A Review of Knowledge, Belief and Practice Regarding Osteoporosis among Adolescents and Young Adults

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estrone 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
obesity 1 endocrinologydiseases
osteoporosis 184 endocrinologydiseases

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estrone 21381 of calcitonin [[53]] and/or the production of androstenedione by the adrenal which is converted to o estrone [[54]], thus explaining its bone protective effects. In contrast, Seo et al. found that the higher the
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
obesity 52928 durationPark et al. (2015) [[30]]To examine dietary intakes and patterns, health behaviours in relation to obesity and bone mineral density (BMD)160 females nursing studentsCollege in Seoul, Republic of KoreaMean age
osteoporosis 1327 nutrition) AND (young OR youth OR adolescents OR children OR young adults OR students OR teenager) AND ( osteoporosis OR bone health)”. Of the 3206 articles found, 34 met the inclusion criteria. Studies showed that most
osteoporosis 1521 Studies showed that most adolescents and young adults had poor knowledge and expressed disinterest in osteoporosis . They believed that other diseases were more serious than osteoporosis, contributing to low perceived
osteoporosis 1592 and expressed disinterest in osteoporosis. They believed that other diseases were more serious than osteoporosis , contributing to low perceived susceptibility and seriousness towards this disease. Popular media emerged
osteoporosis 1757 seriousness towards this disease. Popular media emerged as a platform to obtain information regarding osteoporosis . The lack of knowledge and misconceptions about osteoporosis led to poor osteoprotective practices.
osteoporosis 1818 platform to obtain information regarding osteoporosis. The lack of knowledge and misconceptions about osteoporosis led to poor osteoprotective practices. As a conclusion, the current evidence revealed a lack of awareness
osteoporosis 1943 osteoprotective practices. As a conclusion, the current evidence revealed a lack of awareness about osteoporosis among adolescents and young adults. Educational interventions may be useful to improve the awareness
osteoporosis 2060 among adolescents and young adults. Educational interventions may be useful to improve the awareness of osteoporosis among this population.1. IntroductionOsteoporosis is metabolic skeletal disease, in which the bone becomes
osteoporosis 2467 study estimated that 9–38% women and 1–8% men >50 years from industrialized countries suffered from osteoporosis [[3]]. The skeletal system is in a state of constant regeneration, through the process of bone formation
osteoporosis 2825 [[4]]. An imbalance in bone remodelling skewing towards resorption will lead to bone loss and eventually osteoporosis .Osteoporosis is preventable by optimizing peak bone mass during skeletal growth, preserving bone mass
osteoporosis 3619 following retention of bone through middle-age are essential determinants for reducing the risk of osteoporosis [[10]].Understanding the factors that encourage osteoporosis preventive behaviours is important for
osteoporosis 3680 determinants for reducing the risk of osteoporosis [[10]].Understanding the factors that encourage osteoporosis preventive behaviours is important for the prevention of this disease at the population level. The reasons
osteoporosis 3816 is important for the prevention of this disease at the population level. The reasons for engaging in osteoporosis preventive behaviours are complex because they are influenced by personal and social factors [[11]].
osteoporosis 4331 sports teams were strongly associated with bone health in adolescent girls [[12]]. Besides, knowledge of osteoporosis was reported to influence calcium intake and exercise indirectly through self-efficacy among students
osteoporosis 4605 barriers to calcium supplement could be one of the strategies to increase their calcium intake and reduce osteoporosis risk [[14]]. The study found that the leading barrier for young adults to consume calcium supplements
osteoporosis 5017 important to understand the knowledge, belief and practice of adolescents and young adults towards osteoporosis so that strategies to optimize their peak bone mass can be devised [[15]]. In addition, with proper
osteoporosis 5387 provide a contemporary view of the knowledge, belief and practice among younger populations regarding osteoporosis . Evidence from the latest decade was summarized to update the readers on the latest findings in this
osteoporosis 5860 nutrition) AND (young OR youth OR adolescents OR children OR young adults OR students OR teenager) AND ( osteoporosis OR bone health)”. All original research articles published between 2008 and May 2018 were considered
osteoporosis 6074 considered to provide an up-to-date view on knowledge, attitude and practice of youths regarding bone health/ osteoporosis . In this review, the definition of adolescents and young adults of World Health Organization was adopted,
osteoporosis 6649 participants aged ≥40 years and/or did not examine knowledge, attitude or practice regarding bone health/ osteoporosis as the primary objective were excluded. Only original research articles written in English or Mandarin,
osteoporosis 6903 knowledge, awareness, beliefs and practices among adolescents or young adults regarding bone health/ osteoporosis , were included in this review. The full text of eligible articles was examined. Two reviewers decided
osteoporosis 7497 1).3. ResultsThirty-four studies evaluating knowledge, attitude and practice regarding bone health/ osteoporosis among adolescents and young adults were included in this review. The studies were performed in various
osteoporosis 8320 validated questionnaire to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice among subjects regarding bone health/ osteoporosis .3.1. Knowledge Regarding Osteoporosis Among Adolescents and Young AdultsOut of the thirty-four studies,
osteoporosis 8483 Adolescents and Young AdultsOut of the thirty-four studies, sixteen studies evaluated knowledge regarding osteoporosis . Only two studies [[32],[37]] involved adolescents in their studies while others included young adult
osteoporosis 9081 good and poor. Four studies reported good knowledge levels among the younger generations regarding osteoporosis [[31],[33],[37],[39]]. The studies recruited both male and female participants, consisting of university
osteoporosis 9332 mixture of high school and college students [[37]]. Several factors contributed to the high level of osteoporosis knowledge among these studies. The subjects of the study of Amre et al. were nursing students. Integration
osteoporosis 9483 subjects of the study of Amre et al. were nursing students. Integration of the preventive knowledge on osteoporosis into the learning and practice of the curriculum enhanced their understanding on this aspect of the
osteoporosis 9980 Another multiracial study in Malaysia suggested that the ethnic group (Chinese) more susceptible to osteoporosis was more knowledgeable on the disease compared to the others (Malays and Indians) [[33]]. The students
osteoporosis 10154 (Malays and Indians) [[33]]. The students generally relied on teachers and textbooks to learn about osteoporosis [[39]]. These studies showed that the level of knowledge among younger generations depends on both formal
osteoporosis 10410 supervision at home.Six studies indicated that the adolescents or young adults had poor knowledge about osteoporosis [[4],[20],[38],[43],[44]]. From these studies, five studies [[20],[38],[43],[44]] involved students
osteoporosis 10733 [[4]]. This is alarming because these students, who could be involved in the treatment and management of osteoporosis in the future, were not proficient on bone health. Gammage et al. recommended that these future health
osteoporosis 10944 health professionals should increase their knowledge on modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors of osteoporosis because most of the subjects failed to identify specific exercise related to bone health, genetic and
osteoporosis 11089 failed to identify specific exercise related to bone health, genetic and medical conditions related to osteoporosis [[21]]. Part of this negligence also stemmed from the perception of the students that osteoporosis is
osteoporosis 11188 osteoporosis [[21]]. Part of this negligence also stemmed from the perception of the students that osteoporosis is a disease of the old age [[4]]. However, without adequate knowledge, the students, especially the
osteoporosis 11499 health-related beliefs and behaviours [[49]].Furthermore, some studies highlighted a difference in osteoporosis knowledge based on sex [[17]], study discipline [[35]] and country [[45]]. Alamri et al. demonstrated
osteoporosis 11713 that female respondents were more knowledgeable compared to males, probably due to the belief that osteoporosis was a female disease [[17]]. A comparison study between US and Chinese university students showed that
osteoporosis 11871 study between US and Chinese university students showed that US students were more knowledgeable about osteoporosis . However, both groups were unable to identify the recommended daily calcium intake for adults [[35]].
osteoporosis 12070 adults [[35]]. Nguyen and Wang found that among health science programs, the level of education on osteoporosis differ significantly according to programs and levels of study of the students [[45]]. Thus, some students
osteoporosis 12246 of the students [[45]]. Thus, some students may not be equipped with sufficient knowledge to manage osteoporosis patients in the future.The sources of bone health knowledge were discussed in some studies [[15],[25],[32]].
osteoporosis 12447 studies [[15],[25],[32]]. Three studies coherently indicated that the main source of knowledge regarding osteoporosis among teenagers was the television [[15],[25],[32]]. One study by Puttapitakpong et al. indicated that
osteoporosis 12750 teenagers [[25]]. This highlight the importance of media in educating adolescents and young adults about osteoporosis . The health care providers should also involve actively in osteoporosis awareness campaign through suitable
osteoporosis 12822 adolescents and young adults about osteoporosis. The health care providers should also involve actively in osteoporosis awareness campaign through suitable channels.A summary of the literature on the knowledge regarding
osteoporosis 12935 awareness campaign through suitable channels.A summary of the literature on the knowledge regarding osteoporosis among adolescents and young adults is listed in Table 1.3.2. Beliefs Regarding Osteoporosis among Adolescents
osteoporosis 13092 in Table 1.3.2. Beliefs Regarding Osteoporosis among Adolescents and Young AdultsBeliefs regarding osteoporosis are also summarized in this review. The number of studies reporting high [[17],[21],[22],[35]] and low
osteoporosis 13289 [[17],[21],[22],[35]] and low [[20],[33],[37],[38],[44]] individual perceived susceptibility of suffering from osteoporosis was quite similar. Sex differences in beliefs regarding osteoporosis was also noted in some studies
osteoporosis 13358 susceptibility of suffering from osteoporosis was quite similar. Sex differences in beliefs regarding osteoporosis was also noted in some studies [[17],[21],[22],[35]]. Three studies revealed that young women perceived
osteoporosis 13507 [[17],[21],[22],[35]]. Three studies revealed that young women perceived higher susceptibility regarding osteoporosis than young men [[21],[22],[35]], and only one study found the inverse [[17]]. This could be because
osteoporosis 13665 study found the inverse [[17]]. This could be because women are known to be more likely to develop osteoporosis [[21]]. Despite that, young women showed significant lower exercise efficacy as compared to men. The
osteoporosis 14195 scores across age and gender groups [[22]].Some studies reported low perceived susceptibility towards osteoporosis among adolescents or young adults [[20],[33],[37],[38],[44]]. Among the five studies, four involved
osteoporosis 14423 medical or health related background [[20],[33],[38],[44]], showing that perceived susceptibility to osteoporosis was unsatisfactory even among those with basic medical knowledge. Chen et al. suggested that age might
osteoporosis 14571 with basic medical knowledge. Chen et al. suggested that age might play an important factor in the osteoporosis beliefs, especially among Asian adolescents who tend to stay with their family. They demonstrated that,
osteoporosis 14772 demonstrated that, in comparison with young adults, adolescents did not believe they would suffer from osteoporosis , probably due to their young age. In contrast, they obtained higher scores in seriousness and prevention
osteoporosis 14893 probably due to their young age. In contrast, they obtained higher scores in seriousness and prevention of osteoporosis , probably because they lived with seniors with osteoporosis at home [[37]]. This was supported by another
osteoporosis 14953 scores in seriousness and prevention of osteoporosis, probably because they lived with seniors with osteoporosis at home [[37]]. This was supported by another study showing that young females who had their mother
osteoporosis 15145 who had their mother with history of low trauma fracture were significantly more likely to perceive osteoporosis as a serious disease [[38]]. A study found that younger generations had lower perceived seriousness
osteoporosis 15261 a serious disease [[38]]. A study found that younger generations had lower perceived seriousness of osteoporosis compared to cancer and diabetes [[33]]. The researchers mentioned that this might be due to the misconceptions
osteoporosis 15390 cancer and diabetes [[33]]. The researchers mentioned that this might be due to the misconceptions that osteoporosis is an inevitable part of ageing and it is not a lethal or serious disease [[33]]. Most people also considered
osteoporosis 15613 other diseases, such as heart diseases, HIV and diabetes pose more serious health consequences than osteoporosis [[33]].In some studies, despite the high perceived seriousness of osteoporosis, perceived barriers to
osteoporosis 15692 health consequences than osteoporosis [[33]].In some studies, despite the high perceived seriousness of osteoporosis , perceived barriers to osteoprotective behaviours remained high [[23],[35],[38]]. Among the barriers
osteoporosis 16395 products, limiting calcium availability [[50]].A summary of the literature on the beliefs regarding osteoporosis among adolescents and young adults is listed in Table 2.3.3. Practices Affecting Bone Health Among Adolescents
osteoporosis 16619 and Young AdultsAttaining optimal peak bone mass through healthy diet and lifestyle is critical for osteoporosis prevention [[51]]. Among the studies, only one showed that subjects actively engaged in good dietary
osteoporosis 19644 Lifestyle and Dietary Habits with Bone Health among Adolescents and Young AdultsKnowledge regarding osteoporosis was crucial in disease prevention. However, only one study reported a significant relationship between
osteoporosis 19773 disease prevention. However, only one study reported a significant relationship between knowledge of osteoporosis with bone health indicated by QUS in young women [[26]]. This suggests more studies need to be done
osteoporosis 19946 This suggests more studies need to be done to validate the hypothesis that a higher knowledge level on osteoporosis could translate to better bone health in younger generations.Physical activity is an important determinant
osteoporosis 22916 the actual calcium and vitamin D intake.Mu et al. observed a significant decreased risk of osteopenia/ osteoporosis among those who practiced calcium food pattern and Chinese traditional pattern among university freshmen
osteoporosis 23283 food to maintain good bone health.A summary of the literature on the relationship between knowledge of osteoporosis , lifestyle and dietary habits with bone health among adolescents and young adults is listed in Table
osteoporosis 23626 formal education, but the general public might rely more on television and internet to learn about osteoporosis . A decrease reliance on health professionals for information on osteoporosis was also noted. Asian adolescents
osteoporosis 23703 internet to learn about osteoporosis. A decrease reliance on health professionals for information on osteoporosis was also noted. Asian adolescents were also dependent on parental guidance to enforce their knowledge
osteoporosis 23857 also dependent on parental guidance to enforce their knowledge and osteoprotective behaviours. Hence, osteoporosis prevention should adopt a multidisciplinary approach to halt the progression of disease starting in
osteoporosis 24890 information.Besides, most of the adolescents and young adults had low perceived susceptibility and seriousness of osteoporosis , leading to low practice of osteoprotective behaviours. Bone health is influenced by nutrition and lifestyle.
osteoporosis 25251 are formed early in life and may be carried into adulthood. There is an immediate need to increase osteoporosis awareness and subsequent beliefs, not only in elderly, but also in the younger generation. Awareness
osteoporosis 25483 young generations is very important because, in addition to encouraging positive habits to prevent osteoporosis among them, they may also serve as agents to create awareness among their parents and the larger society
osteoporosis 25638 to create awareness among their parents and the larger society [[4]].Education programs can help in osteoporosis prevention. However, designing education programs for youths requires understanding on their information-seeking
osteoporosis 26378 implemented to increase the knowledge, beliefs and practices of adolescents or young adults regarding osteoporosis . These approaches include online pre-and post-intervention program [[58]], circuit training [[59]] and
osteoporosis 27665 approaches carried out to improve knowledge, beliefs or practice of adolescents and young adults regarding osteoporosis were listed in Table 5.There are several limitations regarding this review. Firstly, only two electronic
osteoporosis 28249 the studies utilized a standard questionnaire for evaluating knowledge, beliefs or practice regarding osteoporosis . However, this was not possible as a myriad of questionnaires had been used. Besides, most of the studies
osteoporosis 28799 physical activities was not explored further. Although some studies showed that participants had poor osteoporosis knowledge, health beliefs and practice on osteoporosis, it was not sure these factors translated to
osteoporosis 28854 some studies showed that participants had poor osteoporosis knowledge, health beliefs and practice on osteoporosis , it was not sure these factors translated to a poorer bone health. Thus, longitudinal studies are needed
osteoporosis 29228 the researchers. Educational programs are important to deliver general and preventive knowledge of osteoporosis to the public. However, the public need to be motivated to change their diet or health habits to achieve
osteoporosis 29402 change their diet or health habits to achieve a healthy lifestyle and prevent themselves from getting osteoporosis .5. ConclusionsAdolescents and young adults have poor knowledge regarding osteoporosis. The lack of knowledge
osteoporosis 29488 from getting osteoporosis.5. ConclusionsAdolescents and young adults have poor knowledge regarding osteoporosis . The lack of knowledge regarding osteoporosis leads to low perceived susceptibility and seriousness
osteoporosis 29534 ConclusionsAdolescents and young adults have poor knowledge regarding osteoporosis. The lack of knowledge regarding osteoporosis leads to low perceived susceptibility and seriousness of osteoporosis. This is because the younger generations
osteoporosis 29604 The lack of knowledge regarding osteoporosis leads to low perceived susceptibility and seriousness of osteoporosis . This is because the younger generations think that osteoporosis is a disease affecting only elderly.
osteoporosis 29669 susceptibility and seriousness of osteoporosis. This is because the younger generations think that osteoporosis is a disease affecting only elderly. Perceptions of personal susceptibility and belief in the seriousness
osteoporosis 30151 intervention strategies that are suitable for the younger generation to increase their awareness regarding osteoporosis .Figure 1Flow diagram of the stepwise selection of relevant studies.ijerph-15-01727-t001_Table 1Table
osteoporosis 30286 of the stepwise selection of relevant studies.ijerph-15-01727-t001_Table 1Table 1Knowledge regarding osteoporosis among adolescents and young adults.StudiesPrimary ObjectivePopulationsLocationsAgeStudy DesignFindingsGood
osteoporosis 30426 adults.StudiesPrimary ObjectivePopulationsLocationsAgeStudy DesignFindingsGood knowledge regarding osteoporosis Amre et al. (2008) [[31]]To explore baccalaureate nursing students’ knowledge of osteoporosis for beginning
osteoporosis 30521 regarding osteoporosisAmre et al. (2008) [[31]]To explore baccalaureate nursing students’ knowledge of osteoporosis for beginning practice in the community85 senior baccalaureate nursing students (58 male & 27 female)
osteoporosis 30876 Questionnaire (OKQ) and Osteoporosis Knowledge Test (OKT)Students had better knowledge regarding prevention of osteoporosis (62.67 ± 14.24) followed by general knowledge of osteoporosis (59.53 ± 20.69) and knowledge regarding
osteoporosis 30939 better knowledge regarding prevention of osteoporosis (62.67 ± 14.24) followed by general knowledge of osteoporosis (59.53 ± 20.69) and knowledge regarding pathophysiology of osteoporosis (39.66 ± 13.65)Chen et al.
osteoporosis 31012 followed by general knowledge of osteoporosis (59.53 ± 20.69) and knowledge regarding pathophysiology of osteoporosis (39.66 ± 13.65)Chen et al. (2012) [[37]]To examine demographic characteristics, knowledge, and attitudes
osteoporosis 31588 score than their adult counterparts.Khan et al. (2014) [[33]]To evaluate knowledge and perceptions of osteoporosis among university students in Malaysia461 students (214 male and 247 female): 165 Malay, 147 Chinese,
osteoporosis 31912 yearsCross-sectional study using a pre-validated self-design questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge regarding osteoporosis 87% identified osteoporosis correctly as a disease that makes bones weak and fragileChinese scored the
osteoporosis 31939 pre-validated self-design questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge regarding osteoporosis87% identified osteoporosis correctly as a disease that makes bones weak and fragileChinese scored the highest in knowledge section
osteoporosis 32610 about the preliminary and basic knowledge on calcium and vitamin D82.2% students know about the term osteoporosis Male and female students equally knew the importance of calcium (98.6% vs. 99.2%) and vitamin D (99.4%
osteoporosis 32776 of calcium (98.6% vs. 99.2%) and vitamin D (99.4% vs. 99.2%) for bone healthPoor knowledge regarding osteoporosis Bilal et al. (2017) [[44]]To assess knowledge, attitudes and practices about osteoporosis among female
osteoporosis 32865 regarding osteoporosisBilal et al. (2017) [[44]]To assess knowledge, attitudes and practices about osteoporosis among female medical school entrants in Karachi400 female medical school entrants of DOW University
osteoporosis 33255 Assessment Tool (OKAT)Only 8.0% of the participants had a good score pertaining to knowledge about osteoporosis whereas majority of the participants (49.0%) had a poor scoreEdiriweera de Silva et al. (2014) [[20]]To
osteoporosis 33429 scoreEdiriweera de Silva et al. (2014) [[20]]To determine the knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding osteoporosis among young females entering medical schools in Sri Lanka186 female medical school entrantsFaculties
osteoporosis 33872 average score (40/ 60) on the knowledge test, while 40.8% (n = 76) had a poor score (<40)The knowledge of osteoporosis risk factors and preventive practices among participants were shown to be poorGammage et al. (2011)
osteoporosis 34024 among participants were shown to be poorGammage et al. (2011) [[21]]To examine gender differences in osteoporosis -related knowledge in university students527 participants (351 women & 176 men) from first-year university
osteoporosis 34320 CanadaCollege-agedCross-sectional study using Osteoporosis Knowledge Tool (OKT)Knowledge regarding osteoporosis was generally poorWhen compared among gender, women showed significantly higher (p ≤ 0.001) total
osteoporosis 34468 among gender, women showed significantly higher (p ≤ 0.001) total general knowledge scores regarding osteoporosis (61.35 ± 1.77) than men (57.67 ± 12.40)Ghaffari et al. (2015) [[43]]To investigate the health faculty
osteoporosis 34610 (57.67 ± 12.40)Ghaffari et al. (2015) [[43]]To investigate the health faculty students’ awareness of osteoporosis (calcium intake and physical activity).228 female undergraduate students in the health faculty, Shahid
osteoporosis 34873 SciencesIran18–24 years old (mean age 22.17 ± 2.66 years)A validated questionnaire to assess knowledge regarding osteoporosis was usedOnly 19.2% of the students had a high-level knowledge of osteoporosisMean score of knowledge
osteoporosis 34951 assess knowledge regarding osteoporosis was usedOnly 19.2% of the students had a high-level knowledge of osteoporosis Mean score of knowledge regarding osteoporosis was 12.96 ± 4.01 (4.67 ± 1.66 for calcium intake and
osteoporosis 34997 usedOnly 19.2% of the students had a high-level knowledge of osteoporosisMean score of knowledge regarding osteoporosis was 12.96 ± 4.01 (4.67 ± 1.66 for calcium intake and 8.29 ± 2.89 for physical activity section)Njeze
osteoporosis 35163 and 8.29 ± 2.89 for physical activity section)Njeze et al. (2017) [[4]]To determine the awareness of osteoporosis and factors that determine awareness of osteoporosis500 respondents from a polytechnicEnugu, South East
osteoporosis 35216 al. (2017) [[4]]To determine the awareness of osteoporosis and factors that determine awareness of osteoporosis 500 respondents from a polytechnicEnugu, South East NigeriaLess than 20 to 51 years old and above (mean
osteoporosis 35496 questionnaireOnly 6.3% of the adolescents (<20 years old) answered the questions about knowledge of osteoporosis correctly4.4% of the young adults (21–30 years old) answered the questions about knowledge of osteoporosis
osteoporosis 35605 osteoporosis correctly4.4% of the young adults (21–30 years old) answered the questions about knowledge of osteoporosis correctlySayed-Hasaan, Bashour and Koudsi (2013) [[38]]To determine the level of osteoporosis knowledge
osteoporosis 35699 knowledge of osteoporosis correctlySayed-Hasaan, Bashour and Koudsi (2013) [[38]]To determine the level of osteoporosis knowledge and beliefs among nursing college students in Damascus353 female students in nursing collegeDamascus,
osteoporosis 35876 Damascus353 female students in nursing collegeDamascus, SyriaMean age 19.9 yearsCross-sectional study using osteoporosis -related tools (Arabic version), namely the Osteoporosis Knowledge Assessment Tool (OKAT)Very poor knowledge
osteoporosis 36042 Osteoporosis Knowledge Assessment Tool (OKAT)Very poor knowledge among the young adults about risk factors of osteoporosis , such as post-menopausal status as a period of accelerated bone loss, family history of osteoporosis
osteoporosis 36143 osteoporosis, such as post-menopausal status as a period of accelerated bone loss, family history of osteoporosis and related fractures.Young adult females achieved total mean knowledge score of 7.9 (2.7) out of possible
osteoporosis 36337 7.9 (2.7) out of possible 20 points, being 39.6% of possible maximum score on the OKATDifference in osteoporosis knowledge based on sex, study program and countryAlamri et al. (2015) [[17]]To assess knowledge, attitude,
osteoporosis 36475 study program and countryAlamri et al. (2015) [[17]]To assess knowledge, attitude, and practices for osteoporosis among Saudi general population and to identify its determining factors1830 respondents (1062 male and
osteoporosis 36847 female)Cross-sectional study using a pre-validated self-design questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge regarding osteoporosis 78% of the respondents heard about osteoporosisFemale respondents were more knowledgeable compared to
osteoporosis 36894 questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge regarding osteoporosis78% of the respondents heard about osteoporosis Female respondents were more knowledgeable compared to maleThe main sources of knowledge were healthcare
osteoporosis 37289 knowledge, which came in the second place for only womenFord et al. (2011) [[35]]To differences in osteoporosis knowledge, self-efficacy, and health beliefs among China and American college students408 US and 409
osteoporosis 38041 studentsThe scores for exercise knowledge and calcium knowledge subscales were low, as were the total osteoporosis knowledge scores:Total knowledge score: US 60.5%, Chinese 49.2% correctExercise knowledge score: US
osteoporosis 38258 56.5%, Chinese 45.4%Calcium knowledge score: US 57.2%, 42.5%Nguyen and Wang (2012) [[45]]To investigate osteoporosis knowledge in students who were soon to be nurses, pharmacists, physical therapists, and dietitians206
osteoporosis 39082 the two classes in physical therapy (1st and 3rd year).There were discrepancies in specific areas of osteoporosis knowledge between the classes of students, and the average scores of correctly answered items were only
osteoporosis 39243 the average scores of correctly answered items were only as high as 24.40 (76.3%) out of 32 items on osteoporosis knowledge.Sources of osteoporosis knowledgeAl-Zu’bi, Almuhtaseb and Amayreyh (2010) [[32]]To assess
osteoporosis 39277 answered items were only as high as 24.40 (76.3%) out of 32 items on osteoporosis knowledge.Sources of osteoporosis knowledgeAl-Zu’bi, Almuhtaseb and Amayreyh (2010) [[32]]To assess the knowledge in a group of teenage
osteoporosis 39443 [[32]]To assess the knowledge in a group of teenage girls about risk factors and lifestyle affecting osteoporosis 320 girls attending the 8–10th gradeSchools from east and west of Amman, the capital city in Jordan13–17
osteoporosis 39670 (mean age 14.4 ± 0.9 years)Self-design questionnaire to assess knowledge of risk factors regarding osteoporosis was used84.3% of the young girls have heard about osteoporosis.Media especially the television (46.2%)
osteoporosis 39733 knowledge of risk factors regarding osteoporosis was used84.3% of the young girls have heard about osteoporosis .Media especially the television (46.2%) was a primary source of information among teenagers. Family
osteoporosis 40143 (only 7%)Barzanji, Alamri and Mohamed (2013) [[15]]To assess the awareness of adults in Riyadh about osteoporosis and its associated factors as well as compare knowledge, attitude and practice levels of men and women505
osteoporosis 40431 ± 10.46 yearsCross-sectional study using pre-coded Arabic questionnaireThe mean knowledge score of osteoporosis among young adults was 13.55 ± 3.996 (n = 310) out of a total possible maximum score of 24The knowledge
osteoporosis 40670 significantly associated with education, employment, income and residence (p < 0.05)Sources of knowledge about osteoporosis were from television (56%), followed by relatives and friends (25%), newspapers (24%) and the least
osteoporosis 40913 (18%)Puttapitakpong et al. (2014) [[25]]To assess the inter-correlation of knowledge, attitude and osteoporosis preventive behaviours in women around the age of peak bone mass.430 women attending the Gynecology ClinicKing
osteoporosis 41222 study using a pre-validated self-design questionnaireOnly 49.5% of the participants had heard about osteoporosis .Most of them learnt it from television (95.3%, n = 203/213) and the internet (72.8%, n = 155/213)Only
osteoporosis 41458 the information from a doctor, nurse or midwifeijerph-15-01727-t002_Table 2Table 2Beliefs regarding osteoporosis among adolescents and young adults.StudiesPrimary ObjectivePopulationsLocationAgeStudy DesignFindingsPerceived
osteoporosis 41612 adults.StudiesPrimary ObjectivePopulationsLocationAgeStudy DesignFindingsPerceived high susceptibility regarding osteoporosis (men > women)Alamri et al. (2015) [[17]]To assess knowledge, attitude, and practices for osteoporosis
osteoporosis 41714 osteoporosis (men > women)Alamri et al. (2015) [[17]]To assess knowledge, attitude, and practices for osteoporosis among Saudi general population and to identify its determining factors1830 respondents (1062 male and
osteoporosis 42090 study using a pre-validated self-design questionnaire was used to assess the health belief regarding osteoporosis Perceived susceptibility (men: 3.9 ± 1.4; women: 3.5 ± 1.3) and benefits (men: 2.8 ± 1.2; women: 2.6
osteoporosis 42224 susceptibility (men: 3.9 ± 1.4; women: 3.5 ± 1.3) and benefits (men: 2.8 ± 1.2; women: 2.6 ± 1.1) regarding osteoporosis were higher among men than womenNo statistically significant differences in the mean levels of perceived
osteoporosis 42400 differences in the mean levels of perceived severity (3.9 ± 1.2) and barriers (6.7 ± 1.5) regarding osteoporosis between men and womenPerceived high susceptibility regarding osteoporosis (women > men)Ford et al. (2011)
osteoporosis 42474 barriers (6.7 ± 1.5) regarding osteoporosis between men and womenPerceived high susceptibility regarding osteoporosis (women > men)Ford et al. (2011) [[35]]To differences in osteoporosis knowledge, self-efficacy, and health
osteoporosis 42543 high susceptibility regarding osteoporosis (women > men)Ford et al. (2011) [[35]]To differences in osteoporosis knowledge, self-efficacy, and health beliefs among China and American college students408 US and 409
osteoporosis 43253 were greater for the Chinese students.Gammage et al. (2011) [[21]]To examine gender differences in osteoporosis -related knowledge in university students527 participants (351 women & 176 men) from first-year university
osteoporosis 43583 study using Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS)Women reported significant higher (p ≤ 0.001) osteoporosis -related beliefs: susceptibility (2.42 ± 0.91), seriousness (3.35 ± 0.84), calcium barriers (2.14 ±
osteoporosis 43745 seriousness (3.35 ± 0.84), calcium barriers (2.14 ± 0.86) as compared to men’s beliefs regarding osteoporosis : susceptibility (1.69 ± 0.73), seriousness (3.07 ± 0.93), calcium barriers (1.76 ± 0.71) Women reported
osteoporosis 44011 self-efficacy (77.82 ± 15.08) as compared to men (84.51 ± 13.90)Shanthi et al. (2008) [[22]]To compare osteoporosis health beliefs among different age and gender groups300 participants (45 male and 97 female: 18–25
osteoporosis 44347 Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) questionnaireWomen scored higher in perceived susceptibility towards osteoporosis than men in the age group of 18–25 years old (10.86 ± 4.01 vs. 8.58 ± 3.38)No significant differences
osteoporosis 44587 seriousness and health motivation scores across age and gender groupsPerceived low susceptibility regarding osteoporosis Bilal et al. (2017) [[44]]To assess knowledge, attitudes and practices about osteoporosis among female
osteoporosis 44676 regarding osteoporosisBilal et al. (2017) [[44]]To assess knowledge, attitudes and practices about osteoporosis among female medical school entrants in Karachi400 female medical school entrants of DOW University
osteoporosis 45093 susceptibility was low as only 14.0% of the participants believed that they were at a high risk for osteoporosis More than half of the participants believed that osteoporosis is a serious disease, while more than three
osteoporosis 45154 believed that they were at a high risk for osteoporosisMore than half of the participants believed that osteoporosis is a serious disease, while more than three quarters of them considered it to be a barrier in their
osteoporosis 45791 questionnaireAdolescent males had a lower score compared to young adult males on the subscale of suffering from osteoporosis (7.88 ± 2.52 vs. 9.17 ± 2.23) but a higher score on the subscale of prevention (17.07 ± 2.35 vs.
osteoporosis 46196 2.71)Ediriweera de Silva et al. (2014) [[20]]To determine the knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding osteoporosis among young females entering medical schools in Sri Lanka186 female medical school entrantsFaculties
osteoporosis 46543 Belief Scale (OHBS) questionnaireOnly 13.9% (n = 26) of women agreed that their chances of getting osteoporosis are highAbout 53.7% (n = 100) of the participants felt that if they had osteoporosis, it would change
osteoporosis 46628 chances of getting osteoporosis are highAbout 53.7% (n = 100) of the participants felt that if they had osteoporosis , it would change their whole life54.8% (n = 102) of the participants mentioned that the thought about
osteoporosis 46743 it would change their whole life54.8% (n = 102) of the participants mentioned that the thought about osteoporosis scared them83.3% (n = 155) of them felt that having osteoporosis would make their life difficultKhan
osteoporosis 46808 participants mentioned that the thought about osteoporosis scared them83.3% (n = 155) of them felt that having osteoporosis would make their life difficultKhan et al. (2014) [[33]]To evaluate knowledge and perceptions of osteoporosis
osteoporosis 46918 osteoporosis would make their life difficultKhan et al. (2014) [[33]]To evaluate knowledge and perceptions of osteoporosis among university students in Malaysia461 students (214 male and 247 female): 165 Malay, 147 Chinese,
osteoporosis 47244 study using a pre-validated self-design questionnaire was used to assess the perceptions regarding osteoporosis Study participants had a low perception on seriousness of osteoporosis compared to cancer and diabetesSayed-Hasaan,
osteoporosis 47314 assess the perceptions regarding osteoporosisStudy participants had a low perception on seriousness of osteoporosis compared to cancer and diabetesSayed-Hasaan, Bashour and Koudsi (2013) [[38]]To determine the level
osteoporosis 47430 compared to cancer and diabetesSayed-Hasaan, Bashour and Koudsi (2013) [[38]]To determine the level of osteoporosis knowledge and beliefs among nursing college students in Damascus353 female students in nursing collegeDamascus,
osteoporosis 47678 yearsCross-sectional study using Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) questionnaireStudents believed osteoporosis is a serious disease but did not feel susceptible to or concerned about the illness.Despite having a
osteoporosis 50511 [[32]]To assess the knowledge in a group of teenage girls about risk factors and lifestyle affecting osteoporosis 320 girls attending the 8–10th gradeSchool from east and west of Amman, the capital city in Jordan,
osteoporosis 50985 the sun.Barzanji, Alamri and Mohamed (2013) [[15]]To assess the awareness of adults in Riyadh about osteoporosis and its associated factors as well as compare knowledge, attitude and practice levels of men and women505
osteoporosis 51470 comparison to 3% of malesBilal et al. (2017) [[44]]To assess knowledge, attitudes and practices about osteoporosis among female medical school entrants in Karachi400 female medical school entrants of DOW University
osteoporosis 52294 healthEdiriweera de Silva et al. (2014) [[20]]To determine the knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding osteoporosis among young females entering medical schools in Sri Lanka186 female medical school entrantsFaculties
osteoporosis 52635 validated food frequency questionnaire and questions regarding positive and negative behaviours towards osteoporosis Only 35 (18.8%) of the participants achieved the Recommended Daily Allowance for calcium.Only 23 (13.6%)
osteoporosis 53385 that they were not engaged in regular exerciseSidor, Glabska & Wlodarek (2016) [[40]]To analyze the osteoporosis risk, based on diet assessment in young Polish women75 young Polish womenWarsaw, Poland20–30 years
osteoporosis 55393 food once a week 1.59 (1.05, 2.43)ijerph-15-01727-t004_Table 4Table 4Relationship between knowledge of osteoporosis , lifestyle and dietary habits with bone health among adolescents and young adults.StudiesPrimary ObjectivePopulationsLocationAgeStudy
osteoporosis 55584 adults.StudiesPrimary ObjectivePopulationsLocationAgeStudy DesignFindingsEffect of knowledge regarding osteoporosis on bone healthIwasaki et al. (2013) [[26]]To investigate the influence of lifestyle on bone mineral
osteoporosis 55992 of the Osteoporosis Knowledge Test (OKT) was usedNormal group (Higher BMD) had a tendency of better osteoporosis knowledge regarding calcium (4.9 ± 1.6) and vitamin D (1.7 ± 0.7) compared to Low BMD 1 (calcium:
osteoporosis 60314 neck.Log BMD of the total hip was positively predicted by body mass and the absence of a family history of osteoporosis Hervas et al. (2018) [[46]]To analyze the relationship of physical activity (PA), physical fitness, body
osteoporosis 63304 calcium food pattern and Chinese traditional pattern were associated with a decreased risk of osteopenia/ osteoporosis before and after adjusting for confounders (p < 0.05)Suriawati et al. (2016) [[34]]To investigate the
osteoporosis 64325 5Education approaches to improve knowledge, beliefs or practice of adolescents and young adults regarding osteoporosis .StudiesDesignLocationSettingPopulationIntervention DescriptionsOutcomesEducational intervention to modify
osteoporosis 64486 osteoporosis.StudiesDesignLocationSettingPopulationIntervention DescriptionsOutcomesEducational intervention to modify knowledge, attitude and practices towards osteoporosis Schoenfeld et al. (2010) [[58]]Tailored Web-Education System (TWEEDS) Tool and Web Site DevelopmentNew
osteoporosis 64760 yearsOnline pre- and postintervention surveys (45 min) evaluated participants’ pre- and postintervention osteoporosis knowledge, attitudes, preventive practices, and postintervention intent to change healthy bone practices.
osteoporosis 64965 bone practices. Participants completed the Web-based program that provided detailed information about osteoporosis , and healthy bone practices, immediately after completing the pre-test and just prior to completing
osteoporosis 65186 post-testAdolescents changed their perception regarding the disease seriousness and considered adopting osteoporosis prevention practicesSanaeinasab et al. (2013) [[59]]Quasi-experimental studyFemale students resided
osteoporosis 65618 pamphlets about the role of nutrition and physical activity in disease prevention and a booklet on osteoporosis .Before intervention, only 2.2% of the subjects have good knowledge regarding osteoporosis, it increases
osteoporosis 65708 booklet on osteoporosis.Before intervention, only 2.2% of the subjects have good knowledge regarding osteoporosis , it increases to 66.7% after interventionMean scores of some Health Belief Model structures (perceived
osteoporosis 65847 after interventionMean scores of some Health Belief Model structures (perceived susceptibility towards osteoporosis , perceived barriers of physical activity, self-efficacy of calcium and physical activity) changed significantly
osteoporosis 67156 learning objectives. The educational program addressed the definition, prevalence, and etiology of osteoporosis ; risk factor identification; physical signs of the disease; preventive and diagnostic measures; and
osteoporosis 67327 disease; preventive and diagnostic measures; and treatmentIntervention successfully increased the baseline osteoporosis knowledge score two weeks after the educational in-serviceThe educational program significantly increased
osteoporosis 67452 score two weeks after the educational in-serviceThe educational program significantly increased total osteoporosis health beliefs and the subscales, except for the perceived barriers to exercise and calcium intakeEducational
osteoporosis 67905 slide show presentations on the importance of dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D in preventing osteoporosis . The slide show was followed by an interactive group discussion regarding problems with increasing dietary
osteoporosis 68258 from the NOF (n.d.) and an outline of the slide show presentation.Post-test scores on knowledge of osteoporosis , calcium, and vitamin D were significantly higher than pre-test scores 8 weeks after the educational

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