Diabetic macular edema: Evidence-based management

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
dexamethasone 6 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetes mellitus 4 endocrinologydiseases
diabetic retinopathy 5 endocrinologydiseases
hyperglycemia 3 endocrinologydiseases
rosiglitazone 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
type 1 diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
type 2 diabetes mellitus 2 endocrinologydiseases
Bevacizumab 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Bevacizumab 28004 for VEGF and the potential for less frequent injection frequency in the treatment of DME.[[172][173]] Bevacizumab (Avastin®, Genentech, S. San Francisco, CA, USA/Roche, Basel, SW) is Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved
Bevacizumab 33503 patients with diabetes, there is no consistent evidence that this is the case.[[174][194][195][196]] Bevacizumab is more cost-effective in treating DME than ranibizumab or aflibercept.[[197][198]] Medicare reimbursement
dexamethasone 25346 Injections of CorticosteroidsCorticosteroids were first used to treat DME in 2001.[[162]] Triamcinolone, dexamethasone , and fluocinolone have been used in many forms, including particulate suspensions, viscoelastic mixtures,
dexamethasone 26134 accompanied all steroids studied, although to varying degrees.[[157][168]]Slowly dissolving intravitreal dexamethasone implants (Ozurdex®, Allergan, Irvine, CA, USA) are effective in treating DME although the visual acuity
dexamethasone 26373 less than with anti-VEGF injections.[[90][169]] In a 3-year randomized controlled trial, the 0.7 mg dexamethasone implant was associated with ≥ 15 letter improvement in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in 22.2%
dexamethasone 26737 required the use of ocular hypotensive therapy.[[169]] The long-term visual outcome of intravitreal dexamethasone implant therapy correlates with the 3-month treatment response.[[170]]Intravitreal fluocinolone acetonide
dexamethasone 26937 fluocinolone acetonide implants (Iluvien®, Alimera, Alpharetta, GA, USA) last 3 years and, unlike the dexamethasone implant, do not dissolve. In the FAME trial, patients with persistent DME despite macular laser were
dexamethasone 34732 outcomes compared with intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy.[[200]] The addition of an intravitreal dexamethasone sustained release device to a regimen of ranibizumab injections did not improve visual acuity outcomes
rosiglitazone 21494 proliferator-activated receptor γ agonists that work by enhancing insulin sensitivity. Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone are members of this class of drugs in common use. They have been associated with peripheral edema, pulmonary
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 492 patients with diabetic retinopathy with an increasing prevalence tied to the global epidemic in type 2 diabetes mellitus . Its pathophysiology starts with decreased retinal oxygen tension that manifests as retinal capillary
diabetes mellitus 29772 suboptimal visual acuity outcomes is shown in Fig. 3.Figure 3Images of a 77-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus , who developed diabetic macular edema of the left eye that reduced visual acuity to 20/63. (a) Red free
diabetes mellitus 36939 an epiretinal membrane 5%.[[220]]Figure 4Images of the left eye of a 21-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and center-involved diabetic macular edema. Her best corrected
diabetes mellitus 44010 DirectionsGenetic mutations that render patients more or less susceptible to DME as a complication of diabetes mellitus are likely to be defined. The physiological pathways contributing to DME and not mediated by VEGF are
diabetic retinopathy 403 12/2018AbstractDiabetic macular edema (DME) is the most common cause of vision loss in patients with diabetic retinopathy with an increasing prevalence tied to the global epidemic in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Its pathophysiology
diabetic retinopathy 1896 and Risk FactorsDiabetic macular edema (DME) is the most common cause of visual loss in those with diabetic retinopathy and is increasing in prevalence globally.[[1][2][3]] The prevalence of DME in patients with diabetic
diabetic retinopathy 2009 retinopathy and is increasing in prevalence globally.[[1][2][3]] The prevalence of DME in patients with diabetic retinopathy is 2.7%–11%[[4][5][6][7][8]] and it depends on the type of diabetes and the duration of the disease,
diabetic retinopathy 2385 higher systolic blood pressure, and higher hemoglobin A1C. The sole ocular factor associated with DME is diabetic retinopathy severity as increasing severity is associated with increasing prevalence of DME.[[9][10][11]]Genetics,
diabetic retinopathy 36976 5%.[[220]]Figure 4Images of the left eye of a 21-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and center-involved diabetic macular edema. Her best corrected visual acuity was 20/40. Because of documented
hyperglycemia 941 the cornerstone of clinical assessment of DME. The foundation of treatment is metabolic control of hyperglycemia and blood pressure. Specific ophthalmic treatments include intravitreal anti-VEGF drug injections, intravitreal
hyperglycemia 6052 due to increased extracellular fluid derived from hyperpermeable retinal capillaries.[[27]] Prolonged hyperglycemia leads to reduced inner retinal oxygen tension, venous dilation, increased VEGF concentration within
hyperglycemia 6598 the pathophysiology of diabetic macular edema (DME) is the oxygen theory.[[32]] Prolonged periods of hyperglycemia lead to reduced perfusion of the inner retina and decreased inner retinal oxygen tension. The autoregulatory
type 1 diabetes mellitus 36932 eyes with an epiretinal membrane 5%.[[220]]Figure 4Images of the left eye of a 21-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and center-involved diabetic macular edema. Her best corrected
type 2 diabetes mellitus 485 in patients with diabetic retinopathy with an increasing prevalence tied to the global epidemic in type 2 diabetes mellitus . Its pathophysiology starts with decreased retinal oxygen tension that manifests as retinal capillary
type 2 diabetes mellitus 29765 correlates of suboptimal visual acuity outcomes is shown in Fig. 3.Figure 3Images of a 77-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus , who developed diabetic macular edema of the left eye that reduced visual acuity to 20/63. (a) Red free

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