The role of gut microbiota in the effects of maternal obesity during pregnancy on offspring metabolism.

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metabolic syndrome 2 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 61 endocrinologydiseases
childhood obesity 1 endocrinologydiseases
diabetes mellitus 3 endocrinologydiseases
hyperglycemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperinsulinemia 2 endocrinologydiseases
hyperlipidemia 1 endocrinologydiseases

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childhood obesity 9195 children from normal-weight mothers, those from obese mothers during pregnancy had elevated risks of childhood obesity and adverse cardiometabolic outcomes, including total body and abdominal fat mass, systolic blood pressure,
diabetes mellitus 32884 during pregnancy and through the 12-month postpartum period. Furthermore, the frequency of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) decreased from 34% in the control group to 13% in the group that received dietary counselling
diabetes mellitus 36426 strains. We look forward to the results of another RCT study exploring probiotics to prevent gestational diabetes mellitus in overweight and obese women in Australia, which used the same probiotic strains as the first study
diabetes mellitus 43779 the gut microbiota and their metabolites, restrain weight gain, reduce the frequency of gestational diabetes mellitus , and improve blood glucose, insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism-associated gene expression. Changing
hyperglycemia 2393 cardiovascular disease, obesity could lead to various metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia , hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Obesity in women of reproductive age not only gives rise to adverse
hyperinsulinemia 8256 animal studies also demonstrated that an obesogenic high-fat diet during pregnancy caused maternal hyperinsulinemia and decreased insulin sensitivity [[45]]. Mina and colleagues also used a high-fat diet prior to and
hyperinsulinemia 10068 et al. showed that offspring from HFD dams had hypercholesterolemia, hypertriacylglycerolemia, and hyperinsulinemia as well as a higher level of leptin with reduced levels of adiponectin. Bringhenti et al. analyzed the
hyperlipidemia 2408 disease, obesity could lead to various metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia , and hypertension. Obesity in women of reproductive age not only gives rise to adverse effects on the
metabolic syndrome 2255 of pregnant women in Europe were affected by overweight or obesity [[1]]. As a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome , diabetes and cardiovascular disease, obesity could lead to various metabolic disorders, including insulin
metabolic syndrome 12487 metabolic alterations to support the growth and development of the fetus [[53]]. Similar to the symptoms of metabolic syndrome , increased adiposity, reduced insulin sensitivity, and elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines
obesity 79 Title: Bioscience ReportsThe role of gut microbiota in the effects of maternal obesity during pregnancy on offspring metabolismLiyuan ZhouXinhua XiaoPublication date (epreprint): 12/2017Publication
obesity 317 4/2018Publication date (epub): 4/2018AbstractObesity is considered a global epidemic. Specifically, obesity during pregnancy programs an increased risk of the offspring developing metabolic disorders in addition
obesity 582 numbers of human and animal studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in obesity and metabolic diseases. Similarly, maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with alterations
obesity 634 that the gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in obesity and metabolic diseases. Similarly, maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with alterations in the composition and diversity of the intestine microbial
obesity 1271 offspring, might be established prior to birth. As a detrimental intrauterine environment, maternal obesity influences the microbial colonization and increases the risk of metabolic diseases in offspring. This
obesity 1451 metabolic diseases in offspring. This review discusses the role of the microbiota in the impact of maternal obesity during pregnancy on offspring metabolism and further analyzes related probiotic or prebiotic interventions
obesity 1587 offspring metabolism and further analyzes related probiotic or prebiotic interventions to prevent and treat obesity and metabolic diseases.IntroductionObesity has become an epidemic disease and is associated with tremendous
obesity 1968 in 2014, and of these, over 600 million were obese. Furthermore, over 300 million women suffer from obesity (WHO Obesity and overweight Fact Sheet No: 311, updated June 2016). A recent study on the global prevalence
obesity 2087 Obesity and overweight Fact Sheet No: 311, updated June 2016). A recent study on the global prevalence of obesity showed that 50% of women of childbearing ages and 20–25% of pregnant women in Europe were affected
obesity 2213 women of childbearing ages and 20–25% of pregnant women in Europe were affected by overweight or obesity [[1]]. As a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, obesity could
obesity 2312 obesity [[1]]. As a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, obesity could lead to various metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia,
obesity 3246 and early postnatal life negatively influences long-term health and increases the risk of developing obesity [[6]], diabetes [[7]], cardiovascular disease [[8]], and other chronic diseases. Hence, maternal obesity
obesity 3351 obesity [[6]], diabetes [[7]], cardiovascular disease [[8]], and other chronic diseases. Hence, maternal obesity during pregnancy programs an increased risk of the offspring developing metabolic disturbances. Although
obesity 3464 during pregnancy programs an increased risk of the offspring developing metabolic disturbances. Although obesity -susceptibility genes inherited from the mother may partially explain this phenomenon [[9],[10]], substantial
obesity 3993 that the gut microbiota may be identified as a novel factor that plays a significant role in maternal obesity and associated metabolic risks in offspring. During the last few decades, the gut microbiota has become
obesity 4201 become a focus of medical research and has been shown to be intertwined with various diseases, such as obesity [[19]], diabetes [[20]], autoimmune diseases [[21]], cancer [[22]], and central nervous system diseases
obesity 5534 mice [[31]]. However, some have reported an inversely altered ratio of Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes in obesity [[32]]. The bacteria that is present or absent and contributes to the development of obesity still has
obesity 5627 Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes in obesity [[32]]. The bacteria that is present or absent and contributes to the development of obesity still has yet to be elucidated. Although the infant gut microbiota used to be widely accepted to be
obesity 6174 likely to play a vital role in the establishment of the offspring microbiome [[35]]. Hence, maternal obesity during pregnancy is accompanied with gut microbiota dysbiosis with a simultaneous development of metabolic
obesity 6523 disturbances (Figure 1). In this review, we discuss the role of the gut microbiota in the impact of maternal obesity during pregnancy on offspring metabolic health and further explore related strategies, including probiotic
obesity 6685 further explore related strategies, including probiotic and prebiotic strategies, to prevent and treat obesity and obesity-related diseases.Figure 1Overview of the role of gut microbiota in effects of maternal obesity
obesity 6697 related strategies, including probiotic and prebiotic strategies, to prevent and treat obesity and obesity -related diseases.Figure 1Overview of the role of gut microbiota in effects of maternal obesity during
obesity 6792 and obesity-related diseases.Figure 1Overview of the role of gut microbiota in effects of maternal obesity during pregnancy on offspring metabolism [[15],[16],[93],[97]]Impact of obesity during pregnancy on
obesity 6872 effects of maternal obesity during pregnancy on offspring metabolism [[15],[16],[93],[97]]Impact of obesity during pregnancy on maternal and offspring metabolismWith changes in diet and lifestyle, numerous evidence
obesity 7027 metabolismWith changes in diet and lifestyle, numerous evidence has demonstrated that the prevalence of obesity in women of childbearing ages is still increasing rapidly [[39]]. Maternal obesity during pregnancy,
obesity 7110 the prevalence of obesity in women of childbearing ages is still increasing rapidly [[39]]. Maternal obesity during pregnancy, resulting in a poor intrauterine environment, has adverse outcomes for both the mother
obesity 7435 pregnancy outcomes. A population-based prospective cohort study in the Netherlands detected that maternal obesity during pregnancy increased the risks of gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia,
obesity 7859 instrumental and caesarean delivery, and surgical site infection were strongly linked with maternal obesity in contrast to women with normal body mass index (BMI). Obesity in pregnancy is also associated with
obesity 9205 from normal-weight mothers, those from obese mothers during pregnancy had elevated risks of childhood obesity and adverse cardiometabolic outcomes, including total body and abdominal fat mass, systolic blood pressure,
obesity 11016 accompanied by decreased α-diversity in gut microbiota profiles. In addition to the effects of maternal obesity on offspring peripheral metabolic health, a number of studies have shown that central metabolism alterations
obesity 11597 may increase the predisposition to metabolic-neurodegenerative diseases in offspring [[52]].Hence, obesity during pregnancy serves as a detrimental developmental environment that increases the risk of the development
obesity 11881 the specific mechanisms are not entirely understood. The relationship between the gut microbiota and obesity has been increasingly studied. Meanwhile, the significant role that the gut microbiota in newborns and
obesity 12200 be a critical factor in the explanation of the phenomenon put forth by the DOHaD Hypothesis.Maternal obesity during pregnancy and alterations in gut microbiotaIn the context of normal pregnancy, bodies undergo
obesity 15674 evidence has demonstrated that the diversity and function of the gut microbiota changes in nonpregnant obesity . To be exact, compared with that observed in lean subjects, the microbial diversity is lower and the
obesity 18537 different assessing methods.In addition, emerging animal studies verified the relationship between maternal obesity and changes in the gut microbiota. In female Sprague–Dawley rats, a high-fat/sucrose diet-induced
obesity 18645 and changes in the gut microbiota. In female Sprague–Dawley rats, a high-fat/sucrose diet-induced obesity group had higher blood glucose, plasma insulin, and leptin concentrations and lower peptide-YY (PYY)
obesity 20479 concrete mechanisms modulating maternal gut microbial alterations are currently unclear, overweight and obesity during pregnancy result in obvious changes in microbiota composition and concomitant metabolic disorders
obesity 26639 mechanism of vertical microbiota transmission and colonization in offspring.The effects of maternal obesity on the offspring gut microbiotaBoth our own studies and other studies have shown that maternal HFD could
obesity 26804 other studies have shown that maternal HFD could program a significantly increased predisposition to obesity and metabolic disorders in offspring [[46],[88]]. As mentioned above, obesity of pregnant mothers alters
obesity 26882 increased predisposition to obesity and metabolic disorders in offspring [[46],[88]]. As mentioned above, obesity of pregnant mothers alters the abundance and diversity of the gut microbiota and, thus, as a detrimental
obesity 27161 establishment of the microbial community in offspring. Large numbers of studies have verified that maternal obesity is associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis in offspring. In a mouse study done by Wankhade et al.,
obesity 28874 the primates were juveniles.Moreover, human studies have also consistently indicated that maternal obesity and overnutrition alter the gut microbiota in offspring. In a prospective cohort study done by Chu et
obesity 29945 of which Eubacteriaceae, Oscillibacter, and Blautia have been found to be associated with diet and obesity in previous studies [[98],[99]]. Hence, the increased risk of obesity for children with an obese mother
obesity 30015 to be associated with diet and obesity in previous studies [[98],[99]]. Hence, the increased risk of obesity for children with an obese mother could be explained partially by the transmission of maternal obesogenic
obesity 30697 diversity and abundance of the intestinal microbial community in mothers associated with maternal HFD and obesity were linked with gut microbiota alterations in the offspring in early and later life. In addition, the
obesity 30935 offspring was impaired. Thus, the gut microbiota may be a crucial pathogenic mechanism in the maternal obesity programing of an increased susceptibility to obesity and metabolic disorders in offspring. Improvement
obesity 30988 a crucial pathogenic mechanism in the maternal obesity programing of an increased susceptibility to obesity and metabolic disorders in offspring. Improvement in the maternal gut microbiota dysbiosis might also
obesity 31802 number of human and animal studies have shed light on the beneficial effects of probiotic supplements on obesity and metabolic disturbances. A probiotic formulation could ameliorate obesity and obesity-related metabolic
obesity 31879 probiotic supplements on obesity and metabolic disturbances. A probiotic formulation could ameliorate obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders by virtue of its action on the composition of the gut microbiota,
obesity 31891 supplements on obesity and metabolic disturbances. A probiotic formulation could ameliorate obesity and obesity -related metabolic disorders by virtue of its action on the composition of the gut microbiota, intestinal
obesity 32149 [[102]]. Intervening with probiotics during pregnancy could be the optimum time to reduce the risk of obesity and metabolic disturbances in both the mother and offspring.A randomized controlled trial (RCT) done
obesity 33101 and probiotics. Meanwhile, probiotics-supplemented dietary counselling reduced the risk of central obesity in women at 6 months postpartum. This study suggested that probiotic supplements might be a novel management
obesity 33259 suggested that probiotic supplements might be a novel management tool for the prevention and treatment of obesity . In addition, another similar RCT study in Iran with 64 pregnant women with GDM randomized to receive
obesity 34412 intervention from 4 weeks before delivery to 6 months postnatally on the development of overweight and obesity . Prenatal probiotic supplements restrained excessive weight gain during early life (before 12–24 months)
obesity 34725 early life might adjust the energy homeostasis and thus influence the body weight gain and prevent obesity [[110]].Rather than examining the effects of probiotics in a normal-weight pregnancy, a double-blind,
obesity 38136 [[117]], inflammatory bowel disease [[118]], colon cancer [[119]], cardiovascular disease [[120]], obesity [[121]], metabolic disturbances [[122]], and other diseases and increase the uptake and bioavailability
obesity 39509 associated with glucose metabolism in offspring in early life, which could influence the long-term obesity risk. Similarly, Hallam et al. [[125]] suggested that offspring of dams fed a high-prebiotic fiber diet
obesity 40398 dams fed the high-prebiotic fiber diet. Therefore, maternal prebiotic intake could reduce the risk of obesity and improve long-term metabolic health in offspring. However, only one of the above studies measured
obesity 41175 gestational weight gain compared with those in the high-fat/sucrose diet group. In addition, the risk of obesity and the metabolic profiles of their offspring were both ameliorated [[16]]. These observations suggested
obesity 42115 the severity of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions[[129]]OligofructoseSprague–Dawley ratReduces obesity risk[[16]]Oligofructose and inulinWistar ratDecreases fat mass[[125]]Inulin and oligofructoseWistar
obesity 42733 response[[133]]ConclusionIn summary, the gut microbiota might be the key programming factor in maternal obesity increasing the risk of the development of metabolic disorders in offspring. However, the mechanisms

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