Thyroid function test evolution in children with Hashimoto's thyroiditis is closely conditioned by the biochemical picture at diagnosis.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
hyperthyroidism 23 endocrinologydiseases
hypothyroidism 18 endocrinologydiseases
thyroglobulin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
thyroiditis 8 endocrinologydiseases
goiter 1 endocrinologydiseases

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thyroglobulin 4993 cases and an overt biochemical hypothyroidism in 12.3% [[20]]. The presence of goiter and elevated thyroglobulin autoantibodies at HT diagnosis might be considered as predictor for the future development of hypothyroidism
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
goiter 4973 developing a SH in 30.6% of cases and an overt biochemical hypothyroidism in 12.3% [[20]]. The presence of goiter and elevated thyroglobulin autoantibodies at HT diagnosis might be considered as predictor for the future
hyperthyroidism 922 presenting with euthyroidism.In contrast, children presenting with HT and either overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism are incline to exhibit a definitive resolution of the hyperthyroid phase within some months, although
hyperthyroidism 1581 of the hyperthyroid phase is generally observed in those presenting with either overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism .BackgroundHashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is a relatively common disease, whose prevalence in childhood
hyperthyroidism 2390 (6.5% of cases) encountered in pediatric age at HT presentation, include either subclinical or overt hyperthyroidism [[4]–[6]]. It has been also reported that, in at least 3–4% of the children with Graves’ disease
hyperthyroidism 2528 been also reported that, in at least 3–4% of the children with Graves’ disease (GD), the onset of hyperthyroidism may be preceded by HT antecedents [[7]], which suggests the existence of a continuum between HT and
hyperthyroidism 9574 results of Reference 26 study)Long-term prognosis of thyroid function in the cases presenting with overt hyperthyroidism Such a presentation pattern of HT, that is also called Hashitoxicosis (Htx), is not very common in the
hyperthyroidism 9775 very common in the pediatric age, although Htx is generally reported as the second commonest cause of hyperthyroidism in childhood, after GD [[35]]. This condition is believed to result from unregulated release of stored
hyperthyroidism 10835 non-pharmacological therapies are never required [[37]]. A spontaneous and definitive resolution of hyperthyroidism generally occurs on average five months after Htx presentation, although there is a wide variability
hyperthyroidism 11480 children with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis who initially presented with either overt (Group A) or subclinical hyperthyroidism (Group B) (according to the results of Reference [[37]] and [[39]] studies)Group A(Nos. 10)Group B(Nos.
hyperthyroidism 11872 periods Mean ± SD21.5 ± 11.033.6 ± 19.50.094 Range12–3912–69Long-term prognosis of thyroid function in the cases presenting with subclinical hyperthyroidism Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined as a serum TSH concentration below the lower limit of the reference
hyperthyroidism 11899 periods Mean ± SD21.5 ± 11.033.6 ± 19.50.094 Range12–3912–69Long-term prognosis of thyroid function in the cases presenting with subclinical hyperthyroidismSubclinical hyperthyroidism is defined as a serum TSH concentration below the lower limit of the reference range, when FT4 levels
hyperthyroidism 12259 that is very close to the one of Htx, i.e. 3.5% [[4]].The natural history of HT-related subclinical hyperthyroidism has been so far investigated in only few children [[39]]. According to the results of that prospective
hyperthyroidism 12408 only few children [[39]]. According to the results of that prospective study, HT-related subclinical hyperthyroidism may spontaneously resolve in all cases within the first 1–24 months after HT presentation (Table 2).On
hyperthyroidism 12651 findings, it was argued that, at least in childhood, the frequency with which HT-related subclinical hyperthyroidism risks progressing to overt hyperthyroidism should be considered very low, irrespectively of both TSH
hyperthyroidism 12694 childhood, the frequency with which HT-related subclinical hyperthyroidism risks progressing to overt hyperthyroidism should be considered very low, irrespectively of both TSH and FT4 serum concentrations at HT diagnosis
hyperthyroidism 12882 concentrations at HT diagnosis [[39]]. According to other reports, the risk of progression to frank hyperthyroidism in the patients with this biochemical condition is distinctly higher, particularly in the cases with
hyperthyroidism 13135 [[40]–[42]]. However, it has to be considered that, in those reports, natural history of subclinical hyperthyroidism was investigated in elderly patients [[40]–[42]], as against as in the study by Aversa et al. [[39]],
hyperthyroidism 13401 adolescents.According to the results of the only available pediatric study on the natural history of subclinical hyperthyroidism , the evolution of this condition over time does not seem to differ from that observed in the children
hyperthyroidism 13646 of duration of TSH suppression periods. These findings suggest that Htx and HT-related subclinical hyperthyroidism might be simply different stages along the same continuum [[39]].Long-term prognosis of thyroid function
hyperthyroidism 15305 has to be clarified, however, that all the patients of our cohort with either overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism at HT presentation exhibited an optimal iodine intake [[37], [39]].Conclusionsa) The long-term evolution
hyperthyroidism 15597 significantly different according to whether HT has initially presented with either euthyroidism or SH or overt hyperthyroidism or subclinical hyperthyroidism; b) a progressive deterioration of thyroid status over time occurs especially
hyperthyroidism 15628 whether HT has initially presented with either euthyroidism or SH or overt hyperthyroidism or subclinical hyperthyroidism ; b) a progressive deterioration of thyroid status over time occurs especially in the children presenting
hyperthyroidism 15986 entry may be found to be euthyroid even five years after HT presentation; d) a definitive resolution of hyperthyroidism is generally observed within 24 months after HT diagnosis in both the groups of patients with either
hyperthyroidism 16123 within 24 months after HT diagnosis in both the groups of patients with either Htx or subclinical hyperthyroidism at entry
hypothyroidism 699 Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT).According to the most recent reports, children with HT and subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) are more prone to the risk of developing severe thyroid dysfunctions over time, if compared to
hypothyroidism 1131 although there is a wide variability between the different individuals.The natural history of frank hypothyroidism in the children with HT has never been investigated so far, since in these cases an immediate onset
hypothyroidism 2117 asymptomatic, with a thyroid function picture ranging from euthyroidism (52.1% of cases) to either overt hypothyroidism (in 22.2% of cases) or, more rarely, subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) (in 19.2% of cases) [[4]]. Other
hypothyroidism 2181 euthyroidism (52.1% of cases) to either overt hypothyroidism (in 22.2% of cases) or, more rarely, subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) (in 19.2% of cases) [[4]]. Other complaints of thyroid function, which may be sometimes (6.5% of
hypothyroidism 3172 cohorts, according to different epidemiological studiesAuthorsNos. patientsEuthyroidismSubclinical hypothyroidism Overt hypothyroidismHyperthyroidismZak et al. (2005) [[11]]1006326─11Svensson et al. (2006) [[12]]90394714─Demirbilek
hypothyroidism 3192 to different epidemiological studiesAuthorsNos. patientsEuthyroidismSubclinical hypothyroidismOvert hypothyroidism HyperthyroidismZak et al. (2005) [[11]]1006326─11Svensson et al. (2006) [[12]]90394714─Demirbilek
hypothyroidism 4367 [[4]–[6]].Whereas in adults it is often observed a progressive shift from euthyroidism toward SH or frank hypothyroidism [[21]], in childhood and adolescence the natural long-term evolution of thyroid tests may be quite variable.
hypothyroidism 4925 deteriorated their thyroid status over time, thus developing a SH in 30.6% of cases and an overt biochemical hypothyroidism in 12.3% [[20]]. The presence of goiter and elevated thyroglobulin autoantibodies at HT diagnosis might
hypothyroidism 5101 thyroglobulin autoantibodies at HT diagnosis might be considered as predictor for the future development of hypothyroidism [[18]].On overall, from the analysis of the available longitudinal studies concerning the long-term
hypothyroidism 5943 euthyroidism [[20]]. In fact, at the end of a 5-year follow-up, the prevalence of patients with overt hypothyroidism was significantly higher in the cohort with initial SH, whereas the prevalence of those with euthyroidism
hypothyroidism 6737 Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, who had initially presented with either euthyroidism (Group A) or subclinical hypothyroidism SH (Group B) (according to the results of Reference 20 study)It has to be underlined that the long-term
hypothyroidism 8292 autoantibodies, at HT diagnosis, seems to augment the probabilities that SH children with HT may develop a frank hypothyroidism 3 years later [[19]]. Thus, an elevated TSH at HT diagnosis could be considered as the best predictor
hypothyroidism 8464 diagnosis could be considered as the best predictor for a thyroid function deterioration from SH to overt hypothyroidism , as already suggested by other studies concerning patients with SH and no underlying AITDs [[32], [33]].Finally,
hypothyroidism 9300 5-year follow-up, in three groups of children with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT)-related subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and no chromosomopathies (Group A) or HT-related SH and Turner syndrome (Group B) or HT-related
hypothyroidism 13802 the same continuum [[39]].Long-term prognosis of thyroid function in the cases presenting with overt hypothyroidism A picture of overt hypothyroidism may be observed, at diagnosis of HT, in 22.2% of the children, which
hypothyroidism 13835 [[39]].Long-term prognosis of thyroid function in the cases presenting with overt hypothyroidismA picture of overt hypothyroidism may be observed, at diagnosis of HT, in 22.2% of the children, which represents the 2nd most frequent
hypothyroidism 14082 presentation in pediatric age, after euthyroidism [[4]].Nevertheless, the natural history of frank hypothyroidism in the children with HT has never been investigated to now, since in these cases a replacement treatment
hypothyroidism 14578 early [[43]].However, the long-term evolution of thyroid function in the children with HT and overt hypothyroidism might be postulated to be not very far from the one historically reported by Rallison et al. in a large
thyroiditis 99 Title: Italian Journal of PediatricsThyroid function test evolution in children with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is closely conditioned by the biochemical picture at diagnosisGiuseppe CrisafulliRomina GallizziTommaso
thyroiditis 611 relationships between presentation and evolution patterns of thyroid function in children with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT).According to the most recent reports, children with HT and subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) are
thyroiditis 1621 observed in those presenting with either overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism.BackgroundHashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is a relatively common disease, whose prevalence in childhood has been reported to range around
thyroiditis 1815 reported to range around 3% and to achieve its peak during adolescence [[1]]. It is the commonest form of thyroiditis in pediatric age [[2]] and the most frequent cause of pediatric thyroid disease in iodine – replete
thyroiditis 3034 summarized in Table 1.Table 1Prevalence rates (%) of the main thyroid function patterns, at Hashimoto’s thyroiditis presentation, in pediatric cohorts, according to different epidemiological studiesAuthorsNos. patientsEuthyroidismSubclinical
thyroiditis 6646 thyroid function found, at the end of a 5-year follow-up, in two groups of children with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis , who had initially presented with either euthyroidism (Group A) or subclinical hypothyroidism SH (Group
thyroiditis 9263 thyroid function found, at the end of a 5-year follow-up, in three groups of children with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT)-related subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and no chromosomopathies (Group A) or HT-related SH and
thyroiditis 11401 follow-up periods after TSH normalization (months) in two groups of untreated children with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis who initially presented with either overt (Group A) or subclinical hyperthyroidism (Group B) (according

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