-infected mice [53],
malaria 22002 Conversely, deworming treatment before antimalarial immunization restored the protective immunity to malaria challenge in nematode-infected mice [53], showing that anthelminthic treatment might boost immunological
malaria 46413 (v) more research on how STH infections impact the health of a person co-infected with tuberculosis, malaria , and HIV is required. Some open research questions and operational challenges that would need further
malaria 49033 term.Malaria/TB/HIV: Interactions of STH infections with the management of the three big killers— malaria , TB, and HIV—needs further study and science-based evidence to advocate and suggest novel means of
malaria 49152 HIV—needs further study and science-based evidence to advocate and suggest novel means of combating malaria , TB, and HIV infections in STH-endemic areas.Box 1. Search Strategy and Selection CriteriaMost information
malaria 49625 “helminths and anaemia”, “helminths and vitamin A”, “helminths and malnutrition”, “helminths and malaria ”, “helminths and HIV”, “helminths and TB”, and “helminths and vaccine”. Other information
malaria 51141 cost-effectiveness of deworming PSAC, and interactions with vaccines and with co-infection with tuberculosis, malaria , and HIV.Box 3. Key PapersAlbonico M, Crompton DW, Savioli L (1999) Control strategies for human intestinal
measles 2330 malaria, acute respiratory infections, diarrhoea, HIV/AIDS, vaccine-preventable diseases (including measles and tetanus), and from malnutrition and neonatal complications before reaching their 5th birthday [1].
measles 22327 and vaccinations, several large-scale interventions currently deliver albendazole or mebendazole with measles , polio, or BCG vaccines. The authors are at present not aware of an increased frequency of adverse reactions
measles 39066 Several countries have taken advantage of their SIAs and have included STH deworming as part of their measles and/or polio vaccination campaigns [82]. The benefit of using these campaigns (there are several types,
measles 39234 using these campaigns (there are several types, including catch-up, follow-up, and mop-up campaigns for measles , and national and sub-national immunization days [NIDs and sub-NIDs] for measles and polio) for delivering
measles 39315 mop-up campaigns for measles, and national and sub-national immunization days [NIDs and sub-NIDs] for measles and polio) for delivering other products is that they have an extensive coverage. Target groups for
measles 39484 extensive coverage. Target groups for deworming and vaccines are not the same but largely overlap: measles vaccine is given from 9 months of age onwards (up to 59 months usually). Polio targets 0- to 59-month-old
measles 39678 0- to 59-month-old children. The drawback is that STH deworming must be delivered regularly, while measles campaigns only take place every 3–4 years; polio NIDs or sub-NIDs are usually more frequent, but less
measles 40075 volunteers responsible for its administration, some countries have voiced concerns that deworming added to measles campaigns may jeopardize the campaign (the measles vaccine is injected only by trained medical personnel,
measles 40126 countries have voiced concerns that deworming added to measles campaigns may jeopardize the campaign (the measles vaccine is injected only by trained medical personnel, which makes the burden of work per person high).Child
measles 48801 interactions: Possible synergies and interactions related to delivering anthelminthics with different vaccines ( measles , BCG, polio) in large-scale vaccination campaigns needs to be further evaluated and properly followed
onchocerciasis 43553 communities—and not specific population groups—are targeted for treatment, such as in the case of onchocerciasis control (community-directed treatment with ivermectin [CDTI]) and lymphatic filariasis elimination (mass
onchocerciasis 44095 covered for STH infection through the albendazole component of the drug combination. Whereas under the onchocerciasis programme, which only delivers ivermectin (ivermectin is not recommended for STH control due to its
onchocerciasis 44390 of albendazole for STH deworming could be considered, which would take advantage of the established onchocerciasis delivery channel. The drawback of community-based interventions for both lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis
onchocerciasis 44503 onchocerciasis delivery channel. The drawback of community-based interventions for both lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis is that they usually take place once a year, which may not be sufficient to effectively control STH
schistosomiasis 49965 was extracted from grey literature and from unpublished country reports in the WHO Global Databank on schistosomiasis and STH.Box 2. Learning PointsMore than 200 million pre-school-age (PSAC) children are infected by soil-transmitted
schistosomiasis 52129 with albendazole or mebendazole. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 16: 145–164.WHO (2007) WHO Global Databank on schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections. Geneva: World Health Organization. Available: http://www.who.int/wormcontrol/databank/en/.
tetanus 2342 acute respiratory infections, diarrhoea, HIV/AIDS, vaccine-preventable diseases (including measles and tetanus ), and from malnutrition and neonatal complications before reaching their 5th birthday [1]. Young children
trichuriasis 10516 body's immune response to new helminth infections in naïve children.Vitamin A StatusAscariasis (and trichuriasis in some cases) is associated with low serum vitamin A (retinol) levels through different mechanisms
trichuriasis 11924 Children between 17 and 72 months of age affected by Trichuris Dysentery Syndrome (TDS), a severe form of trichuriasis , showed a marked decrease in cognitive score tests compared with matched controls [26]. This could be
tuberculosis 13303 increase the risk of infection with—and adversely affect the clinical outcome of—concomitant malaria, tuberculosis , or HIV/AIDS. Several possible explanatory mechanisms have been put forward, mainly based on an altered
tuberculosis 13495 mainly based on an altered immunological response to the infection (and to vaccination in the case of tuberculosis ) in individuals who are already infected with STHs. To date, most of this research has been carried
tuberculosis 21808 implicated in the poor efficacy of some vaccines, either currently used, for example those against tuberculosis (BCG) or cholera, or experimental, such as that against malaria [32],[52],[53]. Conversely, deworming
tuberculosis 46399 needed; and (v) more research on how STH infections impact the health of a person co-infected with tuberculosis , malaria, and HIV is required. Some open research questions and operational challenges that would need
tuberculosis 51127 the cost-effectiveness of deworming PSAC, and interactions with vaccines and with co-infection with tuberculosis , malaria, and HIV.Box 3. Key PapersAlbonico M, Crompton DW, Savioli L (1999) Control strategies for

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